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Lecture Exam II Micro Meacham
Terms in this set (280)
is the study of interactions b/w atoms and molecules
is the smallest unit of matter and cannot be sub-divided
Atoms interact to form
Atoms are composed of
protons, neutrons, electrons
number of protons
number of protons and neutrons
Atoms with the same number of protons are classified as the same
chemical element, each different chemical element
Isotope elements are
atoms with same amount of protons but different neutrons
Electrons are arranged in electron shells corresponding to
different energy levels
Valence electrons are
electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
Valence electrons determines how an atom
can combine w/ other atoms
Molecules hold together b/c the valence electrons of the combining atoms form attractive forces, which is called?
What are the 3 chemical bonds?
ionic, covalent, hydrogen
What is the molecular formula of water?
is a molecule that contains 2 or more kinds of atoms
attractions b/w ions of opposite charge; one atom loses E one gains E
Ions are created when
ionic bond forms
Covalent bonds form when
2 atoms share a pair of electrons
Which chemical bond is the strongest?
1 pair of shared electrons
2 pairs of shared electrons
inert gas, most abundant right now
equal sharing of electrons
Single hydrogen bond
unequal sharing of electrons
involve the making or breaking of bonds between atoms
What occurs during a chemical reaction?
a change in chemical energy
What are the 4 chemical reactions?
synthesis, decomposition, exchange, reversible
occurs when atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form new, larger molecules; also called anabolism
occurs when a molecule is split into smaller molecules, ions, or atoms; also called catabolism
are part of synthesis and part decomposition
can readily go in either direction; each direction may need special conditions
carbon and hydrogen; structurally complex
small and structurally simple; water, CO2, O, and electrolytes
inorganic, polar, hydrophilic
dissolved in water
a solution in which water is the solvent
water sticks to water
water sticks to other substances
hydrogen bonds absorb heat
inorganic, nutrient for aerobes, waste products of many phototrophs
inorganic, autotrophs, capnophiles, waste products of many heterotrophs
microbes that prefer a carbon dioxide rich environment
substances which release ions in an aq soln; acids, bases, salts
are substances that disassociate into 1 or more H+ ions and 1 or more negative ions
are substances that disassociate into 1 or more hydroxide ions and 1 or more positive ions
are substances that disassociate into cations and anions, neither of which is H+ or OH-
loving neutral conditions
acid loving conditions
base loving conditions
CO2 loving conditions
Organic compounds are made of
chains of carbon
building block of a polymer, simple, functional unit
made when we link monomers
What are the 4 types of organic compounds?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
What is the function of a carbohydrate?
to supply and store energy and to provide structural support to cells
What are simple carbohydrates?
What are complex carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates used for energy are usually?
Structural carbohydrates are usually?
Carbohydrates: types of atoms
C, H, O; 1:2:1 ratio
3-7 carbons in chains or rings
What are examples of monosaccharides?
Disaccharides form when
two monosaccharides are linked together via dehydration synthesis
Examples of disaccharides?
sucrose, lactose, maltose
Polysaccharides form when
many monomers link together in a straight or branching chains via dehydration synthesis
What are examples of polysaccharides?
glycogen, chitin, cellulose, agar, dextran
glucose storage in animals
structural carbohydrate in fungi cell walls and in the exoskeletons of some insects
structural polysaccharide in plants, from which wood and paper are derived
polysaccharide from algae
polysaccharide from bacteria
What are the functions of lipids?
energy storage, secondary fuel source, and structural components
Lipids: types of atoms
C, H, O, P (in some)
fatty acids (F. A.) and glycerol (3-C)
Fatty acids are
long C-H chains
triglycerides, phospholipids, waxes, sterols (steroids)
Each triglyceride is composed of?
one glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Fats can be
saturated or unsaturated
Where do phospholipids form cell membranes?
What are phospholipids composed of?
one glycerol, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group
The tail of phospholipids is?
The head of phospholipids is?
