Upgrade to remove ads
APUSH chapter 5 & 6
Terms in this set (145)
Under the judiciary act of 1801, the feds took the opportunity to fill all the new positions with fed members of their party called the ___________________ ____________________ b/c Adams stayed up all night signing the justices' commissions.
Judiciary Act of 1801
-a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with federalists
-purpose was to maintain federalist control of the judiciary branch to go against TJ
When Jefferson became pres, he discovered that commissions for the new justices had not been sent out yet, and he withheld them even though the act had already been signed by president (adams) and one of these justices was
William Marbury petitioned the supreme court for a ______________________ to have Sec. of State (james madison) give him his commission
writ of mandmus
marbury's request had been based on an act from several years before which was declared ______________________________.
Result of Marbury vs. Madison...
Established judicial review
Marshall (one of the sc justices on the case) actually ended up establishing the power of the sc to invalidate federal laws that conflicted with the ______________
the result of marbury vs madison empowers the sc to look at ______________
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Pay off all war debts, raise government revenues, create a national bank
Hamilton is responsible for .....
stimulating the country's economic development and getting the US out of debt
Hamilton raised money by taxing by....
-putting a 5% duty on foreign imports
-higher tax on hemp, glass, nails
-heavy tonnage duties on all foreign shipping
Hamilton insisted that the country needed a _________________ ____________________ __________________________
strong national government
Hamilton's Report on Public Credit
presented plan deliberately intended to give special advantages to the rich for the sake of their support
Report on Public Credit
outlined Hamilton's proposal to pay off the federal government debts as well as the states'
why didn't people like Hamilton's plan?
because many of the common people had been forced to accept government securities in return for goods and services that had sold their securities for a fraction of the cost
Hamilton got Jefferson and Madison to agree to his plan if he agree to move the nation's ________________ along the Potomac River
Alexander Hamilton proposed the first National ____________
Hamilton felt that ________________should be able to pass legislation from a national bank
nowhere in the constitution does it state the need for a _________________ _______________
Jefferson thought that a national bank was ____________________ (strict interpretation of Constitution)
Hamilton had a ____________interpretation of the constitution
what did all of the delegates agree on in regards to the constitution?
-a republican government was a universal assumption
-a national gov ought to be established
-that the national government's power must be divided and there shall be separate executive and judicial branches as well a legislature
the Constitution would be ratified by a ______________ ________________________
why did James Madison push for the ratification of the constitution ?
b/c a large country was more conducive to a republican form of government
what state refused to send a representative to the state convention for the constitution?
How many states were needed to ratify the Constitution?
the procedure specified for ratifying the constitution depended on .....
approval of the constitution by special conventions in the various states
What did Charles beard argue in "An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution"?
That the constitution was sponsored by selfish men who sought to protect their own interests
much of the anti federalists' opposition over the constitution vanished when ...
the federalists promised amendments to guarantee civil liberties of the people (Bill of Rights)
Anti-Federalists believed the constitution gave the ___________________ government too much power at the expense of the ____________ governments
why did the idea of 3/5's come about?
the northern states wanted slaves to be counted towards each state's share of district federal taxes and the southern states didn't want to include them in the count for taxes but the southern states did want include slaves in determining each district's representation in the House
what was the main focus of the anti federalists' complaints against the constitution?
there was no Bill of Rights
The 3/5's compromise said that 3/5's of all the ____________ should be included in the count of both state representation and federal taxes
Anti-federalists disliked that the constitution enabled the national government to maintain an __________during peacetime
As president, George Washington....
was careful not to exceed the powers given him by the Constitution
Why did Anti-federalists dislike the idea of congress as written in the constitution?
the necessary and proper clause gave too much power
Washington established a cabinet even though the ___________________ did not provide it
Who drafted the Bill of Rights?
how did federalists answer the republican concerns for the constitution?
by arguing for the separation of powers
the task was given that the __________________________________ must be powerful enough to deal with national issues that the established government had not been able to solve such as
*threat of GB in the west
*Disruption in the flow of foreign commerce
*collapse of financial structure of the US
bill of rights
federalists tended to be well off, professionals who wanted an ___________________ government
the bill of rights provides us with certain _______________ that congress cannot interfere with
james madison and alexander hamilton were strong examples of ________________________
the 10th amendment gives power to the ______________
Who wrote the Federalist Papers?
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
cause of Shay's ""little" rebellion?
