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250 terms

Psychology Review

STUDY
PLAY
Learning Styles
examples are: verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalistic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal
Goals of Psychology
Description, Explanation, Prediction, Influence
Basic Research
research focused on the acquisition of new knowledge
Applied Research
research focused on the Influence goal of Psych; improving people's lives
Descriptive Research Methods
Naturalistic observation, Laboratory observation, case study, survey
Naturalistic Observation
observing people's behavior in their normal setting
Laboratory research
conducting research in a controlled setting; doesn't necessarily reflect real-world behavior
case study
in-depth study of one person or group for an extended period of time
survey
using interviews and questionnaires to gain information from many people
representative sample
a group that represents the larger population in proportion
correlation
another word for relationship
Correlation Research method
shows a relationship between two variables
correlation coefficient
shows how strongly two things are related; ranges from 0.0 (spurrious) to 1.0 (perfect positive) or -1.0 (perfect negative)
independent variable
variable that is manipulated by the experimenter
dependent variable
variable that responds and is measured
experimental group
group exposed to the independent variable
control group
group used for comparison; sometimes given a placebo
hypothesis
a "prediction"
theory
a "principle"
placebo
harmless substance that is used to mentally induce results
experimental research method
only research method that can identify a cause and effect relationship
debriefing
telling the participants in an experiment the purpose after the experiment
subordinance
example: teacher using students for an experiment (similar to blackmail)
deception
can be used in an experiment only is the results would be skewed by telling the truth
double-blind technique
when neither the researcher nor the participants know which is the control and which is the experimental group
Wilhelm Wundt
Father of Psychology; first psych lab (in Germany); introspection
introspection
Psych perspective that is considered too subjective
structuralism
Psych perspective that says consciousness can be broken into parts
Functionalism
William James; psych perspective that was influenced by Charles Darwin; "stream of consciousness"
Behaviorism
psych perspective that says there is no free will; behavior is based on environmental influences; Watson and Skinner
John B. Watson
psychologist known for Little Albert experiment; Behaviorism; fear conditioning
Skinner's box
a tool used by B.F. Skinner to condition rats to push a lever to receive food
Psychoanalysis
psych perspective popularized by Sigmund Freud; people are naturally bad; conscious vs. unconscious
Sigmund Freud
psychologist; personality theory; psychoanalysis; used case studies; compared mind to iceberg
Humanistic Psychology
Psych perspective popularized by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers; people are naturally good
Abraham Maslow
psychologist; hierarchy of needs; humanistic psych.
gestalt
means form, pattern, or whole
gestalt psychology
the tendency to perceive objects as a whole rather than parts
phi phenomenon
the effect of apparent motion (ex: Christmas lights)
Evolutionary psychology
psych perspective that studies universal traits of human behavior and change over time; David Buss
neuroscience
general term including biologists, psychologists, biochemists, medical researchers
sociocultural approach
psych perspective that studies how culture and social settings influence behavior
eclecticism
combining multiple psych perspectives; belief that more than one approach can be correct
neuron
brain cell; basic thinking cell
afferent neuron
type of neuron associated with sensory information
efferent neuron
type of neuron associated with motor function
soma
cell body of a neuron
dendrites
(Greek: tree) branch-like extensions of a neuron that receive impulses
axon
tail-like extension of a neuron that sends impulses
myelin sheath
white fatty substance around the axon of a neuron that speeds up neuronal transmission
nodes of ranvier
gaps between segments of myelin sheath on the axon; speed up neuronal transmission
glial cell
brain and spinal cord adhesive cell; functions as "Velcro" and "vacuum"
synapse
fluid-filled gap between neurons
neurotransmitters
chemical substances that carry neuronal impulses
excitatory
type of neurotransmitter that tells the cell to fire
inhibitory
type of neurotransmitter that tells the cell not to fire
reuptake
when an unused neurotransmitter is reabsorbed by the axon
acetylcholine
neurotransmitter associated with memory and Alzheimer's
dopamine
neurotransmitter associated with attention, ADD, ADHD
norepinephrine
neurotransmitter associated with eating and alertness
epinephrine
neurotransmitter associated with metabolism
serotonin
neurotransmitter associated with mood, sleep, appetite; anti-depressant
GABA
inhibitory neurotransmitter associated with controlling anxiety
endorphins
neurotransmitter associated with pleasure feeling, pain relief, "runner's high"
Central Nervous System (CNS)
nervous system that is like an interstate system; includes the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
nervous system that is like county roads; connects the CNS to the rest of the body
Autonomic Nervous System
unconscious part of the Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
motor and sensory part of the Peripheral Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
responsible for the fight or flight response of the autonomic nervous system
Parasympathetic Nervous System
responsible for the calming response of the autonomic nervous system
spinal cord
can make fast decisions to speed up reaction time, rather than sending a signal all the way to the brain
Parts of the Hindbrain
