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Section 504, Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Expands older laws by extending protection to other areas at receive federal assistance such as education
Three requirements of Section 504
Protected individuals must have: 1. Physical or mental impairment that limits 1 or more major life activity
2. record of such an impairment
3. regarded as having an impairment
PL94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act
1975--Education is to be provided for all children who meet eligibility.All children are assumed capable of benefiting from education which includes basic self help, vocational, and academics.
1986-Beginning in 1991, special education programs were required for children 3 to 5 with a IFSP.
Individual Family Service Plan, replaces, or in addition to IEP with entire family's needs addressed and reviewed every 6 months.
IDEA, PL101-476 principles
1990The principles of IDEA, incorporate the concept of "normalization." Within this concept, persons with disabilities were allowed access to everyday patterns and conditions as close to possible or equal to non-disabled peers.
7 Fundamentals of IDEA
1. FAPE, 2. Notification and Procedural Rights for Parents 3. Identification and Services for all children 4. Necessary Related services 5. Individualized assessment 6. IEP 7. LRE
Special Education Services are to be provided at no cost to students and their parents. The federal and state government will share in any additional costs. Also requires that education be appropriate to the individual needs of the students.
Notification and Procedural Rights for Parents
1. Rights to examine records and obtain independent evaluations 2. Right to receive notice that states results.
Parents who disagree with the school's decision about placement or continuation of special services. May be followed with a judicial hearing
Identification and services to all children
States must conduct public outreach programs to seek out and identify children who may need services.
Necessary Related Services
Developmental, corrective, and other support services that make it possible for a student to benefit from special education services. These may include speech, occupational, or physical therapy.
Least Restrictive Environment means that the student is placed in an environment, which is not dangerous or overly controlling or intrusive. Students must be given opportunities to experience what other peers of similar mental or chronological age are doing. This should be most integrated and normalized.
Reauthorization of IDEA, PL 105-17
1997 Major changes in areas of evaluation procedures, parent rights, transition, and discipline.1. Require members of evaluation team to look at previously collected data. Previous to IDEA 97, an entire re-evaluation has to be conducted every 3 years.2. Parents included on team. 3. Involvement for students with special needs in a general education setting. 4. more feedback to parents
Present Levels of Educatoinal Performance: Part of the IDEA 97, added there must be a connection between special education and general education with explanation extent not with nondisabled.
IDEA 97, Transitional Needs
1. When student 14 (later changed to 16) includes statement about course of study (vocational or advanced). 2. One year before student reaches majority under state law informed law that will transfer rights to student upon reaching majority.
Manifest Determination Review
Under IDEA 97, suspension/disciplinary consequences could result in an alternative educational placement. MDR (Manifest Determination Review) must occur no more than 10 after disciplinary action.
No Child Left Behind, NCLB
2002 PL 107-110. Addresses accountability of school personnel for students achievement in reading, math, and science. Special educators are responsible for teaching students to a level of proficiency comparable to non-disabled students.
Reauthorization of IDEA
2004 Required all secondary level special education teachers to be no less qualified than other teachers of the same subject.
IDEA revised as Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 became effective. Students with special needs have MAXIMUM access to the general curriculum. Secondary special education teachers must be no less qualified.
Present trend to team special education teachers and regular teachers in regular classrooms. This avoids pulling out students for services .
Possibly Causes of disabilities
1. Specific sensory impairment (hearing or vision)
2. Cognitive abilities: (mental retardation)
3. Neurological impairment (autism or some learning diablities)
Learning Disability /LD
According to IDEA, LD is a disorderin one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which will manifest itself by imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, or do math calculations. (Perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimul brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.)
An impairment in hearing whether permanent or fluctuating that adversely affect a child's educational performance.
Emotional Disturbance /ED
Inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors including inability to maintain interpersonal relationships, inappropriate behaviors or feelings, depression, schizophrenia, and fears associated with school problems.
Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning as measured by standardized, individualized tests and deficits in adaptive behaviors.
Combination of impairments that cannot be accommodated in special education for only one service.
Orthopedic Impairment /OI
Severe Orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance caused by disease (bone tuberculosis) or other impairments (Cerebral palsy) Needs dr
Other Health Impairment /OHI
Limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including heightened alertness to environment stimuli (asthma, add, adha, diabetes, epilepsy, sickle cell anemia, Tourette) that adversely affect a child's educational performance. Need dr.
Speech Impairment /SI
Communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment.
Visual Impairment /VI
Impairment in vision that even with correction adversely affects educational performance. Terms include both partial sight and blindness. Need licensed eye dr.
Non categorical /NCEC
Students between the ages of 3 to 5 who may meet the eligibility requirements under MR, ED, LD, or AU.
smallest unit of SOUND . It combines with other sounds to make a word. A phoneme does not have meaning. Ex of 1 phoneme: f, sh, oa, er
Smallest unit of language that convey meaning. Morphemes are root words (eg: walk) and affixes (ed, s, ing)
Commonly known as the speaker's intent. Pragmatics is used to influence or control actions or attitudes of others.
Cascade of services
Deno: In order to comply with least restrictive environment -1. Regular classroom 2. Regular with support (consult or inclusion) 3. Regular with part-time special classes (resource) 4. Full time special class 5. Special station (school) 6. Homebound 7. Residential
By 16, a statement of required transition should be included in IEP. Planning required to help student to reach post school outcomes.
Functional Behavior Assessment
A method of gathering information to assess why a child with a disability has their present placement modified.
Behavior Intervention Plan is utilized to reinforce or teach positive behavior skills. It is also known as a behavior plan to include skill training for appropriate behavior.
4 Developmental reading approaches
Basal (reading series), Phonics (grapheme-phoneme), Linguistics (word families), or whole language (meaning-oriented using literature).
Bottom-up. Letter-sounds are stressed. Reading instruction begins with words that consists of letter or letter combinations that have the same sound in different words.
Reading for meaning is emphasized from the first stages of instruction. Programs begin with words that appear frequently.
Also called the Fernald Method is used for spelling because it involves Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, and Tactile modalities.
Sequence Mathematical Sequence
Concrete (demonstrating with manipulatives), Semi-Concrete (pictures), Abstract (no manipulatives or pictures)
Basic source of law for special education
Individual Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and its accompanying regulations.
Discusses child's current functional level along with assessment results. Agrees on goals. Discusses support and services and modifications. Where special services will be provided.
Special education teacher must consider how can each student participate in the general education curriculum to the extent that it is beneficial for that student. Also, they need alternative materials available. Special education teacher is the advocate for the student for both the general education teacher and adminsitration.
1974 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (Buckley Amendment). Assures confidentiality of student records. Parents are afforded rights to examine, review, request changes if inaccurate, and stipulate person who has access.
Congress voted in 1990
not to include Attention Deficit Disordes (ADD) as a new exceptionality area.
Irving ISD vs Tatro
1984 Amber Tatro with spina bifida must be provided a catheter since it is a related service necessary for student to benefit from special education.
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