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Confederation of New England 1643

a political and military alliance of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. Its main purpose was to unite Puritan colonies against the Native Americans and also served as a forum for resolving inter-colonial disputes. King Charles II revoked Massachusetts's charter in 1684 as a result of colonial insubordination with trade, tariff and navigation laws. This led to the Confederation's collapse. In 1686, the centralized Dominion of New England was imposed on the colonies.

King Philip's War 1675

conflict between Native Americans and New Englanders in the New England colonies. The war is named after the main leader of the Native American side, Metacom known to the English as "King Philip". The colonists won the war, opening up land for expansion.

Dominion of New England 1684

British government consolidated and placed royal governor over the once Confederation of New England in order to force the Navigation Acts. The colonists did not like this and William of Orange got rid of it.

Glorious Revolution 1688

King James overthrown after being accused of making England too Catholic and well as being dictator-like. William of Orange took his place.

Great Awakening (1739

44)- people were upset due to a recline in religious piety, launching this sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. It was one of the first unifying events in the new world.

Town Meetings

purely democratic form of government common in the colonies. The town's voters would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws.

French and Indian War (1756

63)- part of Seven Years' War in Europe between Britain and France + Native Americans. Originally the colonists were losing under Washington and then Braddock, at Fort Necessity. However William Pitt took over and helped Britain defeat the French and Indians. Britain then gained control of all remaining French possessions in Canada. Spain ceded Florida to Britain and received Louisiana in return.

Pontiac's Rebellion 1763

An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War. The Indians opposed British expansion and destroyed forts in the western Ohio Valley. Led to Proclamation of 1763.

Paxton Boys 1763

mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians and marched on Pennsylvania because they were upset both about Indian attacks and taxation on farmers. Benjamin Franklin was able to mollify them.

Virginia Resolves 1765

Patrick Henry's speech which condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies. He proposed 7 resolves to show Virginia's resistance. Soon eight other colonies followed suit.

Patrick Henry

Member of House of Burgesses who gave speeches against British government and urged the colonies to fight for independence. "Give me liberty or give me death" Instrumental in getting the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution.

John Dickinson

in 1767 wrote "Letters from a Pennsylvania farmer" to protest the Townshend Acts. He was a critic of British policies towards the colonies, but opposed the Revolution and refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Gaspee Incident 1772

In June, 1772 British customs ship ran around off colonial coast collecting taces. Colonists boarded the ship and set it on fire. They were sent to Britain and tried in admiralty courts, which led to outrage and the formation of Committees of Correspondence.

Thomas Hutchinson

royal governor of Massachusetts who was a supporter of Parliament's right to tax the colonies. His home was burned by a mob during the Stamp Act riots in 1765. in 1773 his refusal to comply with colonists' demands to prohibit an EIC ship from unloading its cargo precipitated the Boston Tea Party.

Committees of Correspondence

started as groups of private citizens in the north, who, in 1763 began circulating information about opposition to British trading measures. These governmental assemblies became particularly active after the Gaspee incident.

Lord North

Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. He repealed the Townshend Acts, but generally went along with King George III'ss repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.

First Continental Congress 1774

a convention of delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that met on September 5, 1774, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Called in response to the passage of the Coercive Acts by the British Parliament, the Congress met briefly to consider options, including an economic boycott of British trade; publishing a list of rights and grievances; and petitioning King George for redress of those grievances. The Congress also called for another Continental Congress in the event that their petition was unsuccessful in halting enforcement of the Intolerable Acts. Their appeal to the Crown, the Olive Branch Petition, had no effect. The delegates also urged each colony to set up and train its own militia.

Suffolk Resolves 1774

a declaration made on September 9, 1774 by the leaders of Suffolk County, Massachusetts, . The Resolves were recognized by statesman Edmund Burke as a major development in colonial animosity leading to adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence from Kingdom of Great Britain in 1776, and he urged British conciliation with the American colonies, to little effect. The First Continental Congress passed the Resolves on September 17, 1774, nullifying the Coercive Acts, closing royal courts, ordering taxes to be paid to local government, and raising local militias.

Battle of Bunker Hill 1775

considered one of the greatest draws of all time, in this battle the British technically won, but suffered so many losses that it was hardly a victory. If anything, this battle proved that the colonists were willing to and could put up a good fight against the British.

Battle of Saratoga 1777

British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link up with General Howe in NYC, thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio Gates, however, surrendering the entire British Army of the North. This battle was a turning point in that it convinced the French that the colonists had a chance of winning the war, and they subsequently allied with the Americans.

French Alliance of 1778

the colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain. France was Britain's rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news f the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga.

Battle of Yorktown 1781

Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the northern colonies, the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return their main headquarters to NYC. On the march from Virginia to NYC, Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yortown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy blocked their escape, and after a series of battles Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army, ending all major fighting for the Revolutionary War.

Mercy Otis Warren

19th century American historian who wrote 3-volume history of American Revolution.

Edmund Burke (1729

97)- conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' greivances, and who felt that Britain's colonial policies were misguided. He recognized the Suffolk Resolves, which helped lead to the Declaration of Independence. However, he also urged reconciliation between Britain and the colonies.

Benedict Arnold

He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a general in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New Yor in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he was caught conspiring against the colonies.

Second Continental Congress

Signed Declaration of Independence, and for the time during the Revolutionary War it served as the de facto government. Launched Articles of Confederation in 1777.

Articles of Confederation

the first constitution of the United States of America that' specified how the national government was to operate. Under the Articles, the states retained sovereignty over all governmental functions not specifically relinquished to the national government. The Federal government was capable of making war, negotiating diplomatic agreements, and resolving issues regarding the western territories. Nationalists led by George Washington and Alexander Hamilton felt that the Articles lacked the necessary provisions for a sufficiently effective government. There was no president or executive agencies or judiciary. There was no tax base. There was no way to pay off state and national debts from the war years. In 1788, they were replaced by the United States Constitution and the new government began operations in 1789.

John Jay

served as the President of the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1779. During and after the American Revolution, he helped fashion United States foreign policy, and to secure favorable peace terms from the United Kingdom with Jay's Treaty of 1794. As a leader of the new Federalist Party, Jay was the Governor of New York State from 1795 to 1801, and he became the state's leading opponent of slavery. His first two attempts to pass laws for the emancipation of all slaves in New York failed in 1777 and in 1785, but his third attempt succeeded in 1799.

