• Born in 1564 in Stratford-upon Avon
• Married Anne Hathaway, a farmer's daughter. She was 26; he was only 18.
• In 1580s, Shakespeare goes to London
• London's large population all lived in crowded streets
• In 1592: Plague comes to London
• Spreads quickly due to overcrowding
• Theaters close
• Shakespeare returns to Stratford
Return to London
• Returns in 1593
• Shakespeare's acting company now belonged to Lord Chamberlain
• London of 1590s had many theaters including: Theater, the Curtain, the Rose, and the Swan
History of English Theater
• Strolling companies traveled the country, setting up stages in the street; on the backs of wagons, in inn yards
• Traveling companies performed religious cycles, street pageants, and morality plays
• Many noblemen maintained acting troops
• Queen Elizabeth I had many companies perform at court
• Globe most important theater to Shakespeare; he was part owner
• Built near the Rose in 1596, it was tall and round
• Held 2,000-3,000 people
• Plays performed in daylight
• Actors had to fence, dance, and sing
• Female roles were played by men
• Had special effects
• People on floor known as "groundlings"
• Stood in standing area in front of stage
• Rowdy, loud, often drunk
Shakespeare's Last Years
• Returned to Stratford before his death
• Died in 1616
Sources of Romeo and Juliet
• Oldest version: from Roman poet Ovid's Metamorphoses: Pyramus and Thisbe
• They arrange to meet in secret, Thisbe arrives 1st and is frightened away by a lion. Pyramus sees her torn cloak, believes she is dead, and stabs himself. Thisbe then stabs herself.
• In sixteenth century, story becomes popular in Italy; several versions
• Shakespeare's version is published in 1594
• Set in Verona, Italy
Music in Romeo and Juliet
• Plays included songs, and trumpets sounding flourishes, and drums for battle scenes
• Romeo and Juliet has inspired many composers—including Berlioz and Tchaikovsky—to write songs, symphonies, ballets and operas
Imagery in Romeo and Juliet
• Contrast between light and darkness
• Eye and hand imagery
Themes of Romeo and Juliet
• The tragedy is a result of fate
• Plot is made up of a series of coincidences
• References are made to Fate, Fortune, and Heaven which are all blamed for events
• There are signs and warnings which indicate unearthly forces are at work
• Three types of Romantic Love: infatuation; proper and conventional; overwhelming passion
• Parental Love
• Impact of Love on hostility
• Family feud is basis for plot
• Generational conflicts exist
• We know lovers will die from beginning
• There are other deaths in play
• Sense of danger and violence throughout
• Death takes many forms:
- Sleeping potion
- Even love is death-like
- An escape
• Action occurs quickly, in less than a week
• Characters affected by time of day
• Sense of time passing is created by references to the past and future, and youth and age
Importance of order
• Importance of order: the smooth running of government and society
Importance of moderation
• acting with thought and caution
Language of the Play
• Bawdry: Sexual wordplay amuses the audience and provides a contrast to other characters and Romeo and Juliet
• Puns: used both to express humor and deep emotion
• Verse: most is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter, occasional use of blank verse
• Prose: spoken mainly by servants
Know these characters:
Romeo - The son and heir of Montague and Lady Montague. A young man of about sixteen, Romeo is handsome, intelligent, and sensitive. Though impulsive and immature, his idealism and passion make him an extremely likable character. He lives in the middle of a violent feud between his family and the Capulets, but he is not at all interested in violence. His only interest is love. At the beginning of the play he is madly in love with a woman named Rosaline, but the instant he lays eyes on Juliet, he falls in love with her and forgets Rosaline. Thus, Shakespeare gives us every reason to question how real Romeo's new love is, but Romeo goes to extremes to prove the seriousness of his feelings. He secretly marries Juliet, the daughter of his father's worst enemy; he happily takes abuse from Tybalt; and he would rather die than live without his beloved. Romeo is also an affectionate and devoted friend to his relative Benvolio, Mercutio, and Friar Lawrence.
Juliet - The daughter of Capulet and Lady Capulet. A beautiful thirteen-year-old girl, Juliet begins the play as a naïve child who has thought little about love and marriage, but she grows up quickly upon falling in love with Romeo, the son of her family's great enemy. Because she is a girl in an aristocratic family, she has none of the freedom Romeo has to roam around the city, climb over walls in the middle of the night, or get into swordfights. Nevertheless, she shows amazing courage in trusting her entire life and future to Romeo, even refusing to believe the worst reports about him after he gets involved in a fight with her cousin. Juliet's closest friend and confidant is her nurse, though she's willing to shut the Nurse out of her life the moment the Nurse turns against Romeo.
Friar Lawrence - A Franciscan friar, friend to both Romeo and Juliet. Kind, civic-minded, a proponent of moderation, and always ready with a plan, Friar Lawrence secretly marries the impassioned lovers in hopes that the union might eventually bring peace to Verona. As well as being a Catholic holy man, Friar Lawrence is also an expert in the use of seemingly mystical potions and herbs.
Mercutio - A kinsman to the Prince, and Romeo's close friend. One of the most extraordinary characters in all of Shakespeare's plays, Mercutio overflows with imagination, wit, and, at times, a strange, biting satire and brooding fervor. Mercutio loves wordplay, especially sexual double entendres. He can be quite hotheaded, and hates people who are affected, pretentious, or obsessed with the latest fashions. He finds Romeo's romanticized ideas about love tiresome, and tries to convince Romeo to view love as a simple matter of sexual appetite.
The Nurse - Juliet's nurse, the woman who breast-fed Juliet when she was a baby and has cared for Juliet her entire life. A vulgar, long-winded, and sentimental character, the Nurse provides comic relief with her frequently inappropriate remarks and speeches. But, until a disagreement near the play's end, the Nurse is Juliet's faithful confidante and loyal intermediary in Juliet's affair with Romeo. She provides a contrast with Juliet, given that her view of love is earthy and sexual, whereas Juliet is idealistic and intense. The Nurse believes in love and wants Juliet to have a nice-looking husband, but the idea that Juliet would want to sacrifice herself for love is incomprehensible to her.
Tybalt - A Capulet, Juliet's cousin on her mother's side. Vain, fashionable, supremely aware of courtesy and the lack of it, he becomes aggressive, violent, and quick to draw his sword when he feels his pride has been injured. Once drawn, his sword is something to be feared. He loathes Montagues.
Capulet - The patriarch of the Capulet family, father of Juliet, husband of Lady Capulet, and enemy, for unexplained reasons, of Montague. He truly loves his daughter, though he is not well acquainted with Juliet's thoughts or feelings, and seems to think that what is best for her is a "good" match with Paris. Often prudent, he commands respect and propriety, but he is liable to fly into a rage when either is lacking.
Lady Capulet - Juliet's mother, Capulet's wife. A woman who herself married young (by her own estimation she gave birth to Juliet at close to the age of fourteen), she is eager to see her daughter marry Paris. She is an ineffectual mother, relying on the Nurse for moral and pragmatic support.
Montague - Romeo's father, the patriarch of the Montague clan and bitter enemy of Capulet. At the beginning of the play, he is chiefly concerned about Romeo's melancholy.
Lady Montague - Romeo's mother, Montague's wife. She dies of grief after Romeo is exiled from Verona.
Paris - A kinsman of the Prince, and the suitor of Juliet most preferred by Capulet. Once Capulet has promised him he can marry Juliet, he behaves very presumptuous toward her, acting as if they are already married.
Benvolio - Montague's nephew, Romeo's cousin and thoughtful friend, he makes a genuine effort to defuse violent scenes in public places, though Mercutio accuses him of having a nasty temper in private. He spends most of the play trying to help Romeo get his mind off Rosaline, even after Romeo has fallen in love with Juliet.
Prince Escalus - The Prince of Verona. A kinsman of Mercutio and Paris. As the seat of political power in Verona, he is concerned about maintaining the public peace at all costs.
Friar John - A Franciscan friar charged by Friar Lawrence with taking the news of Juliet's false death to Romeo in Mantua. Friar John is held up in a quarantined house, and the message never reaches Romeo.
Balthasar - Romeo's dedicated servant, who brings Romeo the news of Juliet's death, unaware that her death is a ruse.
Sampson & Gregory - Two servants of the house of Capulet, who, like their master, hate the Montagues. At the outset of the play, they successfully provoke some Montague men into a fight.
Abram - Montague's servant, who fights with Sampson and Gregory in the first scene of the play.
The Apothecary - An apothecary in Mantua. Had he been wealthier, he might have been able to afford to value his morals more than money, and refused to sell poison to Romeo.
Peter - A Capulet servant who invites guests to Capulet's feast and escorts the Nurse to meet with Romeo. He is illiterate, and a bad singer.
Rosaline - The woman with whom Romeo is infatuated at the beginning of the play. Rosaline never appears onstage, but it is said by other characters that she is very beautiful and has sworn to live a life of chastity.
The Chorus - The Chorus is a single character who, as developed in Greek drama, functions as a narrator offering commentary on the play's plot and themes.
An ambitious lawyer, Stryver dreams of climbing the social ladder. Unlike his associate, Sydney Carton, Stryver is bombastic, proud, and foolish.
The man charged with keeping up the Evrémonde estate after the Marquis' death, Gabelle is imprisoned by the revolutionaries. News of his internment prompts Darnay to travel to France to save him.
Like Roger Cly, John Barsad is a British spy who swears that patriotism is his only motive. Barsad falsely claims to be a virtuous man of upstanding reputation.
Lucie Mannette's and Charles Darnay's little girl, her favorite adult besides her parents is Sydney Carton.
Stout, watchful, "there was a character about [her] from which one might have predicted that she did not often make mistakes against herself in any of the reckonings over which she presided" (Dickens, 31); knitting, capable of subtle communication: cough, the bigger and more violent person in her marriage relationship.
