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Chapter 12- Dementia
Terms in this set (9)
older patient who has neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques in neocortex and hippocampus. DISEASE starts with memory loss and moves onto motor, visual and somatosensory with behavior change. Course is progressive over 5-10 years
Risk factors- older age, female, head trauma, FH
1. Macrovascular- arge infarcts
2. Microvascular- subcortical ischemia associated with small vessel disease
RIsk factors- HTN, diabetes
Manifestations- Dementia+ 2 of the following(focal signs on exam, onset that is abrupt, brain imaging that shows strokes, lacunas, or extensive white matter changes
Dementia with Lewy bodies
Similar to Parkinsons. These patients have dementia with visuospatial perception and marked fluctuations of alertness with visual hallucinations, delusions, and extrapyramidal symptoms and bad sensitivity to neuroleptics.
LEWY body found in cortical neurons versus substantra nigra
Progressive supranuclear palsy
failure of vertical gaze, dysarthria, dysphagia, extrapyramidal rigidity, gait taxi, and dementia.
Caused by atrophy of dorsal mid brain, globes palladus and sub thalamic nucleus.
AD disease with predominant abnormalities in basal ganglia, Patients present young with chorea, behavioral changes, and dementia. Caused by cat repeat on HD gene of chromosome 4. Treat with dopaminericc antagonists
Frontotemporal lobar dementia
Cognitive and behavioral deficits first than memory loss because of frontal and temporal cortex affected.
spongy degneration, neuronal loss, gliosis, and astrolytic proliferation resulting in accumulation of mutated protease resistant prion protein. CJD presents with rapidly progressive dementia with pyramidal signs, myoclonus, cerebellar and EPS symptoms.
HIV associated dementia
report memory problems , difficulty concentrating, and poor attention. HAART has helped
progressive dementing illness. This condition also has spinal cord degeneration with PNS findings(i.e. parasthesias of hands and feet, sensory ataxia, visual loss, anemia. Treat with B12
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