Critical Period (1783

9)- refers to the period of time following the end of the Revolutionary War in 1783 to the inauguration of George Washington in 1789. During this time, the newly independent former colonies were beset with a wide array of foreign and domestic problems. Some historians believe it was a bleak, terrible time for Americans, while others believe the term "Critical Period" is exaggerated, and that, while the 1780's were a time of dispute and change, they were also a time of economic growth and political maturation.

Basic Land Ordinance 1785

adopted in 1785 under the Articles of Confederation to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original states acquired at the 1783 peace treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. It provided easily recognized land descriptions, which in turn contributed enormously to the orderly and largely peaceful occupation of the land. The rectangular survey also provided the units within which economic, political, and social development took place. Written by Thomas Jefferson.

Northwest Ordinance 1789

an act of the Congress that established the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River. It established the precedent by which the United States would expand westward across North America by the admission of new states, rather than by the expansion of existing states. Further, the banning of slavery in the territory had the effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory in the region between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. This division helped set the stage for the balancing act between free and slave states.

Barbary Pirates

Muslim pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa known in Europe as the Barbary Coast. In addition to seizing ships, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns and villages. The main purpose of their attacks was to capture Christian slaves for the Islamic market in North Africa and the Middle East. Pirates captured thousands of ships, and long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants, discouraging settlement until the 19th century.

Shays' Rebellion 1786

an armed uprising in central and western Massachusetts of poor farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes. Failure to repay such debts often resulted in imprisonment in debtor's prisons or the claiming of property by the government. Seeking debt relief through the issuance of paper currency and lower taxes, they attempted to prevent the courts from seizing property from indebted farmers by forcing the closure of courts in western Massachusetts. The rebellion started on August 29, 1786, and by January 1787, over 1000 Shaysites had been arrested. A militia that had been raised as a private army defeated an attack on the federal Springfield Armory by the main Shaysite force on February 3, 1787. There was a lack of an institutional response to the uprising, which energized calls to reevaluate the Articles of Confederation and gave strong impetus to the Philadelphia Convention. Shays' Rebellion produced fears that the Revolution's democratic impulse had gotten out of hand.

Judiciary Act of 1789

a landmark statute in the first session of the First United States Congress establishing the U.S. federal judiciary. Article III, section 1 of the Constitution prescribed that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court," and such inferior courts as Congress saw fit to establish. It made no provision, though, for the composition or procedures of any of the courts, leaving this to Congress to decide. The existence of a separate federal judiciary had been controversial during the debates over the ratification of the Constitution. Anti-Federalists had denounced the judicial power as a potential instrument of national tyranny. But it went into place anyway.

Neutrality Proclamation 1793

formal announcement declaring the U.S. neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain.

Gen. Anthony Wayne

A United States Army general and statesman whose military exploits and fiery personality earned himthe sobriquet of Mad Anthony. He won a decisive victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers and the following year he negotiated the Treaty of Greenville, opening the Northwest Territory to American settlers.

Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794

the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between American Indian tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy and the United States for control of the Northwest Territory. The battle, which was a decisive victory for the United States, ended major hostilities in the region until Tecumseh's War and the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.

Treaty of Greenville 1795

treaty signed at Forth Greenville following the Battle of Fallen Timbers. It put an end to the Northwest Indian War. The US was represented by General Wayne. In exchange for goods to the value of $20,000, the Native Americans turned over a large amount of land to the United States, establishing the Greenville Treaty Line.

Pinckney's Treaty

treaty in 1796 between Spanish and Americans that established good relations between the two. The Americans ceded more of Florida to Spain, while the Spanish opened up their trade to Americans.

Report on Public Credit

the first of three major reports on economic policy issued by Hamilton on the request of Congress. Commissioned by the House of Representatives, the document was the first proposed federal assumption of debt owed by the states.

Report on Manufacturers

in 1791 the third report of Hamilton that recommended economic policies to stimulate the new republic's economy and ensure the independence won in the Revolution. It laid forth economic principles rooted in mercantilism.

Election of 1796

the first contested American presidential election and the only one to elect a President and Vice President from opposing tickets. Vice President John Adams of Massachusetts was a candidate for the presidency on the Federalist Party ticket with former Governor Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina as the next most popular Federalist. Their opponents were former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson of Virginia along with Senator Aaron Burr of New York on the Democratic-Republican ticket. Although Adams won, Thomas Jefferson received more electoral votes than Pinckney and was elected Vice-President.

John Adams

A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the second President of the United States (1797-1801). A conservative Federalist, he was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. During his one term as president, he encountered ferocious attacks by the Jeffersonian Republicans, as well as the dominant faction in his own Federalist Party led by his bitter enemy Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and built up the army and navy in the face of an undeclared naval war with France, 1798-1800. The major accomplishment of his presidency was his peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamilton's opposition. In 1800 Adams was defeated for reelection by Thomas Jefferson and retired to Massachusetts.

XYZ Affair

a diplomatic incident that almost led to war between the United States and France. The scandal inflamed U.S. public opinion and led to the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. Though the affair caused an unofficial naval war, the two countries were able to negotiate their differences and end their conflict in 1800. The French regarded the United States as a hostile nation, particularly after the signing of Jay's Treaty in 1794. Consequently, President John Adams appointed Charles Pinckney minister to France in 1796 in an attempt to ease French-U.S. relations.

Matthew Lyon

In the presidential election of 1800 that resulted in a tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, throwing the vote into the House, he cast the deciding ballot for Jefferson. Lyon was elected to his second term in the House (1798) while serving time in jail. He had been found guilty under the Sedition Act of 1798 of maligning the government for charging that the Federalists were pro-British.

Election of 1800, Revolution of 1800

Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated incumbent president John Adams. The election was a realigning election that ushered in a generation of Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party in the First Party System. It was a rematch of the 1796 election between the Republicans under Jefferson and Aaron Burr, against incumbent Adams and Charles Pinckney. The central issues included opposition to the tax imposed by Congress to pay for the mobilization of the new army and the navy in the Quasi-War against France in 1798, and the Alien and Sedition acts. While the Republicans were well organized at the state and local levels, the Federalists were disorganized, and suffered a bitter split between their two major leaders, President Adams and Alexander Hamilton. The election exposed one of the flaws in the original Constitution. Members of the Electoral College could only vote for President; each elector could vote for two candidates, and the Vice President was the person who received the second largest number of votes during the election. The Republicans had planned for one of the electors to abstain from casting his second vote for Aaron Burr, which would have led to Jefferson receiving one electoral vote more than Burr. The plan, however, was bungled, resulting in a tied electoral vote between Jefferson and Burr. The election was then put into the hands of the outgoing House of Representatives controlled by the Federalist Party. Federalist Alexander Hamilton, who detested both but preferred Jefferson to Burr, was one of those who vigorously lobbied against Burr. Jefferson eventually won the presidency.

