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Junior Cert Geography
Junior Cert Geography
Terms in this set (271)
The wearing away of the earth's surface by rock fragments transported by glaciers, water and wind.
Polluted rain containing dissolved sulphur or nitrogen oxides.
Body of air with a similar temperature and relative humidity throughout.
Deposits from a river made up of fine sand and salt
Height above sea level
Weather instrument used to measure wind speed.
Area of high atmospheric pressure (high pressure)
Land used for growing crops
Narrow ridge between two cirques.
Direction in which a place faces in relation to the sun.
The layer of gases surrounding the earth
The rapid movement of snow down a gradient
The outward movement of seawater from the shore
Instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure
Igneous rock formed when lava cooled and solidified.
Wide, shallow inlet with headlands either side.
Parent material of the soil
The number of births per thousand per year.
Waterlogged area composed of rotting vegetation
Sudden movement down a slope of saturated bogland
Border Midland and Western region in Ireland
Climatic region between 55° and 65° North, e.g. Siberia
Deposits of sand, gravel and stone from a melting glacier. Also known as till.
Fertile soil formed in areas where deciduous trees grew.
Poor living areas found in Kolkata.
Fold mountains which formed about four hundred million years ago.
Instrument to measure sunshine
Process of chemical weathering where limestone is broken down by the carbonic acid in rainwater.
Central Business District
Gases given off by aerosols and refrigerators.
Hollow in a mountain with three steep sides formed by glacial erosion.
Wispy, high-level cloud
The average weather conditions of an area recorded over thirty to thirty five years.
The flat area of limestone pavement
Collection of water droplets and/or water crystals held in the atmosphere.
Formed when a cold air mass moves into a warm air mass.
Instrument used to determine direction
The process whereby the plates of the earth move and carry the continents with them.
Lines on a map joining places of equal height
The circulation of warm air replaced by cold air.
Rainfall formed due to rising warm, moist air.
Where plate boundaries separate creating new land
Inner centre of the earth
Outer layer of the earth
Large, medium-level cloud
Meaning Dublin Area Rapid Transit, it is a light rail system in Dublin
Number of deaths per thousand people per year
Removal of trees from the landscape
Triangular deposition resulting from a river entering a sea or lake
Study of population change and structure
Drainage pattern in the shape of a tree
The breaking down and removal of the solid and loose rocky materials of the earth's crust through the action of a variety of processes.
Arid region with little rainfall or vegetation
The spread of a desert
Where plates collide resulting in folding, earthquakes or volcanoes
Country whose per capita income is high by world standards, referred to as the 'First World'.
Country whose per capita income is low by world standards, referred to as the 'Third World'.
Volcano which is 'asleep'. It has not erupted in a long time.
The area of land drained by a river system
Hill of glacial deposition
Sand hill deposited by the wind
The line joining the North and South Poles, around which the earth rotates.
Caused by a release of tension in the earth's crust caused by plate movement.
Vertical lines on an Ordnance Survey map which increase in value eastwards
The point directly above the focus of an earthquake.
The breakdown and transport of material by water, wind or ice.
Long ridge of glacial material deposited when a glacier melted
The part of a river which is subject to tidal flow
The weathering of rock, also known as onion peeling, due to repeated heating and cooling.
Volcano which has not erupted in historic time.
The open area of sea across which a wave travels. The larger it is, the larger the waves.
Drowned glacial valley
The floor of a river valley which is covered in water during a flood.
The actual location in the crust where an earthquake occurs
Occured when the earth's plates collided and the rock layers compressed and buckled
Industry that can locate in a wide variety of places.
Hydrocarbons, mainly coal, oil and gas
Boundary between two air masses.
Wire cages containing stones placed in front of beaches or sand dunes to reduce sea erosion
The study of the physical features of the earth
The processes and landforms caused by the movement of glaciers
Soils which are waterlogged and infertile
Rising of the earth's temperature due to an increase in the greenhouse effect
Steepness of a slope
Rock formed by the cooling of magma under the earth's surface.
Process by which the earth's surface is warmed.
Method used to find an exact location on an Ordnance Survey map
Gross National Product, the total values of goods produced and services provided in a country in one year, plus the total value of exports.
Cracks found on a limestone pavement
Irregular covering of boulder clay deposited on a valley floor
Concrete walls or wooden structures built down a beach at right angles to the sea to prevent longshore drift.
Warm ocean current that flows past the west coast of Ireland, also known as the North Atlantic Drift (NAD)
Layer of leached material in the soil
Tributary glacial valley suspended above the main valley
Land area jutting into the sea
Resource materials and goods produced are bulky and heavy
Layers of the soil (O, A, B and C)
The amount of water vapour in the atmosphere
Fertile part of the soil
The erosive force of flowing water
Electricity produced by running water
The recycling of the earth's water supply, also known as the water cycle
Instrument used to measure relative humidity
Period when large parts of several continents were covered by ice sheets.
Rocks formed when lava cooled and solidified
When an industry has reasons for relocation but decides to stay in its original location.