Very protective of Lucy, like a mother figure to her.
Thinks that it would be bad for his business if "recalling to life was to come into fashion" (Dickens, 11). He has a son and he is greatly annoyed when his wife prays for him because he is a grave robber and sells the bodies to science. An odd-job man for Tellson's Bank, Cruncher is gruff, short-tempered, superstitious, and uneducated. He supplements his income by working as a "Resurrection-Man," one who digs up dead bodies and sells them to scientists.
The man who the Marquis' carriage ran over, he killed the Marquis and wrote Blood in the streets.
Like John Barsad, Roger Cly is a British spy who swears that patriotism alone inspires all of his actions. Cly feigns honesty but in fact constantly participates in conniving schemes.
Another associate of Defarge; he mends roads.
Jerry Cruncher's occupation, marriage, and family life
He is a grave robber, he digs up buried bodies and sells them to science for dissections. His wife constantly prays for him because she does not agree with how he chooses to earn a living. His son, Little Jerry Cruncher does not necessarily trust his dad when he says that he is going to go fishing so he follows him and is scared when he finds out what his dad truly is, a "Resurrection Man". He says that he wants to be one someday.
Jarvis Lorry's job and many roles at Tellson's Bank
A respectable elderly gentleman who is a confidential clerk at Tellson's Bank. He is also an old friend of Doctor Manette. He carried Lucie Manette on the passage back to London after her father was imprisoned. He also, towards the end of the book, goes to Paris to get important documents at the branch there so they do not get into the hands of the people that are rebelling, or the revolutionists.
Dr. Manette's imprisonment and reunion with his daughter
105 North Tower, he kind of went crazy and started making shoes non-stop, and he was imprisoned in the Bastille for eighteen years. The reunion with his daughter Lucie was a little bit awkward because she thought that he was dead and did not know what to expect when seeing him once again. While he was imprisoned, he completely lost his sense of identity and could only recognize Lucie because her hair matched a lock that he had in a sack that he kept around his neck.
The trial of Charles Darnay in England and its results
-Cruncher is sent to the Bailey to be a messenger for Jarvis Lorry
-Page 58-59: description of the goal: diseases, Lord Chief Justice himself can get sick on the bench
-Old Bailey is an illustration of the aphorism: "Whatever is, is right" Acceptance of status quo
-Learn the sentence for treason is to be drawn and quartered
-Charles Darnay: Good-looking, dark eyes, long dark hair, pale, but self-possessd (retains self-confidence)
-Darnay plead not guilty to a charge of treason; accused of assisting the French King
-Dr. and Lucie Mannette are witnesses for the prosecution
- Mr. Stryver defends Darnay with the help of Sydney Carton
-John Barsard-former friend of Darnay-testifies against him because of patriotism. Has seen Darnay with lists of his Majesty's forces that he conveyed to a hostile power -
Cross-examination of Barsard on pages 65-66 reveals that he does not have spotless character: can't reveal his business, had been in debtor's prison, had been accused of cheating at dice, had borrowed money from Darnay and had not repaid him, liar not credible
-Roger Cly, Darnay's servant, testifies against him; he also had seen lists on the prisoner; he also does not have a sterling character: has been accused of trying to steal a silver-plated mustard pot. Claims it is simply coincidence that he knows Barsard. Patriotism is his motive as well for testifying.
-Jarvis Lorry testifies: cannot say with certainty whether Darnay was on the mail coach to Dover: did return to England from France on the same boat as Darnay
-Lucie Manette testifies: she was on the boat with Darnay, he seems moved by her presence, he helped her shield her father from the wind, he blamed England for the loss of the American colonies, and believes that George Waashington would someday be thought to be great
-Dr. Mannette testifies: cannot remember Darnay on the boat but does remember him from later visits at his house
-A witness called to identify Darnay becomes less sure of his testimony when confronted with Carton
-Darnay is acquitted
-Darnay thanks the Manette's and Lorry for their support; and thanks his counsel
-Mr. Stryver is rather proud of his success
The role of the aristocracy in France and the conditions of the poor
-The aristocracy is dominant and overpowers everyone. They live a lavish lifestyle with many excesses which leaves France in a lot of debt and the poor with no money, no food, and literally nothing to the point that they are willing to lick up spilt wine from the streets. -People are punished harshly if they attempt to kill a member of the aristocracy, but in Charles Darnay's case, if they are related to a terrible aristocrat, they will most likely not survive.
Relationship between Charles Darnay and the Marquis de Evremonde
-Charles Darnay is the nephew of the Marquis de Evremonde and inherits the title when his uncle dies. -Charles Darnay hates his uncle and refuses to stay in France and the Marquis de Evremonde purposefully convicts him.
Characters who love and wish to marry Lucie Mannette
-Mr. Stryver: wimps out and never asks
-Sydney Carton: Tells her that he loves her and says that he would sacrifice his life to save someone's that she loves
-Charles Darnay: He loves Lucie and ends up marrying her.
The Mannette/Darnay household when Lucie and Charles get married
-Charles realizes that Lucie and her father were just reunited and how much they mean to each other so he says that he will never take Lucie away from her father. They take the top floor(s) for themselves so that they can all be together.
The relapses of Doctor Mannette
-When something triggers Dr. Mannette's memory, he enters into a relapse. He normally goes back to feverously making shoes like he did in his cell. -He also walks/paces around his room at night and Lucie normally goes and walks with him to calm and settle him down. -When Charles Darnay tells him on Lucie's and his wedding day that he is the nephew of the Marquis de Evremonde, he enters into a shoe making relapse.
The significance of the Defarge's wine shop and their plans for revolution
-Where the men (the Jacques') gather, they represent the emerging "hundreds of footsteps that will soon march upon the Bastille, the symbol of political oppression -It was kind of a gathering place for those that agreed with the revolution and wanted to start it
The reality of the French revolution/storming of the Bastille
French Revolution, by this time in the book, is getting serious. Outbreaks of rebellion are starting to occur including the main event, the storming of the Bastille -Weapons just appear, people improvise with bricks and stones. They were primarily armed with hunger and revenge -Women fight with the men -Defarge asks to be taken to Dr. Manette's old cells when the prison falls -When the governor falls, Madame Defarge cuts off his head -Seven prisoners were freed.
Darnay's decision to return to Paris and his imprisonment
-Darnay's faithful servant Gabelle has been arrested and needs Darnay to testify that Gabelle was only acting in the interests of the villagers as commanded by Darnay. -Darnay decides that he must go to Paris to help Gabelle and leaves without telling his wife. -He is imprisoned in France because he is a member of the aristocracy and the nephew of the Marquis of Evremonde who mistreated the people severely. -Darnay must travel by escort. He is still confident that he will be safe. -Learns of the degrees that banish all emigrants and condemn to death all who return -He is secretly consigned to La Force prison and is told that emigrants have no rights -Defarge refuses to help him by getting a message to Jarvis Lorry: he is the sworn servant of his country and people.
The experience of Lucie, her family, and Jarvis Lorry in France
-Jarvis Lorry does not feel that it is appropriate for Lucie to stay at Tellson's since she is the wife of an emigrant prisoner. He considers turning to Defarge for help but decides not to because he lives in a violent part of town. -Lucie continues to conduct her life in France as normally as she can. She remains beautiful and attempts to communicate with Darnay by standing where he could see her from the window. She meets the wood-sawyer, the former road-mender from the countryside. She also sees the Carmagnole-the wild dance of the revolution.
The second and third trials of Charles Darnay in France and their results
Darnay is re-arrested and told that eh has been denounced by three individuals: Defarge, Madam Defarge, and someone else. -When he protests, Dr. Manette is told that all good patriots will gladly make and sacrifice to support the Republic.
-He is rescued by Sydney Carton who takes his place in jail.
The actions of Sydney Carton and how they affect the lives of the Manette's and Darnay
Sydney Carton takes Charles Darnay's place in jail and ultimately his place at the guillotine. The Manette's and Darnay are forever in debt to him and they are all able to live together as a happy family when the law says that they shouldn't. He saved Darnay's life which saves a ton of other people's happiness and joy in life.
Madame Defarge's plan for revenge
-She confided in the Vengeance that she thinks her husband is too sympathetic to the Manette's. -She is determined to see Lucie and little Lucie killed in her desire for revenge; she feels that she cannot trust her husband with this information. -Decides to go see Lucie because she believes that Lucie will denounce the Republic in her grief. -Jerry Cruncher and Miss Pross are planning to leave; they didn't leave earlier so that they carriage could travel faster. -Madame has no respect or fear for Miss Pross -Miss Pross gains her strength from the power of her love for Lucie -Miss Pross will never gain her hearing after losing it from the noise of the gun retort. -Miss Pross ends up killing Madam Defarge!
The resolution of the novel
-Barsard, Cly, Defarge, The Vengeance, and others will be guillotined
-Paris and France will become free -Lucie and Darnay will have a son who bears his name
-Dr. Manette will recover from his last spell of insanity
-Jarvis Lorry will live ten more years before he dies and leaves his money to the Manette's/Darnay's
-Lucie and Darnay will live happily together for many years and will honor his memory
-Lucie and Darnay's son will have a successful and honored career and will become a judge
-Sydney Darnay will pass on the memory of Carton's sacrifice to his own son
-Cry, The Beloved Country
As a Social Record:
- Sir Ernest Oppenheim
- Boycotts of buses
- Shanty Town
- Finding of gold
- Mining strike
- Reform school
Themes / Issues
Decay of tribal culture
Flight of people to overcrowded urban centers
Cry against injustice / yearning for justice
Land itself is a character
Apartheid: separation between races and where they touch
Biblical Themes and Influences
Parable of the prodigal son
Story of Absalom
Absence and presence of God
Role of faith
Symbolism of character names: Absalom, Steven, John, and Arthur (not biblical)
Structure of Novel
Influenced by John Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath
Some chapters follow plot line with specific characters; others are generally about the social conditions
Uses dashes instead of quotation marks
-Characters to know:
She is a resident of Sophiatown with whom Absalom Kumalo once stayed. She gives Msimangu and Kumalo a forwarding address for Absalom Kumalo in Alexandra, and tells them that she disliked Absalom's friends but claims to know nothing about any crimes they may have committed; Absalom lived in her house before she kicked him out because of his friends and stealing-related activities; she is a resident of Sophiatown with whom Absalom Kumalo once stayed. She gives Msimangu and Kumalo a forwarding address for Absalom Kumalo in Alexandra, and tells them that she disliked Absalom's friends but claims to know nothing about any crimes they may have committed.
