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Reli 125 Midterm

Terms in this set (37)

-born in North Africa, educated in Italy, and then goes back home
-one of the most influential thinkers in Christian history
-lives after conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity
-Doctrine of Asceticism (voluntary abstinence from worldly pleasures like sex, alcohol, and wealth)
-sees 2 possibilities: could either have sex and not be a Christian, or renounce sex and be a Christian
-believes that original sin is the reason we have moral and natural evil, + death and lust, and that we inherit it from our parents
-says sex is a sin no matter the circumstances (we inherit evil BECAUSE of our parents having sex)
-wrote "Confessions": spiritual autobiography that tells the story of how in 387 CE he and his mother (St. Monica) are sitting and talking about the nature of heaven and get transported to a vision of heaven --> view of heaven: there are no personal relationships/social interaction, life in the world pales in comparison to the experience in heaven, God alone is the focus
-wrote "Letter to Italica": says that we will be reunited with our loved ones in heaven --> not mentioned in the Bible but got from Scipio's Dream
-wrote "City of God": written to answer questions to comfort the Romans after they were pillaged by the Goths (a sign that God was coming); talks about how Christians in heaven will have resurrected bodies like Jesus, everyone will have perfect sexual organs b/c saved from lust, the prime activity is praising God endlessly, everyone will have free will but choose not to sin, and no one will be jealous of God's "favorites"
-followed Manicheism before Christianity, which teaches that the world is in a cosmic battle between the forces of good and evil (tries to CRUSH these types of beliefs after his conversion and argues that an active force of evil doesn't exist --> evil is the absence of good)
-argues that God didn't create evil, his creations did (Adam and Eve); there can be good without evil but not evil without good
-says evil is an accident (comes from nature of man), and isn't a substance (thing itself) but an essence (makes a thing what it is)
-says that there is good, and supremely good --> good can lack but supremely good cannot
-says that Satan represents the lack of good in a man, and was created by God lacking essential evil
-thought souls were placed in temporary hidden receptacles in between death and resurrection
-fall of the Western Empire until the renaissance
-concept of life after death becomes less vague
-Urban revival --> changes in living patterns had a significant effect on the view of life after death (went from rural monasteries in Early Middle Ages [heaven envisioned as a naked paradise garden like in Genesis Ch 2] to rapidly growing towns [urban vision of heaven starts to develop; Revelation 21 shows a new holy city with gates/walls/streets --> New Jerusalem; hierarchy within citizens exists but no jealousy, NOT NAKED but wear clothes that reflect rank])
-Intellectual developments --> rediscovery of ancient greek philosophic texts, centralized economic system that creates intellectual classes, scholasticism (philosophy of schools that led to the first universities); Aristotle (geocentric view of heaven where Earth is a large sphere at the center of concentric spheres, called empyrean heaven where heaven is a place outside of the world); nature of the soul (some argued for traducianism, that God created Adam/Eve's soul but everyone else gets them from our parents directly, A/E indirectly; most thought creationism*, where God directly creates every individual soul (thought that ensoulment happens at the moment the fetus first moves); most agreed there there is a time gap between death and final destination, but during time period people debated heavily on what happens in between (idea of limbo emerges)
-Courtly love --> idea of romanticized relationships with people that aren't each others spouses (marriage is just economic, not for love); new emphasis on romance
THEOCENTRIC VIEW
-witch hunt spreads, people think others are using demonic power from Satan and engaging in pacts with him, having gatherings, flying on broomsticks, + participating in cannibalism/rituals

Revelation --> only thing humans can do in heaven is praise God
Luke --> no marriage in heaven
Augustine --> no human relationships in heaven
-causes Catholic Reformation
-Martin Luther (a Roman Catholic Augustinian monk) raised objections to the Roman Catholic teachings/practices and went to Castle Church and posted them on the door ("95 Theses") to instigate and debate; objected to the sale of letters of indulgence and disgusted by the misunderstanding of sin (able to purchase these for salvation); seen as challenging power of the Pope and excommunicated from Church
-movement spread by 1530 even though reform was banned
-massive split in western European Christianity between Roman Catholic and Protestants
VIEWS
-protestants claimed to find spiritual authority in the Bible (not tradition of Church)
-wanted to simplify practices, make the Bible central and have less art
-stress sinfulness --> salvation can ONLY come from God
-fundamental equality of all believers (*no hierarchy in Earth and heaven)
-Christians SHOULD get married, but all sex is still sinful (though God will forgive it)
INTERMEDIATE STATE
-reject idea of purgatory/limbo b/c not in the Bible
-thought that if you were saved you go to heaven and if you were damned you go to hell, there is no way to change your fate
-believed that infants born with original sin before Jesus came go to hell
-between death and resurrection --> 1. soul sleep, where you are free from pain and consciousness or 2. christian mortalism, where at death the soul dies like the body and both the body and soul must be resurrected
-don't believe in an immortal soul b/c Bible doesn't say anything about it
-John Calvin rejects soul sleep like most Protestants
HEAVEN
-return to theocentric perspective
-agree that marriage will end in heaven) and the family unit will dissolve --> only reunion will be w/ people from the Bible