brainstem, medulla, reticular formation, pons; cerebellum
medulla
part of the hindbrain associated with unconscious functions such as breathing and heartbeat
reticular formation
focus center of the brain
pons
bridge-like structure in the hindbrain associated with sleep and dreaming
cerebellum
located below the cerebrum; associated with smooth, coordinated body movement
substantia nigra
dark colored part of the midbrain; associated with unconscious motor functions and movement (such as riding a bike); diminished in Parkinson's disease
Limbic System
amygdala and hippocampus; a region of the midbrain
amygdala
emotion center of the brain (especially fear); children and teens rely on it for decisions because the frontal lobe is not fully developed
hippocampus
part of the brain associated with acquisition of new memories
HR experiment
patient having siezure; removed hippocampus; cured seizures but unable to learn or remember people, things, etc
thalamus
2 small parts in the forebrain; associated with learning new verbal info and development of language, sleep cycles; damage to it leads to a vegetative state
hypothalamus
very small part of the forebrain; regulates hunger, thirst, sexual instincts, body temperature, biological clock
cerebrum
largest part of the brain, resembles walnut; composed of 2 hemispheres, each hemisphere has 4 lobes
frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
four lobes of the cerebrum
cerebral cortex
part of the cerebrum associated with higher level thinking
corpus callosum
a thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum
convoluted
describes the cerebral cortex; means folded or wrinkled
Right Hemisphere
hemisphere associated with visual-spatial skills, music processing, creativity and metaphorical comprehension, interpreting non-verbal communication, and pessimism
Left Hemisphere
hemisphere associated with consciousness, language, logical-mathematical thinking, coordination of complex body movements, and optimism
Split-Brain Operation
surgical operation to cut the corpus callosum; used to cure epilepsy by cutting off communication between the hemispheres
Phineas Gage
dramatic personality change after a post went through his head
aphasia
impairment
frontal lobe
lobe associated with movement; contains Broca's area and motor cortex
parietal lobe
lobe associated with feeling pressure, pain, and touch; contains somatosensory cortex
occipital lobe
lobe associated with vision; contains primary visual cortex
temporal lobe
lobe associated with language and hearing; contains Wernick's area and primary auditory cortex
Wernick's aphasia
damage that causes slurred speech
Alpha
brain wave associated with deep relaxation
Beta
brain wave associated with mental and physical activity
Delta
brain wave associated with deep sleep
Microelectrode
brain imaging technique that can identify the purpose of single cells
MRI
like a CT scan with no harmful X-rays; used to identify abnormalities in the CNS
EEG
brain imaging technique where electrodes are placed on your skin
fMRI
brain imaging technique able to capture images of brain structures and map functions
unilateral neglect
can perceive with both sides of the brain but only respond to the left because the right is damaged
amnesia
brain damage that causes you to forget things
agnosia
brain damage that causes you to not be able to make relationship connections and identifications, but you have memory
synaptogenesis
when the body eliminates unnecessary synapses to strenghthen neuronal connections; "pruning"
plasticity
ability to reshape brain (especially in children)
endocrine system
system of ductless glands throughout the body that produce hormones
pituitary gland
pea-sized gland in the head associated with growth and reproduction; the "master gland" that controls the other endocrine glands
thyroid
gland in the neck that regulates metabolism
pancreas
organ that produces insulin and glucose and regulates blood sugar; part of the endocrine system
adrenal gland
gland that produces neurotransmitters, activates the sympathetic nervous system, and is associated with puberty
gonads
glands that produce sex hormones and regulate reproduction and secondary sex characteristics
genotype
genetic makeup of and individual
phenotype
physical appearance and characteristics of an individual
stimulus
an event or object in the environment to which an organism responds
classical conditioning
also called respondent or Pavlovian conditioning
Pavlov's dog experiment
conditioning a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell by pairing the bell sound with food
unconditioned stimulus (US)
stimulus that causes an unconditioned response
unconditioned response (UR)
natural response to an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
a stimulus that has been paired with another type of stimulus and causes a conditioned response
conditioned response (CR)
response to a conditioned stimulus
higher order conditioning
response caused by multiple stimuli (example: getting blood drawn)
extinction
when a conditioned response weakens and disappears
spontaneous recovery
sudden reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction has occurred
generalization
when a conditioned response occurs to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus
discrimination
only reinforcing a certain specific stimulus so the conditioned response only occurs for that specific stimulus
B.F. Skinner
psychologist associated with operant conditioning, experimented with pigeons
John B. Watson
psychologist associated with emotional (fear) conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
psychologist associated with classical conditioning
Little Albert experiment
John B. Watson's experiment to condition a boy to fear white things by pairing a white rat and a loud noise
Peter and the rabbits
classically conditioning a boy who was afraid of rabbits to lose fear by pairing rabbits with positive things
Law of Effect
consequences determine behavior (Thorndike)