The woman with whom Kumalo stays in Johannesburg. Mrs. Lithebe is an Msutu woman who lives in Sophiatown and takes in boarders, especially priests. She is a good and generous Christian who believes that helping others is simply her duty and often corrects Gertrude in her inappropriate laughter; she is an elderly woman who offers Stephen Kumalo room and board in Johannesburg while he rescues his sister and searches for his son. When Kumalo brings Gertrude back to her house, she frequently argues with Gertrude over the young woman's irresponsible ways and carefree manner, but she rejoices when Gertrude suggests that she may become a nun.
Landlady in Alexandra. She housed Absalom and Matthew for a time. She is fearful when approached by Stephen and Msimangu and tentative to admit her role in her tenants' immoral lives; said Absalom had been stealing and was in bad company
Arthur Jarvis's wife. Mary takes her husband's murder hard, but she remains strong for her children. She shares her husband's commitment to justice.
James Jarvis's wife. Margaret takes the death of her son very hard. She is a physically fragile and loving woman who commiserates with and supports her husband through their grief. She also shares in his plans to help Ndotsheni.
An acquaintance of Father Vincent's who becomes Absalom's lawyer. Mr. Carmichael is a tall and serious man who carries himself with an almost royal bearing. He takes Absalom's case pro deo ("for God").
The brother of Mary Jarvis, Arthur Jarvis's wife. John is young and quick-witted, and shares Arthur's opinions about the rights of the black population in South Africa. He provides companionship to James Jarvis in Johannesburg.
The agricultural expert hired by James Jarvis to teach better farming techniques to the people of Ndotsheni. A well-educated middle-class black man, Letsitsi earns a good salary and is eager to help build his country. Although grateful for the help of good white men, he nonetheless looks forward to an Africa in which black people will not rely on whites for their basic needs.
The small child of Kuluse is dying without milk, but then Arthur Jarvis' son steps in and talks to his grandfather uJarvis, thus leading to the bringing of milk for all of the children in need of it (specific example of the suffering in Ndotsheni)
The third young man present at the attempted robbery of Arthur Jarvis's house. According to Absalom's testimony, Pafuri is the ringleader of the group, deciding the time of the robbery and having his weapon "blessed" to give them good luck.
He is a local taxi driver who was friends with Absalom. He tells Kumalo and Msimangu that Absalom went to live in Shanty Town and drives them so that they do not have to walk.
Captain van Jarrveld
He is the Ixopo police captain who tells James Jarvis about his son's murder and arranges for Jarvis's travel to Johannesburg.
Sir Ernest Oppenheimer
The real-life head of "a very important mining group." Alan Paton drops this guy's name to add some authenticity in the twenty-third chapter, the chapter on the discovery of gold in Odendaalsrust.
He is the servant at the home of Arthur Jarvis who witnesses the robbery and murder and identifies Johannes Pafuri as one of the culprits during the trial. During the robbery, Pafuri hit Mpiring with an iron bar, knocking him unconscious.
The second in a trio of powerful black politicians in Johannesburg. Dubula provides the heart to complement John Kumalo's voice. The bus boycott and the construction of Shanty Town are his handiwork.
The final "i" is hardly sounded. Means "chief" or "master"
I rejected the Zulu word for the Great Spirit as too long and difficult. This is the Xosa word. It is also difficult to pronounce, but many be pronounced "Teeko," the "o" being midway the "o" in "pot" and the "o" of "born"
The last "i" is hardly sounded. Pronounce approximately "oomfoondees," the "oo" being as in "book," and the "res" as "eace" in the word "peace." Means "parson," but is also a title and used with respect
Sharpeville 1963: Nelson Mandela—head of ANC—African National Congress- is jailedSouth Africa's Recent History 1990: Ban on ANC is lifted and Mandela is freed 1993: Mandela wins Noble Peace Prize along with F.W. de Klerk (Nationalist party president) 1994: Mandela elected president of South Africa 1996 South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The commission, headed by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, was formed to uncover and detail crimes committed under apartheid -One of the leaders of the africian national congress who led a struggle to end apartheid and was elected 4 president in 1994 in the first all-race election in South Africa; born on July 18, 1918 and died on December 5, 2013
Soweta 1976: Soweta Students demonstrate against use of Dutch derived Afrikaans language in school instead of English Children are gunned down Riots across the country By 1977: death toll is at 1,500 Over 20,000 people are imprisoned Governments around the world impose economic sanctions on South Africa
1838; a battle between Voortrekkers and Zulu attackers; contributed to Afrikaner nationalism; celebrated on the Day of the Covenant; where the Zulus were defeated by the Boers; a battle where Voortrekkers allied with disillusioned Africans and white traders and defeated the Zulu under Dingane, declaring a new republic of Natalia; about 500 Boers killed over 3,000 Zulus (advanced technology in relation to weapons)
Pronounced "oomnoomzaan" and means "sir"
Region of Southern Africa originally founded by Afrikaners; became a source of interest for the British following the discovery of gold and diamonds => Boer War
Sharpeville 1960: Sharpeville Police shot into demonstrators against pass laws 69 unarmed people killed State of Emergency declared: held for 90 days More than 22,000 arrested 1963: Nelson Mandela—head of ANC—African National Congress- is jailed
Pronounced by English-speaking people as written. A city named after the Voortrekker Pretorius. Capital of the Union of South Africa
Letter in the opening and its information
-Page 37 -Come to Johannesburg, they found Gertrude Kumalo, Rev. Kumalo's sister and she is very sick -Come to the Rev. Theophilus Msimangu, the Mission House, Sophiatown for advices
Kumalo's journey to Johannesburg
-Hears Africaans language: Dutch -Sees mines -Young man steal his money: bus ticket -Man from church takes him to Msimangu -Experiences indoor plumbing at the mission house
Gertrude's life and situation
-Came to Johannesburg looking for her husband who took a job at the mines -Now a prostitute -Has been in prison -Has a son
John Kumalo's life, beliefs, and treatment of his brother
-Has a successful business; no longer married to Esther -Cheated on wife Esther having an "experience in Johannesburg" -Indifferent father- doesn't know where his son and nephew are -Glad he is no longer in Johannesburg under the rule of the chief -Angry over the unequal distribution of resources- the blacks work the mines for the whites but don't get any of the rewards -Great and effective speaker, has the voice but it is corrupted. He only goes so far and backs down before the people are too stirred up. Msimangu believes it would lead to civil war if he kept going -Tells his brother that he will be a better father to his son: is susceptible to fear when Kumalo implies there are spies in his shop, kicks Kumalo out: a break between brothers
The bus boycott
The bus fare was raised to sixpence from fourpence. Dubula has the heart and seeks nothing for himself, some whites help, lets not use the busses until we have a fair price. Chapter 8.
Kumalo's interaction with Absalom's girl
-Gives into the-the pain is relieved temptation to hurt her -Forces her to admit that she would sleep with him if he desired -note: he visits her by himself -growing independence -apologized to her and he will take her to his nice home to help her -the pain is relieved
Circumstances of Arthur Jarvis' death
Three natives broke into his house while his family was away to steal and he came downstairs to see what the ruckus was and he was shot by one of them.
Arthur Jarvis' beliefs and actions regarding South Africa
-Speaks many languages including Afrikaans and Zulu -Pictures in office indicate that he admires Christ and Abraham Lincoln -Writings: it is no longer permissible for South Africa to continue its current racial practices, as they constitute exploitation. Believes that the tribal system-even though it was violent, savage, and superstition- was at least a moral system -Deals with issues of Christianity: how South Africans have used Christianity to justify racism; how he feels country is inherently unchristian -Feels that although his parents were good parents, they failed to teach him anything about South Africa. the country he lived in -Dedicates his life to this struggle because he feels he has no choice and is glad his wife agrees with him -The greatest joy would be if his children grow to share his believes
John Harrison and Mr. Harrison Sr.'s reactions to Arthur's views
Greatly admired and was influenced by his brother-in-law Arthur Jarvis
Meeting of Kumalo and Jarvis
*-Displays compassion to Kumalo at the house in the springs but he does not physically help him; he does not translate the cruel remarks of his niece regarding Sibeko's daughter (see especially p. 211-212)
-Absalom tells the truth: claims that he only shot out of fear -Learn of his attempts to hide after the murder -Absalom admits that he repented because he was caught and in trouble -Another native murder of whites occurs just before the verdict is due -Msimangu and Mrs. Lithebe worry that the judge will be affected by the newspaper account. They conspire to hide this from Kumalo. -What the judge says about the law: it is the one achievement of a corrupt society and must not be set aside -Not the place of the judge to decide how far human beings are responsible for their actions- under the law they are fully responsible -Judge can't find any extenuating circumstances to grant mercy -The other boys get off -Absalom is sentenced to death by hanging
Interactions Kumalo has with his brother, Jarvis, and Gertrude
Brother: Tells his brother that he will be a better father to his son: is susceptible to fear when Kumalo implies there are spies in his shop, kicks Kumalo out: a break between brothers. Jarvis:*-Displays compassion to Kumalo at the house in the springs but he does not physically help him; he does not translate the cruel remarks of his niece regarding Sibeko's daughter (see especially p. 211-212) Gertrude: The two are not very close and their interactions are normally Kumalo asking her why she made the choices that she did and what she is going to do now.
