Upgrade to remove ads
ANT 202 Midterm 1
cal poly jones midterm 1
Terms in this set (134)
the time during the development of human culture before the appearance of the written word
a technology for storing, manipulating and communicating data
living peoples and their cultrues
studies of human language
physical or biological anthropology
concerned with human biology, genetics and human origins
study of ancient things that are the byproducts of human activites
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
an object made by human beings; often refers to a primitive tool or other relic from an earlier period
natural objects, such as bones,teeth, and shells that have survived from earlier cultures
archaeological discovery that can't be moved
where archaeological discoveries have been found
the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age and that has been excavated from the soil
a garbage mound left by prehistoric people
human skeletal remains
remains of humans or human ancestors resulting from either accidental or intentional burial or some other preservation activity
a relation resulting from interaction or dependence
a concept that explains the surroundings of an artifact that has been found
the natural layering of cultural deposits and natural soil layers that build up on a site over a long period of time.
Cultural Resource Management (CRM)
The branch of applied archaeology aimed at preserving sites threatened by dams, highways, and other projects.
three age system
Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages
second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC
latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere)
approximately the last 63 million years
last 2 million years
2 million -12,000 years ago
12,000 years ago to present
earth deposit made by flood
a group of human related genera defended from a common ancestor
a group of human related species descended from a common ancestor
human organisms that can successfully breed and produce genetically viable offspring
2.6-1.8 MYA australopitheciens, homo habilis and oldowan tools
Several species within the genus Australopithecus, who lived from 1.1 to 2.5 million years ago in eastern and southern Africa; known for the rugged nature of their chewing apparatus (large back teeth, large chewing muscles, and a bony ridge on their skull tops for the insertion of these large muscles).
Found only in south africa, aka australopithecus africanus - TAUNG BABY
small skulls and jutting out faces
Hoax in which bone fragments of modern ape paired with a human skull were passed off as evidence of the earliest human ancestor as a "missing link"
Old Stone Age beginning with the earliest Oldowan tools spanning from about 200,000 or 250,000 to 2.6 million years ago.
a period during an ice age of being colder
Period of glacial retreat; temps are warmer, ice sheets are smaller, and sea level is higher
The separation between areas of the Old World in which Acheulean technology occurs and those in which it does not
The middle part of the Old Stone Age, associated with Mousterian tools, which Neandertals produced using the Levallois technique.
Refers to the most recent part of the Old Stone Age, associated with early modern Homo sapiens and characterized by finely crafted stone and other types of tools with various functions
a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives
practice of eating one's own kind
gender division of labor
Labor divided between man and woman, hunting and gathering etc.
a middle paleolithic technique that made use of prepared cores to produce uniform flakes
The stone tool culture in which Neandertals produced tools using the Levallois technique.
General term for the large game animals hunted by pre-Holocene and early Holocene humans
the hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes.
the rock that had been struck to make flakes come off it
fragment, bit, chip - from the core
a stone used for striking cores to produce flakes or bones to expose marrow
A triangular-shaped sharp-tipped flaked tool that was originally attached to a wooden shaft. Examples include arrowheads, harpoon heads, dart tips, and spear points. They range in size and shape.
Stone tools shaped for chopping and cutting found in the Olduvai Gorge, the oldest
one of the first tools used by prehistoric people, multi-purpose tool
a stone tool that has been flaked on two faces or opposing sides forming a cutting edge between the two flake scars
pebble with likeness of female made by homo erectus during middle paleolithic
Mousterian flake tools
tool made through breaking off a large flake from a core that had been shaped
Small Paleolithic statues of women with exaggerated sexual features.
for making winter clothes; evidence of more advanced tool-making
Hand Axes, flints, extinct species discoveries : proclamation by the British
hominid footprints were found in Tanzania
probably left by Australopithecines.
a gorge in northeastern Tanzania where anthropologists have found some of the earliest human remains, Louis and Mary Leakey
site in java where Dubois discovers the femur and skull cap of the Homo. Erectus
China cave site
found fire pits
likely homo erectus, 1000 cc
evidence fire - charcol/ash
The location in Germany where 400,000-year-old wooden spears were discovered.