"Walden II" and "Beyond Freedom and Dignity"
B.F. Skinner's books
Gold Star Syndrome
children learn to behave so they receive rewards and lack intrinsic motivation
shaping
rewarding successive approximations
extinction burst
when the brain makes a last desperate attempt to get the reward it is conditioned to expect
positive reinforcement
something good (reward) as result of action
negative reinforcement
avoid negative consequences as result of action
primary reinforcers
basic necessities such as food and water
positive punishment
something is added as a punishment as a result of action (example: spanking)
negative punishment
something is taken away in punishment as a result of action (example: being grounded)
fixed ratio
schedule of reinforcement on a regular basis (after a specific number of actions, example: ATM)
variable ratio
schedule of reinforcement on an average basis (after approximately a number of actions, example: slot machine)
fixed interval
schedule of reinforcement on a specific time interval (example: monthly paycheck)
variable interval
schedule of reinforcement on an average time interval (example: drug testing approximately once per month)
magnitude of reinforcement, immediacy of reinforcement, and level of motivation of learner
3 factors that influence effectiveness of operant conditioning
Disadvantages of Punishment
1 - suppress behavior, not extinguish
2 - does not teach correct behavior
3 - provokes anger, fear, avoidance
4 - teaches aggression
escape learning
learning a behavior to terminate an aversive stimulus
avoidance learning
modify behavior to avoid an aversive stimulus
learned helplessness
expect failure from previous experience, so don't even attempt something (Seligman and Overmeir experiment with harnessed dogs)
insight learning
Wolfgang Kohler; chimpanzees and bananas; when you know something but can't remember and then suddenly think of it
latent learning
learning something but you don't use it, example: cursive
mice and maze
group 1 reinforced every time, group 2 never reinforced, group 3 reinforced after 11 days; latent learning - group 3 was best
Modeling
1 - I do it you watch
2 - I do it, you help
3 - you do it, I help
4 - you do it, I watch
eliciting effect
watching someone else's actions in a situation when you don't know what to do
observational learning
learning by watching someone else do something
disinhibitory effect
see a trusted person violating a learned behavior, so you think it's ok to violated it as well
inhibitory effect
learning from other's mistakes
instinct theory
motivation caused by inborn, unlearned tendencies and patterns of behavior
drive-reduction theory
motivation caused by needs; motivated to reduce state of tension (drive)
arousal theory
motivated to have optimal arousal for a task
low
arousal level for complex task
high
arousal level for simple task
lateral hypothalamus
feeding center of the brain; stimulation causes you to eat
ventromedial hypothalamus
satiety and hunger center of the brain; tells you if you are hungry or full
extracellular thirst
thirst caused by loss of body fluids, such as sweat, urine, etc.
intracellular thirst
thirst caused by loss of fluid directly from the cells (caused by salty diet)
Factors in Body Weight Variation
heredity, hormones, metabolic rate, fat-cell theory, set-point theory
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
motivation test in which the test taker is shown a vague setting picture and they describe what leads up to it, what is occuring, what the subject is feeling, and the outcome of the situation
High Achievers
pursue goals that are challenging but attainable through effort
Low Achievers
do not seed activities that test skills or are challenging; set ridiculously high or low goals
I/O psychologists
industrial/organizational, apply psychology and motivation to the workplace
expectancy theory
expectancy - the belief that more effort = better results
instrumentality - the belief that doing a good job will be noticed and rewarded
valence - the degree to which a person values the rewards
Components of emotion
physical, cognitive, behavioral
James-Lange Theory
emotion theory that says physiological arousal leads to physical response, then you evaluate the emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory
emotion theory that says emotion and physiological response occur at the same time; related to fight-or-flight response
Schachter-Singer Theory
emotion theory that says physiological arousal occurs first followed by cognitive appraisal
Lazarus Theory
emotion theory that says a cognitive appraisal is made followed by a physiological response
polygraph tests
lie-detector test that measures vital body functions such as heartrate, breathing, sweating, etc. during interrogation; inaccurate because it can be beat
display rules
rules for the appropriate emotion to express in a situation
absolute threshold
the minimum amount of sensory information that can be detected 50% of the time
difference threshold
minimum increase or decrease in a stimulus needed to make a just noticeable difference
Weber's Law
the greater the original stimulus, the more it must be increased or decreased to be noticeable
sensation
the process through which the senses pick up sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain
transduction
sensory stimuli are changed into neuronal impulses to be sent to the brain
perception
the process through which sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by the brain
sensory adaptation
when your senses get used to a stimulus so you don't notice it anymore
mental set
a predisposition to perceive things one way and not another
sources of mental set
expectations, experience, motivation, environment, culture
Figure-Ground
principle of gestalt in which an object stands out in contrast to a background
Similarity
a principle of gestalt in which objects with similar characteristics are perceived as a unit
Proximity