Kumalo and his nephew
Kumalo kind of takes his nephew under his wing and plays with him and tries to be a father to him as well as figure out what, if anything, he did wrong while raising Absalom so he doesn't repeat it again.
Kumalo's homecoming, the condition of Ndotsheni, Kumalo's congregation
-Drought has continued -The people of his congregation are excited that he has returned -There is a new chorus in the separatedplace: it is no longer "Cry, the beloved country" - now it is "God save Africa" -Kumalo folloes the advice of Msimangu and Vincent and prays for the restoration of Ndotsheni -Kumalo visits the chief to seek help: The helpless of the chief to do anything should remind you of John Kumalo's description of the chief in Book 1 -Kumalo again prays: "Into Thy hands, oh God, I commend Ndotsheni"
Arthur Jarvis' son
Visits Kumalo and is unaware of the true confitions the natives live in: first surprised there is no refrigerator and then surprised that there is no milk -Talks to his grandfather: sends milk for the children -He acts on what he discovers; be able to compare the end of this chapter with the passage on p. 208 where Arthur hopes for his children- his hopes are already fulfilled -The small, bright boy learns Zulu- continues to follow his father's example -Visits Kumalo to tell him goodbye before he returns to Johannesburg -Kumalo tells James Jarvis that he sees something bright in the son just like he saw in Arthur -Sees a need and works to fix it -Treats Kumalo with respect -Learns Zulu
Restoration of Ndotsheni: milk, chief, farming improvements
-Arthur Jarvis' son sends milk from his grandfather's farm for the starving children -Kumalo witnesses the group of men including the magistrate, the chief, and Jarvis placing sticks in the ground- sticks that seem to possess some unknown significance -A storm arrives: symbolic rain, relieves the drought -Conversation between Kumalo and Jarvis takes place in the church will lead to Jarvis' support for restoration -Napoleon Letsitsi- the agricultural demonstrator- arrives; he has been sent by Jarvis -Build a dam -Must stop burning dung and put it back into the land -Gather weeds together and treat them and not leave them to wither away in the sun -Stop ploughing up and down the hills -Plant trees -More: P. 286-287: Napoleon's plans -Jarvis sends a letter to the church indicating his desire to build a new church -Agricultural reforms
Wants Kumalo to leave Ndotsheni because Jarvis is his neighbor, everyone knows about Gertrude and Absalom, and it will be difficult to rebuild his church then the letter from Jarvis arrives.
Interactions between Kumalo and James Jarvis
-Seek refuge in Kumalo's church during the storm: Jarvis asks if there is mercy for Absalom. Says that he will remember Kumalo on the 15th day. -Meeting on the mountain on the 15th day -p. 307: there are still cultural barriers that prevent them from physically reaching out to each other -p. 307: note what Jarvis says about Kumalo: "I have seen a man... who was in darkness till you found him. If that is what you do, I give it willingly." (another Biblical illusion to Isaiah) -P. 308: Kumalo claims that God has put His hand on Jarvis (think Msimangu)
Hung without mercy on the 15th day
-The revolution begins with great idealistic enthusiasm and popular support
-In the early times of the revolution, the people feel a great sense of equality and community. Old laws and institutions are abolished, replaced by egalitarian measures that promote the common good
-A new elite maintains power by terror and by threats
-A scapegoat is found to take the blame for any failure of the revolution or its leaders to live up to the ideas of the revolution
-The Stages in the Book:
x Chapter 1: Old Major shares his dream and vision
x Chapter 2: Old Major dies, pigs codify principles of Animalism, revolt against Mr. Hones when he has left them hungry after he has been out drinking, pigs take charge
x Chapter 3: successfully work to bring in harvest, have meetings where resolutions are discussed and voted on, Commandments are written, the pigs consume all the milk and apples so they will be strong enough to prevent Jones' return in the spirit of self-sacrifice
x Chapter 4: humans in the community talk about the farm, Snowball is wounded in successful defense of farm, Snowball page #59: War is war. The only good human being is a dead one
x Chapter 5: Snowball is more successful in speaking; Napoleon is more successful in canvassing for support behind the scenes; Napoleon urinates on Snowball's plan for windmill, Napoleon uses the dogs to overthrow Snowball, Napoleon ends Sunday morning debates (totalitarian), page #70: Squealer says that bravery is not enough; loyalty and obedience are important and discipline
x Chapter 6: extra work on Sundays is said to be voluntarily but rations will be cut for those who do not participate; trade with humans begin and pigs start to change the commandments; windmill blows down and Snowball is blamed
x Chapter 7: face starvation in the winter; conceal that fact from the outside world; Napoleon ruthlessly crushes the rebellion of the hens who do not want to surrender their eggs, Snowball now blamed for all things and identified and Jones' secret agent, many animals executed for crimes against the farm, song "Beasts of England" is banned as the revolution is over
x Chapter 8: Napoleon is seldom seen in public and is given credit for every achievement, much discussion about the treatment of animals on Frederick's farm, windmill is finished, trade with Frederick and are cheated, humans blow up the windmill, pigs discover alcohol
x Chapter 9: life is hard, memory of Jones of fading, farm declared a republic and Napoleon is elected President, Moses reappears, Boxer injures himself in work and pigs pretend to have him taken to hospital, pigs use money they receive from selling Boxer to buy alcohol
Definition of an allegory: a text with two levels of meaning; literal and symbolic Character analogies used in this text:
- Mr. Jones: one of the villains; once a good master but let things go when he fell on hard times; a drunk; represents the Czar
- Old Major-pig: Karl Marx and Lenin; pure-breed of the pigs; grandfatherly philosopher; inspires rebellion
- Napoleon: other villain and the central character on the farm; represents Stalin; represents human frailties evident in any revolution
- Snowball:-pig represents Leon Trotsky; Napoleon and Snowball never agree even though they support the same cause; both fighting for leadership; fights heroically in their battle of defense; has specific plans for the future
- Squealer-pig: represents propaganda; some suggest he represents the Pravda, the Russian newspaper of the time; has the ability to manipulate and persuade
- Boxer-horse: along with Clover, he represents the proletariat or unskilled labor class in Russia; personifies the trait of unquestioning loyalty; when Boxer fall, there is a decrease in work production: shows significance of the working class to the success of Russia and the revolution
- Pigs: represent the Community Party loyalists and friends of Stalin; live in luxury and don't work; represent the hypocrisy of communism
- Dogs: represent the Cheka—the secret police; can't talk or think for themselves; totally devoted to Napoleon and brutal to all other animals - Mollie-horse: represents the skilled middle-class worker of Russia; doesn't support the rebellion but not because of her politics—simply because it is causing her to suffer; more concerned about her own condition than the revolution. She will abandon the revolution for her own comfort
- Moses-raven: represents the church; does not work; was Mr. Jones' special pet but stays with the farm when he leaves; doesn't really support the rebellion but hangs around and tell tales. The Sugar Candy Mountain he talks about represents religion / heaven.
- Muriel-goat: represents the educated working class; smart enough to know something isn't right but not powerful or charismatic enough to get people to listen
- Old Benjamin-donkey: represents the older generation; knows that in the end things won't really change—he's seen it all before -
Pigeons: propaganda to the outside world; tells other "countries" how great things are going, but no one ever gets to see for themselves
- Windmill: Russian industry; five year plan. Destruction of the windmill represents the failure of the five-year plan
- Farm Buildings: the Kremlin - Fredericks / Pinchfield: stands for Hitler / Germany; has secret arrangements with - Foxwood: England - Pilkington: Allies
Be able to discuss what this book reveals about human nature
-Evaluate the themes of the book: it reveals essential flaws inherent in human nature: greed for money and power and to be above others
The Situation with Reuven's Eye
-We move to the baseball field at Reuven's school on a Sunday afternoon in June 1944. It turns out that Reuven's school baseball team is playing Danny's school baseball team, and that's how they meet. And it's not pretty. Danny and his teammates seem to want to fight World War II right there. And they think that Reuven's team is the enemy. Danny tells Reuven he wants to kill him, and when he steps up to bat, he hits the ball into Reuven's eye, shattering Reuven's glasses. Reuven sits out while Danny's team wins the game. Then, he starts to realize he has a real problem with his eye. Reuven is rushed to the hospital. The doctors confirm that there is indeed something wrong. Everybody freaks out when Reuven starts seeing the colors of the rainbow in a fluorescent light, and, then, all the light goes away. He wakes up in the eye ward of the hospital, where he meets Frank Savo, a prizefighter with an eye injury, and Billy Merrit, a young boy who was blinded in a car accident. Reuven's father, David Malter, shows up and Reuven learns that his eye had glass in it, and that he had an operation. So long as the eye heals properly, Reuven will be OK. In the meantime, he isn't allowed to read. This, for him, is practically a fate worse than death. David also tells Reuven that Danny is coming to apologize to him. But, when Danny shows up, Reuven explodes and drives him away. David gets on Reuven's case about being a jerk, reminding him that when somebody apologizes, you have to listen. Then, he gives Reuven a radio so he can listen to the news of World War II while he recovers. Reuven wakes the next morning to shouts. A loud radio is broadcasting news of D-Day, or the Invasion of Normandy. Danny comes to visit him that day. He says that during the baseball game, he did imagine killing Reuven, but he also thought Reuven would duck from the ball. Reuven admits that he didn't duck because he didn't want to look like a coward. With the confessions out of the way, the boys start to get to know each other better. Reuven is surprised to learn that Danny has a photographic memory, and that he doesn't want to inherit the position of Reb Saunders, his father, as leader of his community. He wants to study psychology. Danny is surprised to learn that Reuven does want to be a rabbi, even though he's totally awesome at math. Danny also reveals that he's been sneaking around the public library reading secular (non-religious) books behind his father's back. Apparently, a mysterious man has been suggesting books for him to read. Reuven is amazed by everything Danny tells him, but is most surprised to learn that Danny and Reb Saunders never talk, unless it's about Talmud (check out "Symbols, Imagery, Allegory" for more information about this). When David, Reuven's father, shows up one day while boys are talking, both are surprised to learn that David is the mysterious library man. Reuven doesn't understand how his father kept the information from him, but isn't mad. David explains that it was Danny's secret to tell, not his. Then, David gives Reuven the good news that he's taking him out of the eye ward on Friday. Just before Reuven is released from the hospital, both Frank and Billy, the other patients Reuven met, have eye operations. Frank loses one of his eyes, and Reuven doesn't learn whether Billy's sight was restored until later in the novel. That Friday, Reuven goes home, where he lives with his father and their housekeeper, Manya. He feels like he's been gone for a long time in a dark place. Now, everything looks brilliant and new. He can't believe how much his life has changed in less than a week, and he's super-excited about his friendship with Danny.
