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Life 1 Chapter 6 Learning Curve
Terms in this set (44)
Freeze-fracturing is a useful tool for revealing _______ proteins.
Specialized cells in the heart are able to maintain a rhythmic heartbeat due to the rapid spread of electrical current through
the process of diffusion leads to
a state of concentration equilibrium of solute particles in a solution
if a cell is bathed in extracellular solution higher in Na+ concentration than the cytoplasm, it will use ________ to maintain its normal intracellular concentration of Na+
active transport against the concentration gradient of Na+
Cells secrete materials to the exterior environment through the process of
A biologist wants to compare the integral membrane protein of cells from mouse liver, pancreas, and intestine. Which experimental procedure should she choose?
compare the patterns of bumps observed when cells are subjected to freeze fracture electron microscopy
the main difference between osmosis and diffusion is that
osmosis refers to water specifically
many animal cells have a sodium-potassium pump that moves Na+ ions out of the cell and K+ ions in/ this is an example of an
which process will occur if a cell needs to acquire cholesterol from the surrounding environment?
the cell will insert specific receptors for cholesterol into its membrane
which of the following experimental designs can be expected to produce evidence that a membrane's fluidity is affected by temperature?
Compare the rate of intermixing of sheep and goat membrane proteins after fusing sheep and goat liver cells in a cold room and in a warmed incubator.
In cells lining the stomach, the movement of chloride ions into the cells is coupled to the transport of bicarbonate ions out of the cells. This type of transport system most likely uses
White blood cells can defend the body against invaders through
a hibernating animal must make changes at the cellular level to prevent damage in colder temperatures. How might cell membranes of these animals be affected?
unsaturated fatty acids would replace saturated fatty acids
Male and female reproductive cells in animals can recognize each other via specific glycoproteins present on their cell surfaces. Each cell produces a different glycoprotein that recognizes the other. This is an example of ____________ binding.
If a shallow pan is filled with water, a drop of red ink is placed in one end of the pan, and a drop of green ink is placed in the other end, which of the following will be true at equilibrium?
the red and green inks will be uniformly distributed throughout the pans
The function of the clathrin molecules that coat vesicles in receptor-mediated endocytosis is to
provide strength and stability
A student claims that both freeze-fracturing techniques and cell fusion experiments provided evidence that supported the fluid mosaic model used to describe the cell membrane. Which statement best evaluates this student's claim?
The claim is accurate because freeze-fracturing techniques showed how proteins were embedded in the lipid bilayer, while cell fusion experiments revealed protein movement within a membrane.
A biologist is interested in identifying pairs of molecular structures responsible for adhesion between bovine (cow) intestinal cells. Which pairs of structures should the biologist include as possibilities during his search?
Carbohydrate-carbohydrate, protein-carbohydrate, protein-protein
Which statement correctly describes a trout that lives in fresh water?
The external environment is hypotonic with respect to the trout's cells, so the trout must protect itself from water moving into cells from the outside.
Which is the most likely method for a cell to acquire one particular large molecule from the environment?
receptor mediated endocytosis
The fluid mosaic model of a biological membrane suggests that the membrane is made up of discrete units that can move freely. Which component most affects the fluidity of the membrane in an animal cell?
Tissues are made up of specialized groups of cells with similar functions. Animal cells are able to rearrange themselves throught
cell recognition and adhesion
Which experimental observation would provide evidence that a bacterial membrane protein transfers the sugar lactose into the cell via secondary transport?
The membrane protein binds lactose but has no nucleotide binding site.
The cell membrane is said to _______ as it folds inward to form a pocket around materials in the environment during phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis.
In animal cells, tight junctions and desmosomes differ from one another in that
one prevents movement of substances into the extracellular matrix while the other does not.
All of the following affect the rate of diffusion of a substance except
the presence of other solutes in the solution
If hydrolysis of ATP is temporarily blocked, what will be the primary effect on the sodium-potassium pump?
it will not be phosphorylated
The hydrophilic regions of a membrane protein are most likely to be found
on the exterior surface of the membrane
cell adhesion in animals often occurs through the interactions of
the process of cell _______ results from the strong linkage of two membrane-embedded molecules from two different cells.
Five statements about cell membranes are given. Which statement provides evidence supporting the fluid nature of the cell membrane?
a phospholipid molecule can move from one end of a bacterial cell to the other in one second
Blood vessels constrict in response to the hormone angiotensin. Researchers questioned the roles of elastin and collagen in this response because they are proteins produced and secreted into the extracellular matrix by smooth muscle cells in blood vessel walls. The graphs show protein and mRNA levels corresponding to elastin and collagen in mouse blood vessels under conditions of prolonged angiotensin exposure. Which statement is consistent with these data?
Smooth muscle cells in blood vessels are induced to express their genes for both elastin and collagen in response to angiotensin.
At low temperatures, cell membranes become quite immobile and solid-like. If the temperature is gradually increased, a membrane undergoes small changes until a large change in fluidity is observed. The midpoint temperature corresponding to this large change is called the melting temperature. The graph shows how a cell membrane's melting temperature (Tm) is measured. The table shows melting temperature data collected from membranes composed of phospholipids containing different fatty acids. Which statement is consistent with these data?
Decreasing chain length or introducing double bonds into fatty acids in membrane phospholipids increases temperature-dependent membrane fluidity.
Which analogy could best be used to describe the molecular structures interacting at the point of attachment between two animal cells physically bound to one another?
a key inserted into a lock
integrin can bind with the extracellular matrix and aid in the adhesion of animal cells. However, this binding is reversible, allowing integrin to be released. This reversible binding facilitates
cell transport capability
Mice embryos that have a defective gene for the membrane protein integrin display a lack of migration of neural cells within their developing brains. This can be explained by the fact that neural cell movements are mediated by cycles of integrin attachment and detachment to proteins in the _______.
Aquaporins are membrane channels that are highly specific to the movement of water. If aquaporins are inserted into the membranes of a cell that does not normally contain them,
the membranes will become more permeable to water
The figure shows a type of facilitated diffusion that involves a membrane protein called a(n) _______ protein. This example is similar to all other examples of facilitated diffusion in that it does not require the input of energy to move substances across a biological membrane.
A cell membrane contains many types of proteins. Which type of protein would most easily be removed from the cell membrane in aqueous conditions in a laboratory experiment?
The figure shows the molecular structures of urea and diethylurea. Both molecules can pass through biological membranes via simple diffusion, but diethylurea will diffuse through a membrane at a rate 50 times greater than that of urea. This is because diethylurea is _______ nonpolar than urea.
Which statement about channel proteins is true?
They are integral membrane proteins
A species of fish that lives in the ocean has cells with a lower solute concentration than the surrounding ocean waters. To maintain cell homeostasis under these conditions, these fish
use active transport
In animals, the solute balance of the plasma surrounding blood cells must be carfully maintained so that the blood cells are not affected by changes in fluid or solute balance. If the plasma becomes hypotonic compared with the blood cells, what will be the effect?
The blood cells will swell and possibly burst
a transmembrane protein may contain one or more hydrophilic side chains. If these were removed, the rest of the protein molecule would
remain inside the membrane
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