principle of gestalt in which objects close together are perceived as belonging together
Continuity
principle of gestalt in which figures belong together if they form a continuous pattern
Closure
principle of gestalt in which figures with gaps are perceived as complete
convergence
binocular depth cue; eyes move together as something gets closer (example: bringing your finger closer to your nose)
binocular dispairity
binocular depth cue; the difference in distance between the two eyes
Interposition
monocular depth cue in which one object partially blocks another
Linear perspective
monocular depth cue in which parallel lines appear to converge in the distance
relative size
monocular depth cue in which objects of the same size appear larger if they are closer to the viewer
texture gradient
monocular depth cue in which objects closer to the viewer are sharply defined, those in the distance are less distinct
atmospheric perspective
monocular depth cue in which objects in the distance have a hazy, bluish appearance
shadowing
monocular depth cue in which light falling on objects casts a shadow
motion paralax
monocular depth cue in which, when the viewer is moving, things appear to be moving in the opposite direction (things nearby seem to be moving faster than things far away)
shape constancy
how you know a door is a rectangle even if viewed from an angle
size constancy
how you know an object is the same size even if it appears to grow or shrink as it moves toward or away from you
brightness constancy
how bright something appears is relative to thebrightness of things around it
autokinetic effect
apparent motion perceived because of movement of the eyes
bottom-up processing
data driven, start with one thing and build on it; "sees the trees, not the forest"
top-down processing
schema driven; uses background information to evaluate; mental set; drawing conclusions; gestalt; more efficient; " sees the forest, no the trees"
Levels of awareness
conscious, pre-conscious, unconscious
Id
part of personality that is like the little devil on your shoulder; unconscious
ego
part of personality that is conscious; like you between the devil and angel on your shoulders
superego
part of the personality that is pre-conscious; like the little angel on your shoulder; the morals of your personality
freudian slip
when you try to suppress the id, but you accidentally do something immoral or selfish
oral stage
first psychosexual stage involving the mouth from birth to one year in which the conflict is weaning
anal stage
second psychosexual stage from ages 1 to 3 years in which the conflict is potty training
anal expulsive personality
personality caused by a fixation in the anal stage in which a person is sloppy and disorganized
anal retentive personality
personality caused by a fixation in the anal stage in which a person is very organized (OCD)
fixation
focusing too much psychic energy on a conflict in a certain psychosexual stage
phallic stage
third psychosexual stage from ages 3 to 6 years involving the oedipal conflict
oedipal conflict
when a young child falls in love with the opposite gender parent and hates the opposite gender parent for a while, but eventually tries to imitate the same gender parent because they cannot beat them
latency stage
fourth psychosexual stage from age 6 to puberty in which the child has playmates of the same gender and the other gender has "cooties"
genital stage
fifth psychosexual stage from puberty to adulthood in which the individual begins to have sexual interests
repression
defense mechanism in which an individual tries to forget about traumatic or embarrassing events
projection
defense mechanism in which an individual labels others with their own faults to make themselves feel better
denial
defense mechanism in which an individual does not want do believe something is true
rationalization
defense mechanism in which an individual tries to make a socially-acceptable excuse for something
regression
defense mechanism in which an individual returns to childlike behavior if something does not go well
reaction formation
defense mechanism in which an individual masks their true emotions with the opposite reaction
displacement
defense mechanism in which an individual takes their anger or frustration out on someone or something else
sublimation
defense mechanism in which an individual channels stress or frustration, etc. into a positive activity
REM
rapid eye movement in the sleep cycle
collective unconscious and archetypes
universal unconscious influences on personality and dreaming
Carl Jung
neo-Freudian, idea of the collective unconscious and archetypes
types of dreams
daydreams, lucid dreams, healing dreams, prophetic dreams (ESP)
Albert Bandura
studied modeling and observational learning in the media related to agression; believed in the social-cognitive approach to personality
Social Cognitive Approach
explains personality based on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy
reciprocal determinism
3 factors work together to create personality - behavior, environment, and personal/cognitive factor
self-efficacy
how capable you think you are of accomplishing something
4 factors of self-efficacy
previous success, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, physiological arousal
locus of control
Do you rely on internal (intrinsic) or external (extrinsic) motivation?
Information-Processing Threory
memory theory that says the brain is like a computer; includes encoding, storage, and retrieval
sensory memory
the shortest type of memory, like a strainer that filters sensory information that is important
short-term memory
working memory - only remember info while you need it; duration of about 30 seconds unless encoding occurs; capacity - eventually info gets covered up by new info
long-term memory
declarative (explicit) - episodic and semantic
non-declarative (implicit) - motor skills and classical conditioning or priming
3 components of love
commitment, intimacy, passion