Aaron Burr

third Vice President of the United States (1801-1805) under President Thomas Jefferson who was a formative member of the Democratic-Republican party. A candidate for President in 1800, Burr tied Jefferson with 73 electoral votes, making him eligible for one of the country's two highest offices and sending the election into the U.S. House of Representatives. After 36 ballots, Jefferson was elected President and Burr elected Vice President. Burr was often criticized in published articles written by Alexander Hamilton, a longtime political rival.

Naturalization Act of 1802

directed the clerk of the court to record the entry of all aliens into the United States. Certain doubts had arisen as to whether State and local courts were included within the description of U.S. district or circuit courts. The act of 1802 reaffirmed that every State and Territorial court was considered a district court within the meaning of the laws pertaining to naturalization, and that any persons naturalized in such courts were accorded the same rights and privileges as if they had been naturalized in a district or circuit court of the United States. Was the last major piece of naturalization legislation during the 19th century.

Judiciary Act of 1801

represented an effort to solve an issue in the U.S. Supreme Court during the early 19th century. There was concern, beginning in 1789, about the system that required the justices of the Supreme Court to "ride circuit" and reiterate decisions made in the appellate level courts. The Supreme Court justices often took advantage of opportunities to voice concern and to suggest that the judges of the Supreme and circuit courts be divided.

Albert Gallatin

Swiss-American Congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. He was politically active against the Federalist Party program and an important leader of the new Democratic-Republican Party. He was its chief spokesman on financial matters and opposed the entire program of Alexander Hamilton. He also helped found the House Committee on Finance and often engineered withholding of finances by the House as a method of overriding executive actions to which he objected.

Marbury v Madison (1803)

This case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered. Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to force Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the documents, but the court, with John Marshall as Chief Justice, denied Marbury's petition, holding that the part of the statute upon which he based his claim, the Judiciary Act of 1789, was unconstitutional. Marbury v. Madison was the first time the Supreme Court declared something "unconstitutional", and established the concept of judicial review in the U.S. (the idea that courts may oversee and nullify the actions of another branch of government). The landmark decision helped define the "checks and balances" of the American form of government.

Judicial Review

the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review, and possible invalidation, by the judiciary. Specific courts with judicial review power must annul the acts of the state when it finds them incompatible with a higher authority, such as the terms of a written constitution. Judicial review is an example of the functioning of separation of powers in a modern governmental system.

Samuel Chase

an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Early in life, Chase was a "firebrand" states-righter and revolutionary. His political views changed over his lifetime and in the last decades of his career he became well-known as a staunch Federalist, and was impeached for allegedly letting his partisan leanings affect his court decisions. Chase was acquitted.

Naval battles at Tripoli 1802

The First Battle was a fought in Tripoli harbor between a combined force consisting of the American frigate USS Boston and two Swedish frigates against several Tripolitian corsairs. The Swedish-American force was enforcing the blockade when an engagement broke out between it and Tripolitian forces. The Allied fleet damaged the Tripolitian squadron as well as the harbor fortifications before withdrawing and resuming the blockade.

Treaty of San Ildefonso (1800)

a secretly negotiated treaty between France and Spain in which Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France. The treaty was negotiated under some duress, as Spain was under pressure from Napoleon. This would open up the possibility of the Louisiana Purchase.

Toussaint L'Ouverture

leader of the Haitian Revolution who led enslaved blacks in a long struggle for independence over French colonizers, abolished slavery, and secured "native" control over the colony, Haiti. Especially between the years 1799 and 1802, Toussaint Louverture tried to rebuild the collapsed economy of Haiti and reestablish commercial contacts with the United States and Britain. His rule permitted the colony a taste of freedom.

Essex Junto

These Federalists supported Alexander Hamilton and the Massachusetts radicals. When Hamilton was offered a place in the plot to secede New England from the Union, he denied the offer. Consequently, the Essex Junto tried to vie support from Aaron Burr, who accepted the offer from the Junto. The first attempt to break off New England from the Union failed since it was unable to gain support from the major power brokers in the state of New York. After Hamilton's death, they became even more extreme.

Burr Conspiracy

a suspected treasonous cabal of planters, politicians, and army officers led by former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr. According to the accusations against him, Burr's goal was to create an independent nation in the center of North America and/or the Southwest and parts of Mexico. Burr's explanation: To take possession of, and farm the Texas Territory leased to him by the Spanish. When the expected war with Spain broke out, he would fight with his armed "farmers," to seize some lands he could conquer in the war-all illegal by rules of warfare. Jefferson and others had Burr arrested and indicted for treason with no firm evidence put forward.


Leopard Affair 1807-the British warship HMS Leopard attacked and boarded the American frigate Chesapeake. The incident enflamed patriotic passions and spurred new calls for the protection of American sovereignty in neutral waters. Seeking to pressure England and France to respect American neutrality, President Thomas Jefferson pushed the Embargo Act through Congress in December 1807

Embargo Act

American laws restricting American ships from engaging in foreign trade 1807 and 1812. They led to the War of 1812 between the U.S. and Britain. Britain and France were engaged in a life-and-death struggle for control of Europe, and the small, remote U.S.A. became a pawn in their game. The Acts were diplomatic responses by presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison designed to protect American interests and avoid war. They failed, and helped cause the war. The Acts were bitterly opposed by New England shipping interests which suffered greatly from them.


Intercourse Act- In the last four days of President Thomas Jefferson's presidency, the United States Congress replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 with the almost unenforceable Non-Intercourse Act of March 1809. This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. The intent was to damage the economies of the United Kingdom and France. Like its predecessor, the Embargo Act, it was mostly ineffective, and contributed to the coming of the War of 1812. In addition, it seriously damaged the economy of the United States.

