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During early childhood, the average child grows ______ inches per year.

Regarding brain development in early childhood, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Increases in brain development are due to increases in the number and size of nerve endings and to myelination.

Myelination in the areas of the brain related to hand-eye coordination is not complete until:

4 years of age

In the area of fine motor skills, sometimes _____-year-old children have trouble building high towers with blocks, because in their desire to stack perfectly, they may upset those already stacked.


What is one of the most common nutritional problems in early childhood, associated with failure to eat adequate amounts of quality meats and dark green vegetables?

iron deficiency anemia

Which stage of cognitive development occurs between ages 2 and 4 years and involves the child's ability to mentally represent an object that is not present?

symbolic function substage

In the United States, what is (are) the main cause(s) of death in children 1 through 4 years of age?


__________ is the focusing of attention on one characteristic of an object or situation to the exclusion of all others.


__________ is the awareness that altering an object's appearance does not change its basic properties.


__________ is Vygotsky's term suggesting that, over the course of a teaching session, the teacher should change the level of support given, to fit the student's performance level.


Both Vygotsky and Piaget suggested that:

teachers should be facilitators and guides rather than directors.

Regarding information processing in early childhood, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Significant improvements occur in short-term memory.

Shakira understands the difference between believing and fantasizing and between intention and purpose. Which feature of the theory of mind does her understanding reflect?

The mind exists.

Jean Berko:

conducted a classic experiment demonstrating that children understand morphological rules.

Which of the following is NOT a component of a child-centered kindergarten?

emphasis on what is learned

Early-childhood programs that make use of abstract paper-and-pencil activities with large groups of children are __________ and __________.

age inappropriate; individual inappropriate

__________ is a compensatory education program designed to provide children from low-income families with the opportunity to acquire important school success skills.

Project Head Start

Jean Piaget

Preoperational thought moves from primitive to sophisticated use of symbols

Rochel Gelman

Uses information-processing approach to analyze children's inability to conserve

Lev Vygotsky

Language and thought, initially independent, eventually merge

Jean Berko

Used fictional words to test children's understanding of language rules

Maria Montessori

Revolutionized teaching by allowing children freedom and spontaneity

David Elkind

Early childhood education should be part of public education on its own terms

Barbel Inhelder

With Piaget, studied young children's egocentrism by devising the three mountains task.

Zhe Chen & Robert Siegler

Their research showed that children as young as 2 years of age can learn a strategy.


Process by which the nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed at which information travels through the nervous system.


In Piaget's theory, internalized sets of actions that allow children to do mentally what they formerly did physically.


The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's (salient feature of the first substage of preoperational thought).


Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action.


The focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.


In Piaget's theory, awareness that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its basic properties.

social constructivist approach

Approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and the idea that knowledge is mutually built and constructed.

theory of mind

Refers to the awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

symbolic function substage

Piaget's first substage of preoperational thought, in which a child can mentally represent an object that is not present.

intuitive thought substage

Piaget's second substage of preoperational thought—a child begins to reason primitively.

zone of proximal development (ZPD)

Vygotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with assistance.

short-term memory

The memory component in which individuals retain information for up to 30 seconds, assuming there is no rehearsal.


Deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information.

child-centered kindergarten

Education that involves the whole child by considering the child's physical, cognitive, and social development.

Montessori approach

Educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom in choosing activities.

developmentally appropriate practice

Education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children ( age-appropriateness) and the uniqueness of each child( individual-appropriateness)

Project Head Start

A government-funded program designed to provide low-income children with the opportunities needed for school success.

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