Functions of waxes?
protective or structural components
waxes may be found coating leaves, bark, and fruit
waxes may found on feathers, and in beeswax and ear wax
members of the genus Mycobacterium, have waxes (mycolic acid) in their cell walls (remember the acid fast stain)
causes TB & leprosis
Waxes can prevent
defection and dehydration
What are the functions of steroids?
structural elements, hormones, or vitamins
Proteins: types of atoms
C, H, O, N, S (in some)
What are the structural functions of proteins?
hair and muscle
What are the regulatory functions of proteins?
control cell function
What are the hormone functions of proteins?
chemical messengers, transported in blood
What are the transport functions of proteins?
hemoglobin membrane proteins, transport of O2 and CO2
What are the antibodies functions of proteins?
immune factors, immunoglobulins, and antigen
What are the enzymes functions of proteins?
biological catalysts, help start or speed up reactions
Amino acids are linked by
Peptide bonds form by
Fundamental structure of an amino acid is
amino group, r group, hydrogen atom, and carboxyl group
Proteins differ in
number and order of amino acids
Another word for protein is?
Large proteins are called?
Proteins may have what structures?
primary, secondary, tertiary, and even quaternary
Primary structure of a protein
simple sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide strand
All proteins have a
Secondary structure of a protein
may be a coiled helix or a pleated sheet held together by hydrogen bonds
What was the 1st synthesized protein?
Tertiary structure of a protein
different parts of the same polypeptide interact among themselves
Examples of tertiary structures
disulfide bridges, hydrophobic, or ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds
Quaternary structure of a protein
two or more polypeptide strands interact to form the final functional protein, such as hemoglobin, which has 4 polypeptide strands per molecule
Proteins may be denatured
which means that their structure is altered and they lose their function
What is the basis for all steroids?
amino acids (20)
What is the function of a nucleic acid?
controls cellular activites
DNA stands for
RNA stands for
Nucleic acids: types of atoms
C, H, O, N, P
Nucleic acid: monomers
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
A and G are
double ring purines
C, T, and U are
single ring pyrimidines
Purines and Pyrimidines
may exhibit complementary base pairing
Nucleotides are held together by a
sugar phosphate backbone
Genes are specific
sequences of nucleotides
DNA is the
RNA is the
In a nucleotide 1-C attaches to
In a nucleotide 2-C attaches to
-OH: ribose: RNA
-H: deoxyribose: DNA
In a nucleotide 3-C attaches to
-OH, if end of molecule phosphate of next adjacent nucleotide attaches
In a nucleotide 5-C attaches to
Nucleic acids: polymers
DNA, RNA, ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Function of DNA
is the genetic code
Function of RNA
Location in cell of DNA
Location in cell of RNA
eukaryote: nucleus and cytoplasm
Structure of DNA
double stranded, double helix
Structure of RNA
Sugar of DNA
Sugar of RNA
Nitrogenous bases in DNA
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
Nitrogenous bases in RNA
adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
The two strands of nucleotides in a DNA molecule are held together by?
The two strands of nucleotides in DNA are in which kind of arrangement?
What are the three kinds of RNA needed for protein synthesis?
mRNA (messenger RNA)
rRNA (ribosomal RNA...ribosomes)
tRNA (transfer RNA)
Another important nucleic acid is ATP and is sometimes called
the "energy currency" of the cell
Which organic compound is the most diverse in function?
Which organic compound has the largest monomer?
nucleic acid; nucleotide
Which polymer has a chromosome?