Macon' Bill No. 2

law that lifted all embargoes with Britain or France. If either one of the two countries stopped attacks upon American shipping, the United States would cease trade with the other, unless that country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American ships as well. Napoleon immediately saw a chance to exploit this bill in order to further his Continental Plan, a form of economic warfare he believed would destroy Britain's economy. However, Napoleon had no intention of ever following through on his promise, and Madison soon realized this as well, ignoring the French promise. The British were still highly offended by the agreement and threatened force. Soon the U.S. and Britain were entangled in the War of 1812 due to the continued harassment of American ships and escalated tensions between the United States and the nations of Europe.


a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy that opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812. A large following and a confederacy grew around his prophetic teachings. The Native American independence movement led to strife with settlers on the frontier. The confederacy eventually moved farther into the northwest and settled Prophetstown, Indiana in 1808. Tecumseh confronted Indiana Governor William Henry Harrison to demand that land purchase treaties be rescinded. Tecumseh traveled to the southern United States in an attempt to unite Native American tribes in a confederacy throughout the North American continent. During the War of 1812, Tecumseh's confederacy allied with the British in Canada and helped in the capture of Fort Detroit. The Americans, led by Harrison, launched a counter assault and invaded Canada. They killed Tecumseh in the Battle of the Thames, in which they were also victorious over the British.

War Hawks

The War Hawks were Democratic-Republicans who had been imbued with the ideals of the American Revolution, and were primarily from southern and western states. The War Hawks advocated going to war against related to the interference of the Royal Navy in American shipping, which the War Hawks believed hurt the American economy and injured American prestige. War Hawks from the western states also believed that the British were instigating American Indians on the frontier to attack American settlements, and so the War Hawks called for an invasion of British Canada to punish Britain and end this threat. The leader of this group was Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky.

Tippecanoe 1811

fought between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and forces of Tecumseh's growing American Indian confederation. In response to rising tensions with the tribes and threats of war, a United States force of militia and regulars set out to launch a preemptive strike on the headquarters of the confederacy. The battle took place outside. Although the United States was victorious, the win was costly. The tribes attacked with fewer men and sustained fewer casualties. The battle was the culmination of rising tensions in a period sometimes called Tecumseh's War, which continued until Tecumseh's death in 1813. The Tippecanoe defeat dealt a devastating blow to Tecumseh's confederacy, which never regained its former strength. It was a major catalyst for the War of 1812, because the Americans thought that the British had sided with the Native Americans.

Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814

fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War. Significant because the power of the Upper Creek was broken and the brief Creek War came to a close. Also, Extremely rich lands taken from the tribes in Georgia and Alabama were quickly opened to white settlers. The area rapidly became a prime source of cotton, the engine of the Southern economy, and helped to revive the flagging institution of slavery. Finally Jackson's reputation began to take on legendary status during the Creek War.

Oliver Hazard Perry

served in the War of 1812 against Britain, and at the age of 27 earned the title "Hero of Lake Erie" for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie.

Hartford Convention

vent spanning from December 15, 1814-January 4, 1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed. The end of the war with a return to the status quo ante bellum disgraced the Federalist Party, which disbanded in most places.

Second Bank of the United States

chartered in 1816 by many of the same congressmen who in 1811 had refused to renew the charter of the original Bank of the United States. The predominant reason that the Second Bank of the United States was chartered was that in the War of 1812, the U.S. experienced severe inflation and had difficulty in financing military operations. Subsequently, the credit and borrowing status of the United States were at their lowest levels since its founding. Like the First Bank, the Second Bank was also chartered for 20 years, and also failed to get its charter renewed.

Henry Clay

a leading war hawk, he favored war with Britain and played a significant role in leading the nation to war in 1812. He was the foremost proponent of the American System, fighting for an increase in tariffs to foster industry in the United States, the use of federal funding to build and maintain infrastructure, and a strong national bank. He opposed the annexation of Texas, fearing it would inject the slavery issue into politics. Clay also opposed the Mexican-American War and the "Manifest Destiny" policy of Democrats, which cost him votes in the close 1844 election. Dubbed the "Great Compromiser," he brokered important compromises during the Nullification Crisis and on the slavery issue, especially in 1820 and 1850, during which he was part of the "Great Triumvirate" or "Immortal Trio," along with his colleagues Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun.

American System

a mercantilist economic plan based on the "American School" ideas of Alexander Hamilton, consisting of a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building, and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise and form a national currency. This program was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper, by providing a defense against the dumping of cheap foreign products, mainly at the time from the British Empire.


Bagot Agreement 1817- treaty between the United States and Britain that provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America. This agreement was indicative of improving relations between the United States and Great Britain in the period following the War of 1812.


Onis (Transcontinental) Treaty 1819- treaty that settled a border dispute in North America between the United States and Spain. The treaty was the result of increasing tensions between the U.S. and Spain regarding territorial rights at a time of weakened Spanish power in the New World. In addition to ceding Florida to the United States, the treaty settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas and firmly established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange for the U.S. paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.

Convention of 1818

a treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and the United Kingdom. It resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations, and allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister for district New Caledonia. The treaty marked the last permanent major territorial loss of Continental United States, the northern most tip of the territory of Louisiana above the 49th parallel north, known as the Milk River in present day southern Alberta. Britain ceded all of Rupert's Land south of the 49th parallel and west to the Rocky Mountains, including the Red River Colony.

James Fenimore Cooper

American writer of the early 19th century who is best remembered as a novelist who wrote the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the Romantic novel. The Last of the Mohicans.

Natty Bumpo

the protagonist of James Fenimore Cooper's pentalogy of novels known as the Leatherstocking Tales. Although the child of white parents, he grew up with Native Americans, becoming a near-fearless warrior skilled in many weapons, one of which is the long rifle. He respects his forest home and all its inhabitants, hunting only what he needs to survive. And when it comes time to fire his trusty flintlock, he lives by the rule, "One shot, one kill." He and his Mohican "brother" Chingachgook champion goodness by trying to stop the incessant conflict between the Mohicans and the Hurons.

Washington Irving

Best known for his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle." Along with James Fenimore Cooper, was among the first American writers to earn acclaim in Europe, and Irving encouraged American authors. He advocated for writing as a legitimate profession, and argued for stronger laws to protect American writers from copyright infringement.

Hudson River School

a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism.

McCulloch v Maryland 1819

a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. Though the law, by its language, was generally applicable to all banks not chartered in Maryland, the Second Bank of the United States was the only out-of-state bank then existing in Maryland, and the law was recognized in the court's opinion as having specifically targeted the U.S. Bank. The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers provided those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers of Congress under the Constitution. This fundamental case established the following two principles: The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.

Gibbons v Ogden 1824

a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution. Ogden had a license to operate a steamboat in New York, and when Gibbons began to operate a steamboat in the same general location, Ogden sued.The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Gibbons. The sole argued source of Congress's power to promulgate the law at issue was the Commerce Clause. Accordingly, the Court had to answer whether the law was constitutional. In the end Gibbons won because it is argued that navigation is commerce because it moves goods in between places.

