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38 terms

EDC312 Ch. 3 Vocab QUIZ1

STUDY
PLAY
response
specific behavior that an individual exhibits
stimulus (stimuli)
specific object or event that influences an individual's learning or behavior
cueing
use of simple signals to indicate that a certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior(s) should stop
operant conditioning
form of learning in which a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement
reinforcer
consequence of a response that leads to increased frequency of the response
reinforcement
act of following of a response with a reinforcer
primary reinforcer
consequence that satisfies a biologically built-in need
secondary reinforcer
consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcer
positive reinforcement
phenomenon in which a response increases as a result of the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus
extrinsic reinforcer
reinforcer that comes from the outside environment, rather than from within the learner
intrinsic reinforcer
reinforcer provided by oneself or inherent in a task being performed
negative reinforcement
phenomenon in which a response increases as a result of the removal (rather than presentation) of a stimulus
punishment
consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows
modeling
demonstrating a behavior for another; observing and imitating another's behavior
prosocial behavior
behavior directed toward promoting the well-being of another
incentive
hoped-for, but not guaranteed, future consequence of behavior
situated learning and cognition
knowledge, behaviors, and thinking skills, acquired and used primarily within certain contexts, with limited if any use in other contexts
mediated learning experience
social interaction in which an adult helps a child interpret a phenomenon or event in particular (usually culturally appropriate) ways
cognitive tool
concept, symbol, strategy, procedure, or other culturally constructed mechanism that helps people think about and respond to situations more effectively
distributed cognition
process in which 2 or more learners each contribute knowledge and ideas as they work collaboratively on an issue or problem
culture
behaviors and belief systems that members of a long-standing social group share and pass along to successive generations
ethnic group
people who have common historical roots, valves, beliefs, and behaviors, and who share a sense of interdependence
society
large, enduring social group that is socially and economically organized and has collective institutions and activities
socialization
process of molding a child's behavior and beliefs to be appropriate for the cultural group
Standard English
form of English generally considered acceptable at school, as reflected in textbooks and grammar institution
dialect
form of language that has certain unique pronunciations, idioms, and grammatical structures and is characteristic of a particular region or ethnic group
African American English
dialect of some African American communities characterized by certain pronunciations, idioms, and grammatical constructions different from those of Standard English
personal space
personally or culturally preferred distance between two people during social interaction
culture shock
sense of confusion when a student encounters a culture with behavioral expectations very different from those previously learned
cultural mismatch
situation in which a child's home culture and the school culture hold conflicting expectations for the child's behavior
socioeconomic status (SES)
one's general social and economic standing in society (encompasses family income, education level, occupational status, and related factors)
Autism Spectrum Disorder
marked by impaired social cognition, social skills, and social interaction presumably due to a brain abnormality, forms often associated with significant with significant cognitive and linguistic delays and highly unusual behaviors
extinction
gradual disappearance of an acquired response; in the case of a response acquired through operant conditioning, it results from repeated lack of reinforcement for the response
token economy
classroom strategy in which desired behaviors are reinforced by tokens that the learner can us to "purchase" a variety of other, backup reinforcers
contingency
situation in which one event (e.g., reinforcement) happens only after another event (e.g., a specific response) has already occurred (one event is contingent on the other's occurrence)
contingency contract
formal agreement between teacher and student that identifies behaviors the student will exhibit and the reinforcers that will follow
community of learners
class in which teacher and students actively and collaboratively work to create a body of knowledge and help one another learn
multicultural education
instruction that integrates perspective and experiences of numerous cultural groups throughout the curriculum