The Use of the Radio in the Hospital
-a loud radio is broadcasting the Invasion of Normandy, more commonly known as D-Day
-this exemplifies how everyone is focusing on World War II and is trusting in the soldiers as well as FDR to lead the United States to victory against the evil powers on the eastern hemisphere of the Earth (such as Germany in Europe)
The Relationship Between Danny and David Malter
-Potok develops the theme of father-son relationships through the parallels between David and Reuven Malter and Reb and Danny Saunders. The paternal relationship dominates the novel; Reuven's mother has died before the novel began, and Danny's mother receives little more than a brief mention throughout the entirety of the novel. Potok allows a great deal of flexibility in the father-son relationship, suggesting the multitude of ways that a father may raise a son such as Reb Saunders' strict training as compared to David Malter's open and direct relationship with Reuven. Potok also endows the paternal relationship with a strong sense of lineage; as the son of a tzaddik, Danny Saunders is expected to be a tzaddik as well, while even Reuven uses his father for his sense of history, which he passes down to his son. Perhaps the most striking illustration of the importance of father-son relationships in The Chosen is Danny's response to David Malter's question of whether he will raise his son in silence, for Danny's answer that he will do so unless he finds a better way essentially validates Reb Saunders' methods and emphasizes this role of paternal lineage.
Levi Saunder's Health and Role in his Family
-Levi is scarcely a character at all. Reuven only tells us that he's sickly, pale, and constantly picking at his nose and his food. He strikes Reuven as more of a ghost than a young boy. He doesn't get a single speaking line in the novel. One could certainly argue, and many critics have, that The Chosen's flat minor characters, especially Levi, keep the novel from being first-rate. We will leave that for you to judge for yourself. In the meantime, let's look at what Levi's flatness does to the novel. For one thing, it tells us something about Reuven. Levi's flatness has a lot to do with the fact that Reuven doesn't really know him. Reuven is totally obsessed with Danny, the Reb, and his father, and he just doesn't pay much attention to anyone else. Reuven's stance towards Levi is almost predatory. He sees Levi only as a solution to Danny's problem. If Levi can become tzaddik, then Danny doesn't have to. It's kind of creepy when Reuven rejoices that Levi is out of the hospital, because we know he only cares about Levi in terms of what he can do for Danny. Danny insists that Levi is a bright and nice kid, but since we know so little about him, we worry a bit for the Reb's followers, and for Levi himself, when we think of him inheriting his father's position.
Zionism and its Impact on Various Characters
Zionism 1: Both baseball teams know that Mr. Malter, Reuven's father, is a stark Zionist and writer. Zionism is the love, passion, and devotion to allowing Palestine to become the Jewish state of Israel. During the World War II period, Jews were divided between Zionists and anti-Zionists.
Zionism 2: Mr. Malter lectures Reuven on the history of the Hasidic Jews and their belief in the coming of the Messiah. They believe a Jewish homeland can only be formed when the Messiah comes, and therefore are opposed to the post-war rallies in favor of the state of Israel.
Zionism 3: Mr. Malter explodes on the importance of establishing Palestine as a Jewish homeland. He begins to rally loudly for Palestine, especially after the Holocaust. With most European Jews slaughtered, he believes America is the place to rebuild Judaism.
Zionism 4: While Reuven eats breakfast with the Saunders, he brings up the idea of creating Palestine. Reb Saunders explodes at the table, screaming about the necessity of the messiah to arrive for a Jewish homeland to be established.
Zionism 5: Mr. Malter prepares for his Zionistic rally in Madison Square Garden. Although he is a devoted professor, he has never before prepared so sufficiently as he does for this rally, for it is part of his heart and soul. He believes in Zionism more than anything and is giving all his energy to the cause, forgetting his suffering health and curious son.
Zionism 6: Reb Saunders forces silence upon Reuven and will not allow Danny to speak with him. He places a ban on their friendship, shattering Reuven's heart and confusing his mind. He cannot believe that Zionism has destroyed his friendship with Danny.
Zionism 7: Reb Saunders forms a staunch anti-Zionist rally that finds support, but is not as effective as the Zionist rally led by Mr. Malter. Reb Saunders also issues a ban against all Zionist businesses, and distributes anti-Palestinian pamphlets.
Zionism 8: The state of Israel is finally formed, bringing joy to the Zionists and pain to the anti-Zionists. Reb Saunders dismantles his group and discontinues the distribution of his pamphlets, finally allowing Reuven and Danny to speak again.
Zionism 9: When Reuven finally visits Danny's home, he shakes Reb Saunders' hand and is welcomed back into the family. We find out that Reb Saunders was concerned that Danny's intelligence would prevent him from being compassionate, so he shut Danny out emotionally, hoping he would experience pain and want. Reb Saunders asks forgiveness from Danny and gives him his blessing to study psychology.
-Chaim Potok's working title for The Chosen was A Time For Silence. Silence is present throughout the novel, although its importance is obscure until the novel's resolution. Potok often inserts the word "silence" in the text, leaving us to figure out its meaning. For example, in Chapter 4, Reuven notes that a "warm silence, ... not in the least bit awkward" passes between him and Danny. At first glance, this use of the word "silence" seems unrelated to the mysterious silence between Danny and his father. But later, we learn that silence, like communication, can help people better understand each other. Reb Saunders reveals his reasons for his silence toward Danny in Chapter 18. By depriving Danny of a certain physical stimulus, Reb Saunders forces him to cultivate other senses of perception. In other words, the imposed silence forces Danny to mature. Danny's experience with silence parallels Reuven's experience with blindness, forcing him to turn inward, and thus develop a better sense of his soul, a greater empathy for others, and a better sense of the world and his role in it. Yet Potok does not completely endorse Reb Saunder's treatment of Danny. When Reuven meets Danny, he is not accustomed to silence. Reuven's relationship with his father is based on a constant, easy flow of conversation; as a friend, Mr. Malter is a good listener and offers sound advice. As a result, Reuven thinks of silence as something strange, dark, and empty, and he considers Reb Saunders's silence toward Danny inexplicable and cruel. At the end of the novel, after Reb Saunders explains his silence, Reuven and his father continue to wonder whether its benefits outweigh its drawbacks. Silence is alternately frightening, confusing, warm, and welcome, but it always leads to introspection, allowing the characters' humanity, spirituality, and empathy for others to grow. Reuven is blind to moments when silence is comfortable, warm, and inviting, but Potok is careful to show that silence is not always harmful, despite Reuven's initial ignorance of its nuances. Silence occurs between every pair of major characters at some point in the novel. Danny and his father are the most prominent example, but silence exists also between David Malter and Reb Saunders, who never speak to each other in the novel. Danny and David Malter do not speak after their encounter in the hospital until the very end of the book; Reuven and Danny have silence imposed upon their friendship by Reb Saunders; David Malter imposes a kind of silence on Reuven by refusing to explain Reb Saunders's way of raising Danny; and Reuven imposes a silence on Reb Saunders when he ignores the rebbe's requests for conversation. Again, Potok shows that silence exists everywhere, in many forms, and has as much meaning in a relationship as words.
Danny's Future Plans
-Most significantly, it is Danny's reading of Freud that provides much of the ammunition for his successful revolt against and defeat of his father, who, unconsciously, may be trying to deprive Danny of his individual manhood by turning him into a clone of himself. Yet Danny's rebellion is against his culture as well as his father. He has a repressed need to rebel against the traditional, constrictive role of a tzaddik—and the type of life that Danny fears his father wants him to lead.