Fletcher v Peck 1810

a landmark United States Supreme Court decision and one of the first cases in which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional. Following the end of American Revolution, Georgia claimed possession of the Yazoo lands, an Indian Reserve west of its own territory. In 1795, the Georgia legislature divided the area into four tracts and sold them to separate land development companies. The Georgia legislature approved this land grant, known as the Yazoo Land Act of 1795. It was revealed that the Yazoo Land Act sale to private speculators had been approved in return for bribes and after the scandal was exposed voters rejected most of the incumbents in the next election, and the next legislature, reacting to the public outcry, repealed the law and voided transactions made under it. John Peck had purchased land that had previously been sold under the 1795 act and later sold this land to Robert Fletcher who then brought this suit against Peck in 1803, claiming that he did not have clear title to the land when he sold it. The resulting case reached the Supreme Court which in a unanimous decision ruled that the state legislature's repeal of the law was void because it was unconstitutional. The opinion written by John Marshall held that the sale was a binding contract which cannot be invalidated even if illegally secured and as a result the ruling lends further protection to property rights against popular pressures and is the earliest case of the Court asserting its right to invalidate state laws which are in conflict with or are otherwise contrary to the Constitution.

Cohens v Virginia 1821

a United States Supreme Court decision most noted for John Marshall and the Court's assertion of its power to review state supreme court decisions in criminal law matters when they claim their Constitutional rights have been violated. An act of the United States Congress authorized the operation of a lottery in the District of Columbia. The Cohen brothers proceeded to sell D.C. lottery tickets in the Commonwealth of Virginia, violating state law. State authorities tried and convicted the Cohens. In this case, the Cohens were prosecuted successfully by the state of Virginia for selling lottery tickets from the District of Columbia in Virginia, thereby violating Virginia state law. The Supreme Court upheld their convictions. The Supreme Court claimed full appellate jurisdiction over any case tried before a state court. Virginia, however, decided that this was unacceptable and declared the decision the Supreme Court made null and void, even though it had upheld the previous conviction, because Virginia felt the ruling limited states' rights.

James Monroe

fifth President of the United States, serving two terms from 1817 to 1825. His presidency was marked both by an "Era of Good Feelings" and later by the Panic of 1819 and a fierce national debate over the admission of the Missouri Territory. He is most noted for his proclamation in 1823 of the Monroe Doctrine. He was well received everywhere, as nationalism surged, partisan fury subsided and the "Era of Good Feelings" ensued. The Panic of 1819 struck and the dispute over the admission of Missouri embroiled the country in 1820. Nonetheless, Monroe won near-unanimous reelection. In 1823, he announced the Monroe Doctrine, which became a landmark in American foreign policy.

Tariff of 1816

The recently concluded War of 1812 forced Americans to confront the issue of protecting their struggling industries. The British had stashed large quantities of manufactured goods in warehouses during the war, but when peace was achieved in 1815, a flood of these goods was dumped on the American market. New England manufacturing concerns found it almost impossible to compete with the cheap foreign imports.Henry Clay argued on behalf of the domestic mill and iron industries. John C. Calhoun supported protectionism because he believed that the South's future would include industrial development. The Tariff of 1816 was a mildly protectionist measure, raising the average rates to around 20 percent. New England manufacturers actually desired higher rates, but had not yet developed a sufficient political presence in Washington to have their way. Daniel Webster, a spokesman for New England interests, opposed the tariff measure. The 1816 tariff act was the first true protectionist measure.

Samuel Slater

known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution" because he brought British textile technology to America. A native of England, he was apprenticed as a manager in a cotton mill of the type pioneered by Richard Arkwright at Cromford. In 1789 he violated a British emigration law that prohibited the spread of British manufacturing technology to other nations. When he left for New York, he had memorized the plans for the mill and had a deep understanding of Strutt's managerial practices. He offered to sell his knowledge to American industrialists, doing so to Moses Brown of Providence, who used the plan, and made major profit.

Oliver Evans

inventor whose most important invention was an automated grist mill which operated continuously through the use of bulk material handling devices. Evans devoted a great deal of his time to patents, patent extensions, and enforcement of his patents. He also produced an improved high-pressure steam engine. As Evans designed a refrigeration machine which ran on vapor in 1805, he is often called the inventor of the refrigerator, although he never built one.

Robert Fulton

American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat. In 1800 he was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to design the Nautilus, which was the first practical submarine in history.

Erie Canal 1825

first transportation system between the eastern seaboard (NYC) and the western interior (Great Lakes) that did not require portage and was faster than carts pulled by animals as well as cut transport costs by 95%. First proposed in 1807, it was under construction from 1817 to 1825 and officially opened on October 26, 1825. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York state, opened regions farther west to settlement, and helped New York City become the chief U.S. port.

National (Cumberland) Road

one of the first major improved highways in the United States to be built by the federal government. Construction began in 1811 at Cumberland, Maryland, on the Potomac River. It crossed the Allegheny Mountains and southwestern Pennsylvania, reaching Wheeling, Virginia on the Ohio River in 1818. A chain of turnpikes connecting Baltimore, Maryland, to the National Road at Cumberland was completed in 1824, forming what is referred to as an eastern extension of the National Road.

Panic of 1819

first major financial crisis in the United States, which occurred during the end of the Era of Good Feelings. There were three key causes of the Panic of 1819, inflation, public debt from the War of 1812 and the Louisiana Purchase. The Panic had a lasting affect on the American banking system and directed attention to the crucial 1819-1821 session of Congress. Prices throughout the United States had been rising dramatically since shortly after the end of the War of 1812, mostly caused by the United States government's attempt to pay off the war debt. Since the war debt was mostly held by Americans, payment in currency, now deflated in value, was legal. In 1816 the Second Bank of the United States was formed, but it continued to feed the expansion by having significantly more money in circulation than it did gold reserves. The panic marked the end of the economic expansion that had followed the War of 1812 and ushered in new financial policies that would shape economic development.

Tallmadge Amendment

submitted by James Tallmadge, Jr. in the United States House of Representatives on February 13, 1819, during the debate regarding the admission of Missouri as a state. Tallmadge, an opponent of slavery, sought to impose conditions on Missouri that would extinguish slavery within a generation. Although the Tallmadge Amendment passed in the House, the Senate, which held a balance of slave and free states, passed a version of the Missouri statehood bill without the amendment. If adopted, the amendment would have led to the gradual elimination of slavery in the Missouri territory. The majorities of the House and the Senate eventually agreed to the Missouri Compromise, which did not include the Tallmadge Amendment, but prohibited slavery in the territories of the Louisiana Purchase above the 36˚30' parallel

Alexis de Tocqueville

French political thinker and historian in the Jacksonian era who explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies. He wrote Democracy in America which discussed how America was very democratic and therefore had a strong foundation. Significance is foreign approval.