Massachusetts was determined on paying off state debt so bad financial time and deflation led to many foreclosures and the prisons were overcrowded with debtors. As a result, mobs in western communities began to seize foreclosures by stopping court sessions by force
The main purpose of the federalists papers?
to gain New York's support of the Constitution in response to NY's bitter disputes over the ratification of the constitution
who led a mob of rebels to march into Springfield and prevent the state's supreme court from having their meeting ?
in the federalists papers, Hamilton emphasized the need for a strong ________________ branch
In response to Shay's rebels, the state government sent __________against them so the rebels then attacked the Springfield arsenal
In the federalists papers, Madison emphasized the many ____________________________ that existed
checks and balances
Jefferson called shay's rebellion a _____________ rebellion
After Shay's rebellion, many leaders ( ex: GW) concluded that the _________________ ________________________needed to be strengthened
what is one thing Jefferson and Hamilton agreed on ?
people who did not own property and lived in the city could be corrupted by demagogues (political agitators) (ie: citydwellers were a burden on society)
Jefferson was pro ____________ while Hamilton was pro _______________
________________________ encouraged farming while _______________________ encouraged manufacturing
George Washington's ___________________was chosen without regard to political affiliation or personal agreement with him
Jefferson = super _______________________
Jefferson felt that blacks were ____________________ to whites in every way while Hamilton felt that they were ______________________ to whites
Why did Jefferson believe all government is a necessary evil at best?
because it restricts the freedom of an individual
what was Jefferson's main objection to Hamilton?
Hamilton wanted to commercialize and centralize the growth of the country, and TJ feared this would promote the growth of cities
what was the message behind Jefferson's statement "we are all republicans- we are all federalists"
that every difference in opinion is not a difference of principle;
he stressed the cooling of biased/partisan behaviors and disliked the large divide of the two parties
Washington sent ________________________ to London to seek settlement with GB in order to avoid war
why were the British eager to reach an accommodation with the Americans (John Jay) ?
they were scared the US would unite with France to form a new, larger republic
Results of Jay's Treaty
-British would abandon American western frontier posts
-British promised to repay American ship owners for seizures in the west indies
-British opened up their colonies in Asia to American ships
-war was avoided
-US must pay debts to British merchants that were owed prior to the revolutionary war
after 2 years of the government not being able to collect money on the whiskey tax, especially in Western PA, mobs rioted (burning tax collector's homes, people were killed, etc), and in response...
Washington led an army of 1300 to march on Pittsburgh
Federalists favored a strong _____________________
Republicans Favored strong ___________________ to avoid too much power of the national government
Because France continued to attack on ____________________________ , Adams appointed 3 men to go to France to try to negotiate a settlement with the French
the French foreign minister also sent 3 men to meet the American negotiators who _________________________________ to strike a deal that America refused to pay
demanded a price
As a result of the XYZ Affair, ....
congress created a Navy department, raised money to build warships, and tripled the size of the army
(in order to pursue the federalists' demands for war with France )
while France was fighting GB and Spain, GW issued the ________________________________________ because GW was committed to the US policy of "friendly and impartial"
Proclamation of Neutrality
despite American neutrality, ______________ & ______________ began attacking American shipping
France and England
In GW's farewell address, he stressed his belief that _______________________ could cause harm to the nation and were divisive
GW urged the nation to avoid ________________________________ of any sorts with foreign powers and encouraged neutrality
why was it difficult to amend the articles of confederation ?
the amendments had to be approved unanimously among the states
Representatives from VA and MD met at Washington's home and suggested a conference of all the _________________ to discuss common problems of commerce which became the Annapolis convention
delegates from five states met at Annapolis and no changes were made regarding commerce
_____________________ was present at the Annapolis convention and this led him to suggest a convention to meet in Philadelphia (AKA Great Convention) to deal with the general/ broad issue of constitutional reform
(convention was to correct the articles of confederation)
where was the Battle of Fallen Timbers?
At the __________________________________, General Anthony Wayne defeated the Native Americans and this victory opened up that territory for settlement
Battle of Fallen Timbers
a group of Federalists from New England organized a scheme to break away from the Union and establish a Confederacy by capturing NY and then taking the entire Northeast out of the Union and they called themselves ____________________
the Essex Junto wanted to support _______________________ and the caused Alexander Hamilton to insult his character and he challenged him to a dual
In the dual, _____________________ made no effort to shoot at is oppose by firing into the sky, but _____________ took careful aim and wounded him
Hamilton ; Burr
the __________________________ was an accidental by-product of European political adjustments and a sudden whim of Napoleon Bonaparte that TJ had not planned for
TJ understood that th US must gain access to New Orleans which yielded control of the mouth of the Mississippi River or else they would lose everything beyond the __________________________
Once Jefferson learned that France regained LA from Spain he worried about ____________________________
who instructed his his minister of France (Robert Livingston) to seek assurances that American rights would be respected and negotiate the purchase of West Florida in case France had also taken over that region?
TJ wanted to purchase New Orleans and Florida or as an alternative, buy a track of land near the ______________________________________________ where a port could be built
mouth of the Miss. River
TJ sent _____________________________ to Paris to offer $10 Million for NO and FL
Because ________________________ was having second thoughts about his plans for LA, he order his foreign minister to not only offer NO but all of LA
James Monroe bought LA for ______________
TJ did not believe that the US government had the power under the constitution to add this territory, but he went against his own beliefs and acquired the territory because it was ____________________________________
"for the good sense of the country"
Who urged the ratification of the treaty?