-Danny is going to study psychology (and still maintain his faith but in different and more real-world focused ways) while Reuven is going to study to become a rabbi
Solomon Maimon, Rabbi Abraham Gershon, and Rabbi Elijah of Vilna
-Solomon Maimon, an eighteenth-century Jew who forsook his faith to pursue secular knowledge
x lived in Poland in the second half of the 18th century
x a genius who found the Talmud could not satisfy his hunger for knowledge (109)
x studies German, begins to write philosophical books
-Rabbi Abraham Gershon
x finally regretted his cruelty and asked Israel and Hannah to return to Brody
x began to travel and became a Ba'al Shem
x kind and saintly and seemed to want to help people not for the money they paid him but for the love he had for them
x known as the Ba'al Shem Tov - the King or Good Master of the Name
x taught that the purpose of man is to make his life holy
x believed that the study of Talmud was not very important
x he opposed any form of mechanical religion
x many great rabbis came to mock him and went away converted to his way of thinking
x his ideas were not new (in the Talmud, Bible, and Kabbalah)
-Rabbi Elijah of Vilna
x strong opponent of Hasidim
x a great Talmudist and genius
x even his opposition could not stop Hasidism from growing
David Malter's Career
-David Malter represents the ideal American Jewish father. He combines religious rigor with scientific inquiry and a love of knowledge, all of which he tempers with his overwhelming love and respect for his son. Throughout the book, David Malter displays a profound tolerance of and respect for a variety of traditions. His open-minded spiritual and intellectual rigor represents the balanced perspective that both boys want to achieve. He is an individual who understands the importance of relationships and reciprocity, and he values and accepts the dual perspectives of tradition and secularism. David Malter's perfection makes him the novel's most one-dimensional, static character, but his character does evolve in one crucial way. After he learns about the Holocaust, we see him change from a gentle, mellow father into an impassioned Zionist activist. David Malter states his motivations for his ceaseless Zionist activity clearly in Chapter 13, when he explains to Reuven that a "man must fill his life with meaning, meaning is not automatically given to life." This statement reflects David Malter's growing feeling that it is not enough to wait passively for biblical prophesy, as Reb Saunders does. Rather, David Malter feels it is up to mankind to actively give meaning to the world and make sense of the horrible suffering of the Holocaust. As Sternlicht explains, the only way for David Malter to make sense of the Holocaust is for the Holocaust to incite the Jewish people's return to the ancient land of Israel. Unlike Reb Saunders, David Malter believes that religion should impact politics, and that it is important for Jews to actively engage the outside world.
-It is ironic that he worked so hard for the Jewish State to come to be but that his own hard work led to his sickness that keeps him from traveling to Israel, the new land
The History of Hasidim: the Chmielnicki Uprising, the Bescht, etc.
• 13th Century:
- Poland wants Jews to bring her to life again—build up economy, organize affairs
- Becomes a Jewish Utopia
- Jews prosper economically and academically
• End of 16th century
- Jews build up against themselves the hatred of the oppressed classes: Polish peasants, Russian Cossacks
• 1648: Chimielnicki uprising: leader of the Cossacks begins an uprising against Poland
- The great Jewish community of Poland destroyed by pogroms
• 18th Century:
- Jews had become a "degraded people" (103)
- False Messiah adds to pain of uprising
- Jewish scholarship dies; replaced by pilpul and superstition
- "Masters of the Name" emerge—only they can destroy powers of evil
• 1700: the Bescht is born in Poland
- Studies Kabbalah instead of Talmud
- Goes to the woods to listen to the birds or stand in silence
- Believes the purpose of man is to make his life holy
- Believes every man can be saved
• Late 18th Century:
- Half of Eastern European Jewry are Hasidism
- They needed a new way to approach God
- Tzaddikim emerge as leaders
• 19th century:
- Tzaddikim movements begins to degenerate
- Position becomes inherited and corrupted
- Hasidism shut themselves off from rest of the secular world
- Their lifestyle becomes frozen
• Mid 20th century:
- Reb Saunders "has a reputation for brilliance and compassion" (Potok 109)
- Danny will inherit his position
- Danny is a "hooked fish"
Trace the history of Solomon Maimon; e.g.
- lived in Poland in the second half of the 18th century
- a genius who found the Talmud could not satisfy his hunger for knowledge (109)
- studies German, begins to write philosophical books
Reuven and Danny at Hirsch College
-Danny is thoroughly miserable in Samson Raphael Hirsch College, for his psychology professor, Nathan Appleman, has an intense dislike for psychoanalysis in general and for Freud in particular. Danny dislikes the focus on experimental psychology, wondering "What do rats and mazes have to do with the mind?" Hirsch College is near a large Catholic church, and the crucifix on the church lawn shines onto Hirsch. The other students look upon Danny with awe; he is placed in Rav Gershenson's class, the highest in the school, and Reuven is one below. The Hasidic students treat Danny as if he were their student tzaddik, but this does not make him happy. When Danny complains about Professor Appleman, Reuven suggests that he talk to his professor about his dislike of Freud. Danny tells Reuven that his father wonders whether they are still friends, for Reuven has not visited in months, for he is studying with his father on Shabbat afternoons. Reuven returns home to find his father ill. His father is not usually home at night, for he had become involved in Zionist activities and was attending meetings where he speaks about the importance of Palestine as a Jewish homeland. David Malter discusses the problems in Palestine including the Irgun, a Jewish terrorist group. He also discusses with his son the possibility that he may die, quoting God's statement to Moses that "you have toiled and labored, now you are worthy of rest." Reuven is upset by his father's discussion of death. Reuven does some study on psychoanalysis and finds that most of the books are dismissive of Freud, if they mention him at all. Reuven laments that Professor Appleman is torturing Danny's mind with experimental psychology, while Reb Saunders tortures Danny's spirit with his bizarre silence. Before Danny goes to see Professor Appleman to discuss Freud, he yells at Reuven for not supporting him. However, afterward he apologizes and tells Reuven that Professor Appleman has a problem with Freud's followers and not Freud, whom he acknowledges is a genius. Danny's attitude toward Professor Appleman changes when he learns this. Reuven begins coaching Danny in math to help him with experimental psychology. During the early weeks of February, Reuven sees little of his father. Reuven finds it impossible to discuss David's health with him. Just like David Malter, Hirsch College becomes preoccupied with Zionist thought. Reuven joins a pro-Zionist religious youth group, while the anti-Zionist students remain aloof and disdainful. Danny did not join any Zionist group because he could not, considering his father. David Malter gives a speech claiming that the slaughter of six million Jews will only have meaning on the day a Jewish state is established. The next day Reuven finds Danny white-faced and grim. He does not talk to Reuven until they go into the bathroom together, where Danny admits that his father had read about David Malter's speech and had forbidden Danny to have any contact with Reuven. If Reb learns of any contact between the two, he will send Danny to an out-of-town yeshiva. Reuven calls Reb a fanatic, but Danny says that the fanaticism of men like his father kept them alive for two thousand years of exile, and if the Jews of Palestine have an ounce of that fanaticism they will soon have a Jewish state. -Chaim Potok uses the move from secondary school to college as a means to heighten the tension that Danny Saunders faces between his traditional Hasidic background and more progressive intellectual ideas. Potok describes this tension most clearly with Reuven's lament that Professor Appleman tortures Danny's mind with experimental psychology and Reb Saunders tortures his spirit with silence. While Danny expects to find fulfillment from psychology, he cannot receive this sense of ease from the teaching he is receiving; his father's lack of support gives him no comfort. The major problem that Danny has with experimental psychology is that he approaches it with the same fervor that his father approaches Hasidic Judaism; he sees it not as a practical science, but as a religion that he must accept unerringly. Danny may hold more secular beliefs in Freudianism, but he frames those beliefs in an archaic manner. Yet as this chapter makes clear, Danny must disavow his more parochial ways in order to achieve the success in psychology that he desires. This chapter is filled with signs that a broader mindset is both desirable and necessary. Hirsch college in itself is more open to the outside world, as shown by the symbolic intrusion of the crucifix as a shadow on the college. This represents the inability of the characters to ignore the broader Christian and secular society. Potok also continues to deal with the political repercussions of the Holocaust in this chapter, as David Malter begins to demonstrate greater zeal for Zionism and his views are shared by most of Hirsch college. It is Zionism which is the critical point in Danny's and Reuven's friendship; while Reb Saunders will allow the other non-Hasidic influences that Reuven brings, he cannot accept that Danny associates with the son of such a strong proponent of Zionism. Yet there is the important point that Danny Saunders himself supports Zionism, but cannot demonstrate this belief lest he incur the great wrath of his father.
Short Answer on The Chosen: Answer a Question about Menniger's Quotation that Appears on the Dedication Page
-"When a trout rising to a fly gets hooked on a line and finds himself unable to swim about freely, he begins with a fight which results in struggles and splashes and sometimes an escape. Often, of course, the situation is too tough for him. In the same way the human being struggles with his environment and with the hooks that catch him. Sometimes he masters his difficulties; sometimes they are too much for him. His struggles are all that the world sees and it naturally misunderstands them. It is hard for a free fish to understand what is happening to a hooked one." -Karl A. Menninger -The author of the first quote, Karl A. Menninger, was an American psychiatrist. This, of course, makes us think of Danny Saunders, who wants to be a psychiatrist. He's the hooked fish, and Reuven Malter is the free fish. Danny, as we are constantly told, is brilliant. David Malter says that a mind like Danny's is seen only once in a generation. And Danny's brilliant mind wants to roam free, to explore everything there is to learn in the world. Yet, he carries the burden of his people on his shoulders, or so he believes. Everyone expects him to take his father's place, and that's about the last thing he wants to do, even though he thinks he's supposed to. Reuven, on the other hand, is content with his life. It affords him all the freedom he needs. He desperately wants to see Danny free, but, as the two friends discuss many times, he can't really understand what it's like to be trapped. Since this is the big epigraph that acts as an umbrella for the entire novel, this conflict between the two friends must be pretty important, even though it doesn't seem to stand in the way of their friendship. And, since the novel is narrated by Reuven in the past tense, at some indistinct time after the events of the novel, the entire narrative might be his attempt to understand what he couldn't understand while the events were happening - what it's like to be trapped. With that in mind, we could make an argument that Reuven, not Danny is the hooked fish. He's hooked, or trapped, by Danny's story.
Discussion Question: Neither Reuven nor David Malter like the fact that Reb Saunders is raising Danny in silence. At one point, David Malter says, "that it is a terrible price to pay for a soul," and David is disturbed when Reuven reports that Danny can now "hear" the silence. Why does Reb Saunders raise his son in silence, and how would he use religious reasons to justify the suffering that he puts his son through?