Ambrona and Torralba
found in Spain
hand axes and elephant bones; hunting of large animals?
but, near swamp area, so maybe scavenged the elephants
homo erectus (antecessor)
Sima de Los Huesos
pit of bones
around 32 people
southern England, Acheulian tools in association with animals bones
The Valley in Germany where the first Neanderthal remains were found
Neanderthal burial site--individual buried in cave with flowers (pollen)
A cave in southwestern France that contains Paleolithic paintings
Cave in the southern tip of Africa where ancient carved blades from animal bones were found. The blades were decorated.
a site in Spain where prehistoric paintings appear on the ceiling of a cave
Grotte de Chauvet, France
Painted late Ice Age cave with remarkable depictions of lions, rhinoceroses, and other animals, dating to as early as 31,000 BC
used the Bible to calculate the Earth's age (6000 yrs)
Largely developed paleontology, the study of fossils. Advocated catastrophism.
Father of Geology
discoverer of Old Stone Age or Lower Palaeolithic tools in association with large extinct animals
Louis and Mary Leakey
anthropologists that were the discovers of the bones of early man, they defined a creature called homo erectus
C. K. Brain
killer ape hypothesis
discovered the earliest hominid fossil - Sahelanthropus tchadensis
anthropologist who searched for fossils in Ethiopia; found the skeleton of Lucy
worked on Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) and found Ardi, (Ardipithecus ramidus)
South Africa, Found Taung baby
made new study: Lucy died from a fall
found Salaam, "Lucy's child"
same species: australopithecus afarensis
found homo erectus
best-known excavations were at the Neanderthal site at Shanidar Cave in Iraq
The process of counting tree rings to determine the age of a tree
a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14
radiometric technique using the decay of K to Ar in potassium-bearing rocks; estimates the age of sediments in which fossils are found.
Alignment of particles in cultural deposits with the earths magnetic field for dating
study of deposits from the air, like the pollen in the cave
measuring the ratio tells the temperature of a given time period
reconstructing facial features from the broken bones given
The earliest pre-australopithecine species
Ardipithecus ramidus (Ardi)
lived wooded environment
most famous is Lucy
Australopithecus africanus (Gracile Line)
small brain almost 500 cc
Paranthropus (Robust line)
large jaw and protruding brows
found in Olduvai Gorge
similar to homo erectus
found through mauer mandible
very robust, large eyebrow ridges
Homo sapiens idaltu
found tim white
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
200-35k yrs ago
Homo sapiens sapiens/Cro-magnon
modern human beings
560 cc male
465 cc female
Medieval Concept of Order
James Usshur, earth created 6000 years ago
A principle that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes
Method of determining the age of a fossil by comparing its placement with that of fossils in other layers of rock
A technique used to determine the actual age of a fossil
law of superposition
The top rock layer and its fossils is the youngest and the bottom is the oldest.
scale used by paleontologists to represent evolutionary time
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
people inhabiting a new land
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
a situation in which different social and business systems interact with one another
the ability to walk upright on two legs
Killer Ape Hypothesis
Proposed that hunting was what drove human evolution.
fighting off predators for food
taking what's left after carnivores leave
Belief in afterlife
possibly evidenced in Neanderthals in burials; definitely w/ humans
Out of Africa Theory
also called the replacement theory; this theory refers to when Homo sapiens sapiens began spreading out of Africa to other parts of the world about 100,000 years ago and replacing populations of earlier hominids in Europe and Asia
Idea that early man developed independently in different regions
lifeways of homo erectus
used tools, technology, and culture to hunt and gather food to survive
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Astronomy 102 Voting Card Questions
ANT 202 Midterm #1
Phil Midterm 2