William Crawford

American politician and candidate for President of the United States in 1824. In 1824, when the congressional caucus was fast becoming extinct, Crawford, being prepared to control it, insisted that it should be held, but of 216 Republicans only 66 attended; of these, 64 voted for Crawford. Three other candidates, however, Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and Henry Clay, were otherwise put in the field. During the campaign Crawford was stricken with paralysis, and when the electoral vote was cast he was in third. It remained for the House of Representatives to choose from Jackson, Adams and Crawford, and through Clay's influence Adams became President. Crawford was invited by Adams to continue as Secretary of the Treasury, but declined.

John Quincy Adams

sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829 who was a member of Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. He lost his 1828 bid for re-election to Andrew Jackson. As president, he presented a vision of national greatness resting on economic growth and a strong federal government, but his presidency was not a success. Adams is best known as a diplomat who shaped America's foreign policy in line with his deeply conservative and ardently nationalist commitment to America's republican values.

Nominating conventions

political convention held every four years in the United States to select the party's nominee for President. In the early 19th century, members of Congress met within their party caucuses to select their party's nominee. Conflicts between the interests of the Eastern Congressional class and citizens in newer Western states led to the hotly contested 1824 election, in which factions of the Democratic-Republican Party rejected the caucus nominee, William H. Crawford of Georgia, and backed John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson instead. In 1831 the Anti-Masonic Party convened in Baltimore, Maryland to select a single presidential candidate agreeable to the whole party leadership in the 1832 presidential election.

Peggy Eaton Affair 1831

Senator John Eaton, a close friend of Jackson, had married the widowed daughter of a Washington innkeeper, Margaret (Peggy) O'Neill. The local rumor mill ground out gossip that O'Neill and Eaton had had an affair prior to her husband's death. The Cabinet wives, led by Mrs. John C. Calhoun, were scandalized and refused to attend events when she was present. Jackson was not pleased with this tempest, remembering how deeply his late wife had been hurt by scandal-mongering. In 1831, Eaton and Van Buren resigned his office, putting pressure on the other members to do likewise. These resignations gave Jackson the opportunity to appoint Cabinet officers who were loyal to him rather than Calhoun.

Tariff of Abomination 1828

protective tariff passed by the Congress to protect industry in the northern United States. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy and led to the Nullification Crisis. The South was harmed firstly by having to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce, and secondly because reducing the importation of British goods made it difficult for the British to pay for the cotton they imported from the South. The reaction in the South, particularly in South Carolina, would lead to the Nullification Crisis that began in late 1832. New England wasn't so happy either because they were industrial and needed the raw materials from Britain. The only people who liked it were those in the west and middle states because they wanted to expand and use their own goods.

SC Exposition and Protest 1828

written in 1828 by John C. Calhoun, the Vice President of the United States under Andrew Jackson. The document was a protest against the Tariff of 1828. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede. It stated also Calhoun's Doctrine of nullification.


Hayne Debate 1830- famous debate in the U.S. between Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Senator Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina that took place on January 19-27, 1830 regarding protectionist tariffs. Webster described the US government as "made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the people."

John C. Calhoun

leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century who began his political career as a nationalist and proponent of protective tariffs. Later, he became a proponent of free trade, states' rights, limited government, and nullification. He built his reputation as a political theorist by his redefinition of republicanism to include approval of slavery and minority rights. He served as Vice President under John Quincy Adams and under Andrew Jackson, was the first Vice President to resign from office. He wrote legislation making South Carolina the first state to adopt universal suffrage for white men. As a "war hawk" he agitated in Congress for the War of 1812. Calhoun supported states' rights and nullification, under which states could declare null and void federal laws which they deemed to be unconstitutional.

Jefferson Day Dinner

dinner in which Robert Hayne began by toasting to "The Union of the States, and the Sovereignty of the States." Jackson then rose, and in a booming voice added "Our federal Union: It must be preserved!" (UNION UPHOLDS THE RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE)- a clear challenge to Calhoun. Calhoun clarified his position by responding "The Union: Next to our Liberty, the most dear! (LIBERTY IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE UNION)

Tariff of 1832

a protectionist tariff in the United States passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. It was repealed by the Compromise Tariff of 1833.

Compromise Tariff of 1833

proposed by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun as a resolution to the Nullification Crisis. It was adopted to gradually reduce the rates after southerners objected to the protectionism found in the Tariff of 1832 and the 1828 Tariff of Abominations, which had prompted South Carolina to threaten secession from the Union. This Act stipulated that import taxes would gradually be cut over the next decade until, by 1842, they matched the levels set in the Tariff of 1816--an average of 20%.

Force Bill 1833

initially enacted on March 2, 1833 to authorize U.S. President Andrew Jackson's use of whatever force necessary to enforce Federal tariffs. It was intended to suppress South Carolina's refusal to collect tariffs during the Nullification Crisis. The bill was a work of political mastery on Jackson's part as it gave the President the authority to close ports or harbors at his will. The importance of the Force Bill is that it is the first piece of legislation to publicly deny the right of secession to individual states.

Bank War

controversy over the Second Bank of the United States and the attempts to destroy it by then-president Andrew Jackson. At that time, it was the only nationwide bank and, along with its president Nicholas Biddle, exerted tremendous influence over the nation's financial system. Jackson viewed the Second Bank of the United States as a monopoly since it was a private institution managed by a board of directors, and in 1832 he vetoed the renewal of its charter.

Pet banks

degrading term for state banks selected by the U.S. Department of Treasury to receive surplus government funds in 1833. They were made among the big U.S. bank when President Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter for the Second Bank of the United States, proposed by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay four years in advance in 1832. The term implied that the state banks were controlled by Jackson. By 1833 there were 23 "pet banks" or state banks with US Treasury funds. The term gained currency because most of the banks were chosen not because of monetary fitness but on the basis of the spoils system, which rewarded political allies of Andrew Jackson. Most Pet Banks eventually lost money and failed as they flooded the country with paper currency. Because this money became so unreliable, Jackson issued the Specie Circular, which required all public lands to be purchased with metallic money. This contributed to the Panic of 1837 where there was a major dip in the economy due to the increased debt created by this banking system.