-this was my Journal Response: When someone gives me the silent treatment, I often find myself feeling depressed because of the situation at hand. Danny also went through similar pains throughout his entire life, although he benefited from being raised "in silence" because it allowed him to become more compassionate and humble, taught him how to depend on God, and also showed him the importance of pain as a way to rid oneself of arrogance and indifference towards others. Considering that Danny suffers intensely from the silence, I think he is still willing to raise his own child this way because it worked for him and thus built up his own character traits such as humility and compassion that would not have occurred otherwise. In a sense, it also led him to stay loyal to God within the face of Judaism in spite of his extreme brilliance that his own father, Reb Saunders, viewed as a curse from the Lord. Last but not least, silence is so familiar that at this point in time it is all Danny truly knows, and thus he would be fully in his comfort zone with the situation despite the knowledge of the pain beneath the true situation at hand. -silence teaches humility, compassion, and empathy and also gets rid of indifference in one's heart and soul
-words distort the emotions within a human heart
Characters from each text:
-Romeo and Juliet: Juliet
-A Tale of Two Cities: Sydney Carton
-Cry, The Beloved Country: Stephen Kumalo
-The Chosen: Danny Saunders
Introduction: Here is just a vague draft of what we can say, we obviously would go more in depth
Throughout every work in history ever created, the hero is forced to travel through a variety of challenges that confront their lives and how they have chosen to live it. In William Skakespeare's most famous piece, Romeo and Juliet, both of the star-crossed lovers experience many hardships because of their forbidden infatuation with one another. In Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, Sydney Carton is faced with many decisions and complications when he discovers that he has feelings for Lucie Mannette and ends up facing his fears by making the ultimate sacrifice for her and her family. In Alan Paton's imperialistic novel Cry, The Beloved Country, his main character Stephen Kumalo is confronted with many tests when he finds that he has an awful personal connection to a white-skinned imperializing man. Lastly, Chaim Potok's The Chosen provides the most difficult of tests and struggles through his hooked character Danny Saunders. All in all, there are many existing characters that stuggle through situations that make them question their character and the path of life that they are on but the members of the texts that seem to be changed the most are Juliet, Sydney Carton, Stephen Kumalo, and Danny Saunders.
First Body Paragraph: Juliet from William Skakespeare's Romeo and Juliet
• Talk about her status as a Capulet
• Paris comes to talk to Juliet's father because he is interested in Juliet and wants to marry her
• Juliet's father contemplates the question but is not ready to part from his daughter quite yet because she is his only child: woo her Paris and if you do, she is yours
• Juliet's mother asks her if she is interested in marriage: Juliet's response "it is an honor I dream not of" She is not interested in marriage
• At the party, Juliet meets Romeo and they fall head-over-heels in love with each other
• Juliet finds out that he is a Montague and Romeo finds out that she is a Capulet: creates first problem because their families hate each other: feud
• Romeo kills Juliet's cousin Tybalt: creates second problem because she doesn't know how she can love Romeo because he just killed her cousin.
• The Prince's verdict for Romeo is that he is banished: third problem for the lovers because he cannot come back to Verona where Juliet is ever again
• Friar Lawrence devises a plan where they will send a letter Romeo telling him that Juliet is going to take a potion that makes her seem dead but when they bury her, the potion will wear off and he will come and get her and they can then run away together
• Romeo doesn't get the letter
• He finds Juliet when she still looks to be dead
• He poisons himself because he says that he cannot live without her
• Juliet wakes up to find her lover dead so she stabs herself
• As the reader can see, the two lovers face many difficulties throughout their relationship and end up committing suicide because of them. When Romeo kills Juliet's cousin Tybalt, Juliet is forced to evaluate her lover and see if it is worth being with him to lose her family.
• The tests that she goes through are having her parents wanting her to marry Paris, a man that she does not love, loving a Montague and dealing with the consequences, Romeo killing her cousin Tybalt, Romeo being banished from Verona, faking her death so that she could be with Romeo, and lastly waking up to find her lover Romeo dead.
• Juliet is forced to think about the path of life that she has chosen for herself during her relationship with Romeo because she realizes that her family will possibly disown her and never want to speak to her again if they find out that she loves and plans to marry a Montague, more or less the one that killed Tybalt. She has to choose between her family and love, and she chooses love which is different from any of the other texts.
Second Body Paragraph: Sydney Carton
• A drunk who works for Stryver (a lawyer). Sydney does all of the work but let's Stryver take all of the credit
• On the other hand, a sense of undying love is also present in A Tale of Two Cities and in this case, the character actually does die. Sydney Carton, a drunken, morose man who does all of the lawyer type work for Mr. Stryver and does not get credit for it is a dynamic character. At the opening of the book, Sydney Carton is just there. He is never interesting because he is always drunk and always has a "woe is me" standpoint on life. He hates himself and does not know what he has to live for. When he meets the Manette family, specifically Lucie, his personality and outlook on life begin to change. He starts to develop a crush on Lucie and that crush evolves into a passionate love for her. One day, he decides to travel to the Manette house so that Lucie can know once and for all how he feels about her "[in]f it had been possible, Miss Manette, that you could have returned the love of the man you see before you- self-flung away, wasted, drunken, poor creature of misuse as you know him to be... I am even thankful that it cannot be" (Dickens 145). His love for Lucie is selfless because he does not care that she is not with him because he knows that it would not make her happy. All he cares about is that she is with someone who she is excited to see in the morning and treats her like the beautiful and wonderful young woman that she is. Sydney Carton holds some kind of love for Lucie and he is willing to do anything to protect her and to keep her happy. In one situation he even tells her that "[f]or you, and for any dear to you, I would do anything... I would embrace any sacrifice for you and for those dear to you" (Dickens 147). Some ladies may think that their guy is a gentleman, but if he does not offer to die to ensure the ladies happiness, he is cutting it a little short. Sydney Carton (spoiler alert) does indeed die in the place of someone who is important to Lucie, her husband Charles Darnay.
• Charles is the nephew of the Marquis de Evremond, making him a part of the French aristocracy. Since he is tied to this despicable group and through the many trials that he went through, he is charged to the guillotine. This news in itself tears the Manette family apart because Charles is Lucie's husband and Little Lucie's father and all around a well-loved man. Sydney sees how destroyed Lucie is because half of her heart is being taken away from her so he decides to relieve her of her despondence and go get Charles. Coincidentally, Charles and Sydney look alike. They swap clothes, Charles is drugged, and off they go. Sydney stays behind because he knows that since Charles is safe now, Lucie will be forever happy. As he steps up to la guillotine, he says "[i]t is a far better thing that I do, than I have ever done; it is a far better rest that I go to than I have ever known" (Dickens 364). Dying for Charles and Lucie is the best thing that he has ever done in his life. He knows that he is heading towards Heaven where he can live out the rest of his live in eternal paradise. He understands that there he will not be judged for anything, not his alcoholism, not his depression, not his wasted talents, nothing. He dies for someone else and he made someone's life experience so much joy and happiness so he feels like his life possesses meaning now. The motivations for his actions were his love for Lucie -he will die in the place of anyone that she loves- his adoration of little Lucie and he wants her to grow up with a father, and wants Dr. Manette to return to his sanity. All in all, Sydney Carton shows undying love for Lucie when he dies in the place of her husband when, by no means, is it necessary.
• Sydney Carton makes the ultimate sacrifice, just like Jesus, to die in the places of someone that Lucie Mannete loved to insure her happiness in life
Third Body Paragraph: Cry, The Beloved Country: Stephen Kumalo
• Kumalo receives a letter in the mail saying Come to Johannesburg, they found Gertrude Kumalo, his sister and she is very sick
-Come to the Rev. Theophilus Msimangu, the Mission House, Sophiatown for advice
• Travels to Johannesburg, within his first couple hours there his money was stolen
• He learns that his sister is a prostitute and his brother is not a member of the faith anymore. This is a challenge that he faces because he himself being a reverend, now has two family members committing heavy sins and he does not know what to do about it.
• Hears that a white man was killed by three natives, has a feeling that his son Absalom was involved.
• Figured out that he was and Absalom was the murderer of Arthur Jarvis. This is another roadblock in Kumalo's life because he does not know wait him and his wife did wrong in raising their child.
• Discovers that Absalom got a girl pregnant: committed yet another sin because they were not married
• Stephen Kumalo goes to meet this girl -Gives into the temptation to hurt her
-Forces her to admit that she would sleep with him if he desired
-note: he visits her by himself
-apologized to her and he will take her to his nice home to help her
-the pain is relieved
-He does not know what is happening to him and does not know if he can still be a reverend because he was just tempted to commit adultery.
• When Kumalo tells his friend back at the village about the fate of Sibeko's daughter, his friend hears the news philosophically. His friend reminds Kumalo that suffering is part of life, and that the point is not to avoid it, but to show God how you manage the pain that comes to you. Cry, the Beloved Country never claims that the goal of reform is to eliminate suffering altogether. The point is to minimize suffering where we can. It's impossible to make life entirely free of pain, but we can "bear suffering" in good and bad ways. Kumalo, this friend, and Jarvis all provide examples of morally good ways to learn from suffering. Kumalo acknowledges that there are things in life that remain a secret and through this quote uJarvis and Kumalo can bond over the pain they share of losing their sons, even though they were lost in far different ways. Their pain brings them together and while they could be pessimistic because of the deaths, they instead choose to use what Satan intended for evil as for what God intended for good. These two deaths eventually bring about the restoration of Ndotsheni (though not shown completely in the book), which is what Arthur Jarvis would have only hoped.