Basic facilities and services needed for a region, such as transport, energy and schools
Artificial supply of water to the land
Line on a weather map joining places of the same atmospheric pressure
Line on a weather map joining places with equal amounts of sunshine.
Line on a weather map joining places with equal amounts of rainfall
Line on a weather map joining places with equal temperature
Fracture in the rock
Area of limestone
Cold ocean current flowing southwards from the Arctic Circle
Shallow sea inlet cut off from the sea
The rapid movement of rock down a slope
The sideward erosion along a river bank
Boulder clay deposited at the side of a glacial valley
Angular distance north and south of the equator
Molten rock that has erupted from a volcano
The washing down of minerals through the soil by water
Natural river bank formed by deposition during flooding
Resource materials and goods produced are small, light and easily transported
Made from the cemented and compressed remains of fish and other sea creatures. The remains of these creatures built up on top of each other. Over millions of years they were compressed by each of the overlying layers and formed slowly into solid rock.
Soil that is a mixture of sand and clay
The zigzag movement of material by the sea along a beach
Meaning 'speed' in Irish, it is a light rail system in Dublin
Molten rock that flows in convection currents within the earth's mantle.
The layer of the earth located under the crust
The movement of material down a slope due to gravity
Bend or curve found along the mature stage of a river
Ridge of boulder clay extending down-valley, where two glacial valleys meet.
Rocks formed by heat or pressure
Person who leaves a place to live in another place
Farming of a single crop for commercial purposes
Deposited material found in the lowlands of glacial valleys
Settlement specially developed to facilitate the growth of an urban area
Resources that cannot be replaced when used, e.g. oil, gas, coal
Horizontal lines on Ordnance Survey maps which increase in value northwards
Area in a desert which has water to support vegetation
Official development assistance
Ordnance Survey (OS)
The agency responsible for producing and publishing maps
Crescent-shaped lake formed due to deposition at a sharp meander in a river
The layer in the earth's atmosphere which filters out ultraviolet radiation.
The original supercontinent before the continents drifted apart
Two or more ribbon lakes formed in a U-shaped glacial valley
The study of soils
Ground which remains permanently frozen
Rocks that allow water to seep through
The separate sections of the earth's crust that drift on the molten magma
Theory which explains continental drift
Glacial erosion where rock fragments are pulled out of a valley floor by moving ice
Soil from areas covered with coniferous forests
Area of land reclaimed from the sea
All products of condensation (e.g. rain, snow and hail) which falls from clouds.
The most common wind of a region
City which has a population at least twice the size of the second largest city in the same country
The number of people per square kilometre
The dispersal or spread of people in an area
Quality Bus Corridor
Open pit from which gravel, sand or rock is extracted.
Rock formed due to heat and pressure on sandstone
Drainage pattern which flows in out in all directions of what it could hold a particular temperature.
The shape of the land surface
Rainfall caused by condensation as clouds rise over a mountain
Any natural resource that can be reused, e.g. wood, wind energy, solar energy
The ratio of one unit of measurement on a map to the distance represented by that unit on the ground
'Ingredients' used to make a product
The scale for calculating the intensity of an earthquake.
The area of land drained by a river and all its tributaries
Region relating to the countryside
Region at the southern end of the Sahara desert
Deposited sand and shingle that extends across a bay
Deposit of sand joined to the coast at one end
Rolling grassland located between 8° and 8° north and south of the equator
Weathered material which is found at the base of a slope
Tunnel that goes through a headland caused by sea erosion
Pillar of rock which forms when the roof of a sea arch collapses.
Rocks formed when material is deposited and compacted
Instrument that records and measure the earthquake intensity
Sedimentary rock formed when fine sand and mud is compressed
Unplanned poor settlement in a city
The very fine sediment of sand and clay deposited by rivers
Branch of forestry involving the monitoring and care for the trees which are affected by environmental and economic activities
Slow movement of soil down a slope due to gravity.
Cross-section of a soil that reveals the layers or horizons
Column of calcite formed on the roof of a limestone cave
Thick column of calcite formed on the floor of a limestone cave
Hole in a limestone area where water goes underground
The powerful movement of a breaking wave up a beach
Ridge of boulder clay which marks the furthest point reached by a glacier
Train à Grande Vitesse, a high speed electric rail network in France
Sea deposition linking an island to the mainland
Drainage pattern where tributaries join the main river at almost right angles
Tropic of Cancer
Line of latitude at 23.5° north of the equator
Tropic of Capricorn
Line of latitude at 23.5° south of the equator
Large, destructive sea wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
Climatic area located around the North Pole.
Relating to a town or city
The spread of an urban area beyond its limits
Glaciated valley with a wide, flat floor and steep sides
River valley with a narrow floor and steep sides formed in the youthful stage.
Way that the magma travels from the mantle to the top of the volcano.
Cone-shaped mountain formed by the build up of lava flows over time
The leading edge of a warm air mass that rises over the cold air ahead.
Place where water flows over a vertical drop in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf.
The divide between two adjoining river basins
The level below which water has saturated the ground
The day-to-day condition of the atmosphere
The breakdown of the crust by chemical, mechanical and biological processes
World Health Organisation
Made up of the sun, the eight planets and the moons.