All organic compounds go through
the ability of bacteria to communicate, behave as if they are multicellular, by using chemical signaling molecules
the way different species interact with one another
communication between members of different species
pathogenicity "to generate disease"
Anti-quorum sensing molecules
molecules that look the same as other harmful molecules
Pro-quorum sensing molecules
bacterial cell-cell communication
a close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species
the study of disease and its effects on the body
any abnormal state in which homeostasis is disrupted and the body is not functioning normally
caused by use/aging
tumors are formed
metastatic, cancerous, malignant
benign, non-cancerous, non-malignant
inherited from parental genome
usually lacking a particular enzyme
specific immune defenses damaged or lacking
caused by pathogens
study of when and where diseases, particularly infectious diseases, occur and how they are transmitted
disease that occurs occasionally in a population
disease constantly present in a population
disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
cause of disease
permanently colonize the host
may be present for days, weeks, or months
the relationship b/w normal microbiota and the host
one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
Example of commensalism
both organisms benefit
Example of mutalism
bees and flowers
one organism benefits and the other is harmed
Example of parasitism
a tick on a dog
competition between microbes
Normal microbiota protect the host by
occupying niches that pathogens might occupy, producing acids, producing bacteriocins
live microbes applied to or ingested in the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect
a change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
Examples of sign
rash, vomiting, diarrhea
a change in body function that is felt by a patient as result of disease
Examples of symptoms
nausea, fatigue, pain
a specific group of signs and sx's that accompany a disease
a disease that is spread from one host to another
a disease that is easily spread from one host to another
a disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
caused as a result of treatment for another disease or condition
etiology cannot be determined
pathogens are multiplying in the body
confined to a limited area
spread throughout the body
spread throughout the body
redness, heat, pain, and swelling (edema) that occur when tissues are damaged; may or may not involve pathogens
symptoms develop rapidly
disease develops slowly
symptoms between acute and chronic
disease with a period of no signs or symptoms when the pathogen is not actively dividing
ability to ward off disease
the lack of resistance to a disease
Factors that affect susceptibility/resistance
nutrition, amount of sleep, amount of stress, and amount of exercise
There is an inverse relationship b/w
resistance and susceptibility
make the body more susceptible to disease
Example of predisposing factors
short urethra in females; inherited traits, such as the sickle-cell gene; climate, weather, fatigue, age, lifestyle, and chemotherapy
weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
a charged atom
is the most abundant substance in cells
is the reactant in many of the decomposition rxns of digestion
is an excellent temperature buffer
the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
incidence of a specific notifiable disease
number of deaths from a disease
any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA); a central source of epidemiological information in the U.S.
data about infected people are collected and analyzed
a group of infected people is compared with an uninfected group
controlled experiments designed to test hypotheses are performed
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
new diseases and diseases increasing in incidence
EID's can result from
the use of antibiotics and pesticides, climatic changes, travel, the lack of vaccinations, and improved case reporting
Nosocomial infection (HAI)
hospital acquired infection
How many patients acquire HAI's in the treatment environment?
Reservoirs of infection
continual sources of infection
people who have a disease or are carriers of pathogenic microorganisms
zoonoses are diseases that affect wild and domestic animals and can be transmitted to humans
some pathogenic microorganisms grow in soil or water
Human example of reservoirs
Animal example of reservoirs
spread of a disease agent by direct contact, indirect contact, or droplet transmission
the spread of infectious agent from mother to unborn fetus.
transmission by an inanimate reservoir (food, water, air)
Direct contact transmission
person to person transmission
Pattern of disease
1. incubation period
2. prodromal period
3. period of illness
4. period of decline
5. period of convalescence
Predisposing factors for disease
gender, climate, age, fatigue
number of people contracting the disease
number of people with the disease
one whose resistance to infection is impaired by disease, therapy, or burns
How can HAI's be transmitted?
by fomites such as, catheters, syringes, and respiratory devices
How can you prevent an HAI?
by using aseptic techniques
requires close association between infected and susceptible host
spread by fomites
inanimate objects that harbor pathogens
5 F's of Pathogen Transmission
food, fingers, flies, feces, fomites
transmission via droplets in the air, carried a meter or less
transmission through air, carried more than a meter
usually arthropods, especially fleas, ticks, and mosquitos
pathogen on surface of vector
pathogen reproduces in vector
pathogens proliferate in the blood
toxins in the blood
acute infection that causes the initial illness
opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
no noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)
Example of what subclinical dz leads to
silent carriers like "Typhoid Mary"
Stages of pathogenesis
Exposure, incubation period, prodromal period, period of illness/invasive period, decline phase, convalescence
Reservoirs of infection
are continual sources of infection; aids, gonorrhea
Animal reservoirs diseases
rabies, lyme dz
Zoonoses may be transmitted to humans by
wild animal or pets
Non-living reservoirs diseases
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