Hamilton, Adams, and Marshall
How did Napoleon accept payment for the territory?
For TJ, what was one of the most important reasons for the LA purchase ?
that it secured access to the mouth of the Mississippi
in the election of 1800, who was the federalists nominee?
who was the republican nominee?
John Adams; Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson (republican)
The _______________________ did not distinguish between presidential and vice-presidential candidates
Jefferson and Burr ( both republicans ) each received 73 votes, so the _________________________________________ is required to chose under the constitution
House of Representatives
After several deadlocks, __________________ decided that Jefferson would be president by using his influence over the House of Reps.
Aaron Burr became _________________________
The Election f 1800 led to _______________________________
the twelfth amendment
What did the twelfth amendment do?
called for separate balloting in the electoral college for Pres. and Vice. Pres.
Thomas Jefferson was prejudice towards _______________
judges (rather excessive judicial power)
TJ decided to _______________ several partisan judges (ex: John Pickering; Samuel Chase) after Marbury vs Madison
After the _______________________________, TJ planned an exhibition of the newly acquired land
Through the exhibition of the new LA territory, TJ hoped to find an _________________________ to connect the upper Mississippi to the Pacific
all water route
TJ appointed his private secretary/friend _______________________________ who chose ________________________________ to accompany him
Meriwether Lewis; William Clark
TJ's interest in the west were __________________ as well as ________________
TJ instructed Lewis to study all the ______________ & _______________
floral and foliage
Lewis was ordered to establish official relationships with ___________________________________
Lewis and Clark began in ST. Louis and made their way down the _________________________ river
lewis and clark spent winter at ______________________ in North Dakota
Shoshone women who married a french fur trapper and served as a guide + interpreter
When TJ refused to pay the raised prices for protection against the Barbary pirates, and so the pirates ___________________
Who was the greatest hero from the war who captured two pirate ships, led 10 men in a daring raid on another in which he snatched the ship the "Philadelphia" from the pirates by setting it on fire
Lt. Stephen Decatur
VP Aaron Burr caused P TJ alot of trouble, and TJ replaced him in the 1804 election with____________________
While VP, Burr began to commit acts of _________________
Burr approached the British minster in DC and offered the__________________________________________
"effect of separation of the western part of the US"
In committing his act of treason, aaron burr wanted 110K pounds and asked for the support of the British fleet but the British rejected his request so __________________________________
Burr went along with the scheme anyway
Burr aligned himself with the LA territory governor who was secretly in the pay of _________________ and he raised a small army of men and began to move down to NO or possibly Mexico but the governor sold out Burr to Jefferson at the last minute
Burr was charged with __________________________ and TJ offered blanket pardons to anyone who would provide evidence against Burr
Burr was found __________________ and went into exile in Europe
The Burr affair left TJ more bitter towards Judge Marshall and the federal ___________________
The frailty of ____________________________ became obvious once the warring powers began to attack neutral shipping posts
The ___________________________ prohibited all exports
What did Jefferson hope would happen by keeping US merchant ships off the seas?
it would end all chance of injury to them and to the national honor
By cutting off American goods and markets, it would put great pressure on________________ & ________________ to moderate policies toward American shipping
Britain and France
Effects of the Embargo Act
-Devastated the American economy
-The value of American exports plummeted
-Smuggling grew rampant, especially along the border with Canada.
In place of the Embargo Act, TJ ratified the Non-Intercourse act which forbade trade only with _____________ & _______________ and authorized the president to end the boycott against either power by proclamation when and if it stopped violating the rights of Americans
GB and France
A series of repressive measures done by the Federalist party to hurt the Republicans
Alien and Sedition acts
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Alien Enemies Act
extended the period a foreigner has to reside in the US before being eligible for citizenship from 5 years to 14 years
Alien Enemies Act
gave the president the power to arrest or deport an enemy alien in a time of declared war
authorized the President to expel all aliens who he thought "dangerous to the peace and safety of the US"
Made it a crime to attempt to instigate a riot or insurrection and made it illegal to publish or say anything critical of the government
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Republican documents that argued that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional b/c TJ thought they violated the first amendment and since the Constitution was made by sovereign states, each state could declare a law of congress unconstitutional
The KY and VA Res.'s were the ________________________ response to the Alien and Sedition acts drafted by Madison and TJ
The decline of the federalists party is mainly a product of the ______________________________________
alien and sedition acts
The Great compromise settled the issue of representation in Congress by allowing ?
each state two and Representatives in the House that were based on state population
The most drastic departure from past experience under the new constitution was the creation of a powerful ____________________
the conduct of citizen Genet was unacceptable to the National Government b/c he was ?
licensing American vessels as privateers against British shipping
What factors tended to widen the split of the two parties?
-war between France and GB
-The national bank
In the election of 1796, John Adams was chosen ___________________ and TJ as ______________________
president; vice president
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Anatomy Chapter 14 -- Digestive System + Metabolism
Comprensión página 215
Anatomy Chapter 6: The Muscle System