Specie Circular 1836

an executive order issued by President Andrew Jackson requiring that payment for the purchase of public lands be made exclusively in gold or silver. In an effort to curb excessive land speculation and to quash the enormous growth of paper money in circulation, Jackson directed the Treasury Department, "pet" banks, and other receivers of public money to accept only specie as payment for government-owned land after Aug. 15, 1836.The Specie Circular, by seriously curtailing the use of paper money, was highly deflationary and at least in part produced the ensuing credit crunch and the economic crisis called the Panic of 1837. On May 21, 1838, a joint resolution of Congress repealed the Specie Circular.

Panic of 1837

a financial crisis in the United States built on a speculative fever. The bubble burst on May 10, 1837 in New York City, when every bank began to accept payment only in specie. This was based on the assumption by former president, Andrew Jackson, that government was selling land for state bank notes of questionable value. The Panic was followed by a five-year depression, with the failure of banks and record-high unemployment levels.

Martin Van Buren

a democrat and Vice President and Secretary of State under Andrew Jackson (1829-1831). He was the third president to serve only one term, and was one of the central figures in developing modern political organizations. As Andrew Jackson's Secretary of State and then Vice President, he was a key figure in building the organizational structure for Jacksonian democracy, particularly in New York State. However, as a president, his administration was largely characterized by the economic hardship of his time, the Panic of 1837. He was therefore was voted out of office after four years, with a close popular vote but a rout in the electoral vote. In 1848, he ran for president on a third-party ticket, the Free Soil Party.

Independent Treasury System

system for the retaining of government funds in the Treasury and its subtreasuries independently of the national banking and financial systems.

Cherokee Nation v Georgia 1828

The state of Georgia enacted a series of laws which stripped the Cherokee of their rights under the laws of the state, with the intention to force the Cherokee to leave the state. In this climate, John Ross, Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation tribal band, led a delegation to Washington in January 1829 to resolve disputes over the non-payment of annuities to the Cherokee, and to seek Federal sustainment of the boundary between the territory of the state of Georgia and the Cherokee Nation's historic tribal lands within that state. Ross wrote an immediate memorial to Congress. Despite support from the republicans, in April 1829, it was announced that President Jackson would support the right of Georgia to extend its laws over the Cherokee Nation. This led to Jackson's passing of the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the president to set aside lands west of the Mississippi River to exchange for the lands of the Indian nations in the east.

Seminole War (1835

42)- Three conflicts in Florida between various groups of Native Americans, collectively known as Seminoles, and the United States Army. The Seminoles were doing well until in 1842 the U.S. attacked during a supposed time of peace.

Black Hawk War 1832

fought in Midwestern United States between a Native American chief's British Band against the United States Army and militia for possession of lands in the area. The white population of the region grew rapidly after the War of 1812 and this led to increasing tensions with the Native American population. Black Hawk led a group of Native Americans to the ceded region during the winters of both 1830 and 1831, which the Illinois governor declared an "invasion". Federal troops were brought in, and Black Hawk's band was ordered to withdraw but refused. Hostilities began on May 14, 1832 when Black Hawk's band defeated militia at the Battle of Stillman's Run. The war primarily comprised a series of minor battles and skirmishes. The war ended with a decisive victory for the militia at the Battle of Bad Axe on August 1-2, 1832.

Maysville Road Veto 1830

occurred when President Jackson vetoed a bill which would allow the Federal government to purchase stock in the Maysville, Washington, Paris, and Lexington Turnpike Road Company, which had been organized to construct a road linking Lexington and the Ohio River, the entirety of which would be in the state of Kentucky. Its advocates regarded it as a part of the national Cumberland Road system. Congress passed a bill in 1830 providing federal funds to complete the project. Jackson vetoed the bill on the grounds that federal funding of intrastate projects of this nature was unconstitutional. He declared that such bills violated the principle that the government shouldn't be an economic affair. Jackson also pointed out that funding for these kinds of projects interfered with the paying off of the national debt.

Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge 1828

a case regarding the Charles River Bridge and the Warren Bridge of Boston, Massachusetts. The case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract. In 1785, the Charles River Bridge Company had been granted a charter to construct a bridge over the Charles River connecting Boston and Charlestown. When the Commonwealth of Massachusetts sanctioned another company to build the Warren Bridge, chartered 1828, that would be very close in proximity to the first bridge and would connect the same two cities, the proprietors of the Charles River Bridge claimed that the Massachusetts legislature had broken its contract with the Charles River Bridge Company, and thus the contract had been violated. The owners of the first bridge claimed that the charter had implied exclusive rights to the Charles River Bridge Company. The Court ultimately sided with Warren Bridge.


political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy that was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson. In particular, they supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency, and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism. The group counted among its members such national political luminaries as Daniel Webster, William Henry Harrison, and their preeminent leader, Henry Clay of Kentucky. The party was ultimately destroyed by the question of whether to allow the expansion of slavery to the territories.

William Henry Harrison

originally gained national fame for leading U.S. forces against American Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. As a general in the subsequent War of 1812, his most notable contribution was a victory at the Battle of the Thames in 1813, which brought an end to hostilities in his region. He became ninth President of the United States and the first president to die in office. After he died on his thirty-second day in office of complications from a cold - the shortest tenure in United States presidential history.

John Tyler

longtime Democratic-Republican, he was nonetheless elected Vice President on the Whig ticket. Tyler became President when Harrison died. Once he became president, he stood against his party's platform and vetoed several of their proposals. In result, most of his cabinet resigned and the Whigs expelled him from their party. His most significant achievement was the annexation of the Republic of Texas in 1845. The only thing that did get passed during Tyler's administration was the repeal of the independent treasury system and a higher tariff. His entire cabinet resigned, leaving Tyler a president w/o a Party.

Second Great Awakening

religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States, which expressed Armenian theology by which every person could be saved through revivals. It enrolled millions of new members, and led to the formation of new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. PEOPLE CAN BE SAVED

Charles Grandison Finney

Presbyterian and Congregationalist figure in the Second Great Awakening. His influence during this period was enough that he has been called The Father of Modern Revivalism. He was known for his innovations in preaching and religious meetings such as having women pray in public meetings of mixed gender, development of the "anxious seat", a place where those considering becoming Christians could come to receive prayer, and public censure of individuals by name in sermons and prayers.