Imaginary line running halfway between the poles
What gives us the seasons
The earth orbiting the sun every year
When magma moves through cracks in the crust and new crust is formed.
Fold mountains in Munster that are two hundred and fifty million years ago.
Effects of earthquakes
Loss of life, gas and electricity damage, damaged water pipes and disrupted communication networks, damage to or the collapse of buildings and rebuilding costs.
Reducing the damage caused by earthquakes
Earthquake-proof buildings, building on stable ground, studying seismic readings.
Reasons for the poor building construction in Bam
Shortage of housing, construction of poorly-built homes, employment of untrained local labour, poor quality materials unsuitable for earthquake zone, suitable materials in short supply.
Series of mountains that form on the ocean floor as a result of volcanic activity.
Volcano that formed at the bottom of the ocean and grew in size until it broke the surface and formed an island.
The opening at the top of the volcano
Pacific Ring of Fire
Most active volcanic and earthquake zone found along the edges of the Pacific Ocean.
Fast-moving gas, ash and rocks emitted from the volcanic vent
Volcano that erupts regularly
Advantages of volcanoes
Tourism, geysers, fertile lava soils, creation of new land and building materials.
Disadvantages of volcanoes
Effect on the environment, damage to property, loss of life and destruction by fire.
The resulting mudslide after a snow-capped volcanic mountain erupts
Main characteristics of limestone
Strata, bedding planes, joints, permeable rock, easily weathered and contains fossils
Uses of limestone
To make cement for the building trade, to build public buildings, to surface roads as chippings and as a fertiliser when it is ground into lime.
Formed when sand was worn away from the earth's crust and transported by wind and rivers. Deposition then occurred, where these grains of sand were deposited on the beds of lakes and seas as well as in deserts. Layers built up and compressed and cemented to form this rock.
Metamorphic rock formed by heat or pressure on limestone
Used because the coal lies in seams deep beneath earth's surface. Vertical shafts are constructed to reach the seams
Occurs when rocks are broken into smaller pieces by frost, freeze-thaw action or exfoliation
Occurs when rocks are dissolve because of a chemical change
Occurs when tree roots or animals widen spaces within the rock or soil
Where freeze-thaw action occurs
Mountainous areas of Ireland, especially during winter and the Alps or the Himalayas
Freeze-thaw action is when water seeps into a crack in a rock, as the temperature drops below freezing, the water freezes and expands causing the crack to enlarge. The ice then melts into water again as the temperature rises above 0 degrees C. This action is repeated until the rock breaks.
Flat area of limestone
Formed when the limestone is dissolved and passages eventually form after a river disappears underground through a swallow hole.
Variety of tourism in the Burren
Geographers, potholers, botanists, geologists and tourists.
Benefits of tourism in the Burren
Increase of local employment, spin-off effect, generation of income, reduction of emigration and benefits from improvements made to services.
Disadvantages of tourism in the Burren
Damages rare flora, road widening destroy the environment that attracts people, increased noise and air pollution and historical sites could be damaged.
The layer of unconsolidated solid material covering the bedrock of a planet.
Factors affecting mass movement
Gradient, water content, human activity and plants and trees.
Fluid or hardened stream or avalanche of mud.
Where a river begins
The route a river takes as it flows from an upland area down through its valley until it enters the sea.
Stream or river which joins a larger river
The place where a river enters the sea or lake
River water dissolves particles such as limestone
The load is also in collision with itself as well as the riverbed.
Process of river erosion through abrasion
What the rate of erosion depends on
Size and speed of the river and the hardness of the rock.
When rivers deposit their load
When they lose speed, is a reduction in waters in the river channel, flow into a lake or sea, the slope or gradient of the river is reduced.
Natural geographical feature that occurs in the upper course of a river in which vertical erosion is the dominant force determining the river's course. As a river wanders between banks that are far apart, the promontories of the hills tend to jut out into the river valley resulting in a staggered formation, interlocked together somewhat like the teeth of a zip.
Circular-shaped hollows found on the riverbed.
Examples of interaction between people and rivers
Hydroelectric power stations, settlement, transport, industry, tourism and leisure, flooding and pollution.
Positive effects of dams
HEP stations, reservoirs and leisure activities.
Negative effects of dams
Fish spawning grounds and fish farming are affected, movement of people from their homes, loss of good agricultural land, destruction of property.
Other uses of rivers
Sites for settlement, natural routeways for transportation, rich agricultural land, leisure pursuits, pollution and flooding.
Persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Causes of an ice age
Change in the earth's orbit around the sun and in the angle of the earth's axis and the earth was further away from the sun.
Created when three or more cirques formed back-to-back or side-to-side.
How a load is carried in a glacier
On top, on the edges, within or at the base of a glacier.
Piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it rests. It is carried by glacial ice, often over distances of hundreds of kilometres.
a plain formed of glacial sediments deposited by meltwater outwash at the terminus of a glacier.
Glaciation aiding human activity
Tourism, generation of HEP, fertile agricultural land, routeways, resources for the construction industry and recreation.
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