• Stephen Kumalo deals with many things such as his sister becoming a prostitute and leaving her own child with Kumalo, his brother John Kumalo straying away from the faith, being tempted to commit adultery, and his son was executed because he was a murderer. These things forced Kumalo to think about how he was living his life and in particular, his profession, because he has so much sin with his family connections and in himself that he does not feel worthy anymore.
Fourth Body Paragraph: The Chosen: Danny Saunders
• Chaim Potok's working title for The Chosen was A Time for Silence. Silence is present throughout the novel, although its importance is obscure until the novel's resolution. Potok often inserts the word "silence" in the text, leaving us to figure out its meaning. For example, in Chapter 4, Reuven notes that a "warm silence, ... not in the least bit awkward" passes between him and Danny. At first glance, this use of the word "silence" seems unrelated to the mysterious silence between Danny and his father. But later, we learn that silence, like communication, can help people better understand each other. Reb Saunders reveals his reasons for his silence toward Danny in Chapter 18. By depriving Danny of a certain physical stimulus, Reb Saunders forces him to cultivate other senses of perception. In other words, the imposed silence forces Danny to mature. Danny's experience with silence parallels Reuven's experience with blindness, forcing him to turn inward, and thus develop a better sense of his soul, a greater empathy for others, and a better sense of the world and his role in it.
Yet Potok does not completely endorse Reb Saunder's treatment of Danny. When Reuven meets Danny, he is not accustomed to silence. Reuven's relationship with his father is based on a constant, easy flow of conversation; as a friend, Mr. Malter is a good listener and offers sound advice. As a result, Reuven thinks of silence as something strange, dark, and empty, and he considers Reb Saunders's silence toward Danny inexplicable and cruel. At the end of the novel, after Reb Saunders explains his silence, Reuven and his father continue to wonder whether its benefits outweigh its drawbacks.
Silence is alternately frightening, confusing, warm, and welcome, but it always leads to introspection, allowing the characters' humanity, spirituality, and empathy for others to grow. Reuven is blind to moments when silence is comfortable, warm, and inviting, but Potok is careful to show that silence is not always harmful, despite Reuven's initial ignorance of its nuances. Silence occurs between every pair of major characters at some point in the novel. Danny and his father are the most prominent example, but silence exists also between David Malter and Reb Saunders, who never speak to each other in the novel. Danny and David Malter do not speak after their encounter in the hospital until the very end of the book; Reuven and Danny have silence imposed upon their friendship by Reb Saunders; David Malter imposes a kind of silence on Reuven by refusing to explain Reb Saunders's way of raising Danny; and Reuven imposes a silence on Reb Saunders when he ignores the rabbi's requests for conversation. Again, Potok shows that silence exists everywhere, in many forms, and has as much meaning in a relationship as words.
• Most significantly, it is Danny's reading of Freud that provides much of the ammunition for his successful revolt against and defeat of his father, who, unconsciously, may be trying to deprive Danny of his individual manhood by turning him into a clone of himself. Yet Danny's rebellion is against his culture as well as his father. He has a repressed need to rebel against the traditional, constrictive role of a tzaddik—and the type of life that Danny fears his father wants him to lead.
-Danny is going to study psychology (and still maintain his faith but in different and more real-world focused ways).
• Danny Saunders friendship with Reuven Malter forced him to think about his path of life that his father had chosen for him because he never really expected that he would ever get a chance to do what he wanted in the world but would have to inherit his father's position as tzadik. When he met Reuven through the baseball incident and they became best friends, he was able to see what life was like for someone who was able to do whatever and he liked that.
• The event that tested Danny's character the most would be his public Talmud quizzes with his father, especially the one time where the smile appeared on his face, the same one the he told Reuven meant that he hated his father at that moment. The Talmud quizzes tested his character and challenged him to have self-control and to use his great brain in ways that he didn't really want to.
• The silence also affected Danny because it gave him compassion and kept the spark of God alive in him for a lot longer than it would have if his father would have talked to him.
• Danny is thoroughly miserable in Samson Raphael Hirsch College, for his psychology professor, Nathan Appleman, has an intense dislike for psychoanalysis in general and for Freud in particular. Danny dislikes the focus on experimental psychology, wondering "What do rats and mazes have to do with the mind?" Hirsch College is near a large Catholic church, and the crucifix on the church lawn shines onto Hirsch. The other students look upon Danny with awe; he is placed in Rav Gershenson's class, the highest in the school, and Reuven is one below. The Hasidic students treat Danny as if he were their student tzaddik, but this does not make him happy. When Danny complains about Professor Appleman, Reuven suggests that he talk to his professor about his dislike of Freud. Danny tells Reuven that his father wonders whether they are still friends, for Reuven has not visited in months, for he is studying with his father on Shabbat afternoons. Reuven returns home to find his father ill. His father is not usually home at night, for he had become involved in Zionist activities and was attending meetings where he speaks about the importance of Palestine as a Jewish homeland. David Malter discusses the problems in Palestine including the Irgun, a Jewish terrorist group. He also discusses with his son the possibility that he may die, quoting God's statement to Moses that "you have toiled and labored, now you are worthy of rest." Reuven is upset by his father's discussion of death. Reuven does some study on psychoanalysis and finds that most of the books are dismissive of Freud, if they mention him at all. Reuven laments that Professor Appleman is torturing Danny's mind with experimental psychology, while Reb Saunders tortures Danny's spirit with his bizarre silence. Before Danny goes to see Professor Appleman to discuss Freud, he yells at Reuven for not supporting him. However, afterward he apologizes and tells Reuven that Professor Appleman has a problem with Freud's followers and not Freud, whom he acknowledges is a genius. Danny's attitude toward Professor Appleman changes when he learns this. Reuven begins coaching Danny in math to help him with experimental psychology. During the early weeks of February, Reuven sees little of his father. Reuven finds it impossible to discuss David's health with him. Just like David Malter, Hirsch College becomes preoccupied with Zionist thought. Reuven joins a pro-Zionist religious youth group, while the anti-Zionist students remain aloof and disdainful. Danny did not join any Zionist group because he could not, considering his father. David Malter gives a speech claiming that the slaughter of six million Jews will only have meaning on the day a Jewish state is established. The next day Reuven finds Danny white-faced and grim. He does not talk to Reuven until they go into the bathroom together, where Danny admits that his father had read about David Malter's speech and had forbidden Danny to have any contact with Reuven. If Reb learns of any contact between the two, he will send Danny to an out-of-town yeshiva. Reuven calls Reb a fanatic, but Danny says that the fanaticism of men like his father kept them alive for two thousand years of exile, and if the Jews of Palestine have an ounce of that fanaticism they will soon have a Jewish state.
-Chaim Potok uses the move from secondary school to college as a means to heighten the tension that Danny Saunders faces between his traditional Hasidic background and more progressive intellectual ideas. Potok describes this tension most clearly with Reuven's lament that Professor Appleman tortures Danny's mind with experimental psychology and Reb Saunders tortures his spirit with silence. While Danny expects to find fulfillment from psychology, he cannot receive this sense of ease from the teaching he is receiving; his father's lack of support gives him no comfort. The major problem that Danny has with experimental psychology is that he approaches it with the same fervor that his father approaches Hasidic Judaism; he sees it not as a practical science, but as a religion that he must accept unerringly. Danny may hold more secular beliefs in Freudianism, but he frames those beliefs in an archaic manner.
Yet as this chapter makes clear, Danny must disavow his more parochial ways in order to achieve the success in psychology that he desires. This chapter is filled with signs that a broader mindset is both desirable and necessary. Hirsch college in itself is more open to the outside world, as shown by the symbolic intrusion of the crucifix as a shadow on the college. This represents the inability of the characters to ignore the broader Christian and secular society. Potok also continues to deal with the political repercussions of the Holocaust in this chapter, as David Malter begins to demonstrate greater zeal for Zionism and his views are shared by most of Hirsch college. It is Zionism which is the critical point in Danny's and Reuven's friendship; while Reb Saunders will allow the other non-Hasidic influences that Reuven brings, he cannot accept that Danny associates with the son of such a strong proponent of Zionism. Yet there is the important point that Danny Saunders himself supports Zionism, but cannot demonstrate this belief lest he incur the great wrath of his father.
• Danny's struggles at college also are a roadblock in his success because he really wants to be a psycologist but his classes are not teaching him the phycology that he wants, Freud.
• Juliet and Danny have suffered because of choices that they've made
• Danny and Kumalo manage to keep a relationship with God despite their challenges
• Sydney Carton and Kumalo face challenges based on other's actions and connections
• Juliet and Sydney Carton both die out of love
• Juliet has trials based upon love and Danny has trials based upon hate (mostly of his father and his future's boundaries)
• Juliet and Danny are young and Sydney Carton and Stephen Kumalo are older and have more experience with difficult situations
• Romeo and Juliet theme: Love and hate can exist in a single relationship but love will always win. Romeo and Juliet were in love and ended up dying because of their love, but they were members of two rivaling families that hated each other to the core. In the end, the deaths of Romeo and Juliet ended the feud between the Capulets and the Montagues therefore displaying the love always wins.
• A Tale of Two Cities theme: Resurrection and Sacrifice. By dying for Lucie's love Charles Darnay, Sydney Carton made the ultimate sacrifice and also gave Lucie, Charles, and little Lucie the possibility of a new and happy life together
• Cry, the Beloved Country theme: Forgiveness. Stephen Kumalo was able to forgive the white Imperialists, able to forgive Absalom for his actions as well as his sisters, and James Jarvis was able to forgive Absalom Kumalo.
• The Chosen theme: Freedom. Danny Saunders shows that if you really want something, in his case to be free from the bounds of his father's silence and inherited profession, you have to have courage and take charge of your own life just like Danny did when he decided that he was not going to become a rabbi but become a psychologist.