American Colonization Society

the primary vehicle for proposals to return free African Americans to what was considered greater freedom in Africa. The ACS was made up mostly of Quakers, who supported abolition, and slaveholders, who wanted to remove the threat of free blacks. They disagreed on the issue of slavery but found common ground in support of so-called "repatriation". The Friends believed blacks would face better chances for fully free lives in Africa than in the U.S. The slaveholders opposed freedom for blacks, but saw repatriation as a way to avoid slave rebellions. The society was also supported by Southerners fearful of organized revolt by free blacks, by Northerners concerned that an influx of black workers would hurt the economic opportunities of indigent white, by some who opposed slavery but did not favor integration, and by many blacks who saw a return to Africa as the best solution to their troubles.

American Anti

slavery Society- abolitionist society that called for an immediate end to slavery. The society's headquarters was in New York City. From 1840 to 1870 it published a weekly newspaper, the National Anti-Slavery Standard.

Liberty Party

U.S. political party formed by a splinter group of abolitionists. It was created by Arthur Tappan and Theodore Weld in opposition to William Lloyd Garrison, who scorned political action as a futile way to end slavery. At its first party convention in 1840, James Birney was nominated for U.S. president. By 1844 the party had influenced undecided legislators in many local elections to adopt antislavery stands. In 1848 it dissolved when many of its members formed the Free Soil Party.

Thomas R. Dew

one of the earliest defenders of slavery

Gag Rule 1836

rule in the south that prohibited the consideration of an anti-slavery movement. These measures effectively tabled antislavery petitions without submitting them to usual House procedures. Public outcry over the gag rules ultimately aided the antislavery cause, and the fierce House debate concerning their future anticipated later conflicts over slavery.

Nat Turner

American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 56 deaths among their victims, the largest number of white fatalities to occur in one uprising in the southern United States. Turner's killing of whites during the uprising makes his legacy controversial. Across Virginia and other southern states, state legislators passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free blacks, restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free blacks, and requiring white ministers to be present at black worship services.

William Lloyd Garrison

prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper The Liberator, and as one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States and was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement.

Lucretia Mott

American Quaker, abolitionist, social reformer, and proponent of women's rights. She is credited as the first American "feminist" in the early 19th century but was, more accurately, the initiator of women's political rights.

Grimke sisters

19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights. They traveled throughout the North, lecturing about their first hand experiences with slavery on their family's plantation. Among the first women to act publicly in social reform movements, they received abuse and ridicule for their abolitionist activity.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States.

Susan B. Anthony

prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She traveled the United States, and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year.

Abby Kelley

American abolitionist and radical social reformer active from the 1830s to 1870s. She became a fundraiser, lecturer and committee organizer for the influential American Anti-Slavery Society, where she worked closely with William Lloyd Garrison and other radicals.

Neal Dow

prohibitionist mayor of Portland, Maine, known as the "Father of Prohibition". He sponsored the "Maine law of 1851", which prohibited the manufacture and sale of liquor. Dow was widely criticized for his heavy handed tactics during the Portland Rum Riot of 1855.

John B. Gough

heavy drinker turned suicidal when his wife died in childbirth. However one day after being touched by a waiter who was a part of the temperance movement, he change his life. He took a pledge of abstinence from alcohol and dedicated the rest of his life to the temperance movement.

Dorothea Dix

American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses

Bronson Alcott

American teacher, writer and philosopher who left a legacy of forward-thinking social ideas. His status as a well-publicized figure from the 1830s to the 1880s stemmed from his founding of two short-lived projects, an unconventional school and an utopian community known as "Fruitlands", as well as from his association with the philosophy of Transcendentalism and from the celebrity accruing to his daughter, Little Women author Louisa May Alcott.

Horace Mann

American education reformer, and a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1827 to 1833. He served in the Massachusetts Senate from 1834 to 1837. Arguing that universal public education was the best way to turn the nation's unruly children into disciplined, judicious republican citizens for building public schools. Indeed, most states adopted one version or another of the system he established in Massachusetts, especially the program for "normal schools" to train professional teachers. Mann has been credited by many educational historians as the "Father of the Common School Movement".

Henry Barnard

U.S. educator who studied law and entered the state legislature, where he helped create a state board of education and the first teachers' institute (1839). With Horace Mann, he undertook to reform the country's common schools; he was an innovator in instituting school inspections, textbook reviews, and parent-teacher organizations. As Rhode Island's first commissioner of education (from 1845) he worked to raise teachers' wages, repair buildings, and obtain higher-education appropriations. In 1855 he helped found the American Journal of Education.

Samuel Gridley Howe

a prominent 19th century United States physician, abolitionist, and an advocate of education for the blind.


religious sect originally thought to be a development of the Protestant Quakers. Founded upon the teachings of Ann Lee, the group was known for their emphasis on social equality and rejection of sexual relations, which led to their precipitous decline in numbers after their heavy involvement in the running of orphanages was curtailed.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons)

a restorationist Christian church and the largest denomination originating from the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. Adherents view faith in Jesus Christ as the central tenet of their religion.

Joseph Smith

founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints and publisher of the Book of Mormons, he was viewed as a prophet by his followers

Brigham Young

American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement, he was the founder of Salt Lake City and the first governor of Utah Territory

Brook Farm

a utopian experiment in communal living in the United States in the 1840s founded by former Unitarian minister George Ripley at the Ellis Farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts in 1841 and was inspired in part by the ideals of Transcendentalism Founded as a joint stock company, it promised its participants a portion of the profits from the farm in exchange for performing an equal share of the work.

New Harmony

Robert Owen, a Welsh utopian thinker and social reformer bought this land in 1824. The town banned money and other commodities. For this and other reasons the communal society was doomed to failure, and it dissolved in 1829.

Gilbert Stuart

American painter from Rhode Island widely considered to be one of America's oremost portraitists. His best known work, the unfinished portrait of George Washington that is sometimes referred was begun in 1796 and never finished, and appears on the dollar bill.

Charles Wilson Peale

American painter, soldier, and naturalist who is best remembered for his portraits of famous American revolutionaries. He was the founder of America's first museum.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet and essayist who's famous works include "Paul Revere's Ride."

Seneca Falls 1848

an early and influential women's rights convention on July 19-20, 1848 organized by local New York women upon the occasion of a visit by Lucretia Mott. The local women, primarily members of a radical Quaker group, organized the meeting along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton. A vigorous discussion sprang up regarding women's right to vote, with many including Mott urging the removal of this concept, but Frederick Douglass argued eloquently for its inclusion, and the suffrage resolution was retained.

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