F&I War and Revolution
Terms in this set (80)
Secretary of State for England
Took control over colonial fighting in 1756 once the British join in the war
He angered colonists with his impressment, quartering of troops, and seizure of equipment
These policies were relaxed after the 1757 NY riots
Plan that was attempted in 1754 by Benjamin Franklin to unite the northern colonies
Franklin felt, if the colonies unified with taxes and minor government decisions, they would best suited to defend themselves of any attacks
All legislatures refused
War led by Ottawa war leader, Pontiac, who united Ohio Valley Native Americans and attacked colonial outposts
Native American anger was caused by the English raising prices on goods sold to them and the English ceasing to pay rent on their western forts
Treaty of Paris
Treaty that ended the French and Indian War
France gave land east of the Mississippi River and Canada to England
France gave land west of the Mississippi River to Spain
Proclamation of 1763
English proclamation that ordered settlers not to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
This angered colonists who believed it was unwarranted British interference
This marks the end of Salutary Neglect
William Pitt imposes impressment in order to get troops to fight in the French and Indian War
When impressment was no longer practiced, more people ended up joining the fight
Colonial general who led the failed battle against the forces of Fort Duquesne
After failing to hold back the French at Fort Necessity, he was sent back to Virginia where he was seen as a hero
Land speculators bought land in the Ohio Valley in order to sell it for a higher price
French and Native American conflicts made it hard to sell the land
This was one cause for conflict that led to the French and Indian War
Native American tribes that fought with the English and colonists during the French and Indian War
They supported them only when it appeared they would win
The colonists would remember this later on
Washington's fort made to hold off French troops from Fort Duquesne
It failed to hold back the forces, so Washington had to surrender
Treaty of Utrecht
Marked the end of French ambitions of control in Europe expressed in the wars of Louis XIV and preserved the European system based on the balance of power
When was the French and Indian war?
What were the other names for the French and Indian War?
Great War for the Empire; 7 Years War
What three things did the F&I War do?
Kicks french off the continent; destroys relationship w/ colonists and native americans; strains relationship between britain and colonists
Where was the main area the F&I war took place in?
Ohio River Valley and the Canadian border areas
When was the first phase?
What started the first phase?
Fort Necessity w/ Colonel George Washington
What was the only native american tribe to join the colonists?
What is a speculator?
Someone who buys land when it is cheap in hopes to sell it later for a profit.
What is Fort Duquesne known as now?
When did the second phase occur?
Where does fighting also occur during the second phase?
Europe (7 years war)
What is impressment?
a forced draft
What is quartering?
Putting troops in your house
What is seizure of equipment?
They would just take stuff
What three things did William Pitt practice?
Impressment; quartering; and seizure of equipment
When does Pitt relax his policies and why?
1757; after riots in NY
What was Pitt's title?
Secretary of State
Why did American and English relations deteriorate after the Treaty of Paris?
Americans were disturbed with actions of English soldiers; Pitt's practices in second phase; arguments over proclamation of 1763; england's belief that taxation must increase in order to pay for the huge cost of the global war
What did the English believe after the F&I war?
They believed the Americans owed them for removing the French presence in America
What did the English do after the war?
Stopped adhering to all treaties with Ohio Valley Native Americans and one final bloody uprising resulted from Ottawa war chief, Pontiac
What one effect did the Proclamation of 1763 have?
Agitated colonial settlers, who regarded it as unwarranted British interference in colonial affairs
What year was believed to be the turning point?
Why was 1763 important?
Pontiac's Rebellion; Proclamation of 1763; end of Salutary Neglect; first step on the "road to revolution"; pattern of demarcating "Indian Territory"
Who was the king at the end of the F&I war?
King George the III
Who did King George the III appoint as Prime Minister?
Colonies pay off debts for cost of F&I war
Why not tax?
colonists paid debts by allowing troops in homes, sending their soldiers, giving up equipment to the war
What was the first act? What was colonial protest like?
The sugar act; tax on sugar and molasses; sporadic and disorganized
What was the second act introduced? What was colonial protest like?
Currency Act; kept colonies from making paper money; saw as more evidence of British expansion of authority; salutary neglect is over; colonial protest still disorganized
What was the third act? When, what, protests?
Stamp Act; 1764; small tax on printed documents, tax without representation; raise revenue; unites colonies; first concept of virtual vs. actual representation
How many colonies attended Stamp Act Congress in 1765? Important person?
9: In NY; VA, GA, NH, NC not present; James Otis - no taxation without representation
What was the Sons of Liberty?
Created in response to Stamp Act; unified, underground intimidation force; held violent and non-violent protests throughout colonies
What was the repeal of the Stamp Act? Who replaced Grenville?
Protests in the colonies led repeal; Rockingham
What came right after the repeal of the stamp act? What was it?
Declaratory Act; claimed despite repeal of stamp act, england still has the power to tax the colonies; sets a precedent
What act came in 1765? Who refused?
Quartering Act; colonies were forced to quarter and pay for the quartering of all british soldiers; in PUBLIC barracks and buildings; NY, was punished
What were the last acts enforced? When?
Townshend Acts (late 1760s); Goods from Britain taxed, taxes paid tax collectors; more vice-admiralty courts; NY legislature disbanded
What was the writs of assistance?
blanket searches for smuggled goods
What was the reaction to the townshend acts?
Massachusetts Circular Letter (Sam Adams) went to all colonies for protest; Brits outlaw the letter; protests; taxes were repealed but not the tax on tea
When and what was the Boston Massacre?
1770; after quartering act was repealed still 1 of 5 people a soldier
Who continued to preach independence after the boston massacre?
What was the name of the boat that was burned in 1772?
Gaspee; looking for smuggled goods
What did the Committees of Correspondence do? When?
(1772-3); shadow government across all 13 colonies, in case of a war
What was the Boston Tea Party and when?
1773; Protest to Tea Act which made colonists buy tea ONLY from the east india tea company; leads to coercive acts
What were the Coercive Acts? When?
1774; Intolerable; response to tea party; boston harbor is closed only for food and firewood; quartering of troops in private homes; english control of MA government
What was the Quebec Act? When?
1774; Another act that just ticked everybody off
When/what was the first continental congress?
1774; organized grievances, protests, boycotts, and paramilitary rules
Who was important person for 1st continental congress? What state didn't go?
Patrick Henry; GA
What was the Committees of Observation?
Like correspondence but more active; collected own taxes, disrupting court sessions, organizing militias, stock piling weapons (Concord)
What battle first started the war? Important person?
Lexington and Concord; Revere
What was colonial thought after Lexington and Concord about war?
Small % wanted to revolt (Sam Adams, puritans, gentrified land owners); Large % is "on the fence" hoped it would go away; small % on english side (tories or loyalists, devout anglicans, merchants, government officials, slaves)
What was the 2nd continental congress?
Created to set up local governments, prepare for war, create a currency, and create a continental army; was the big one; created declaration and governs country during war; people of colonies still wanted to avoid war
What made George Washington change?
Battle of Bunker Hill; Olive Branch Petition; "Common Sense"
Battle of Bunker Hill? When?
June 17, 1775; victory made most americans believe they could square up with the british; really fought on breed's hill; "don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes"
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
John Dickinson petitioned for reconciliation with England; offered peaceful resolution to all issues that have risen; english refused; from pa; didn't want war
Who was Thomas Paine?
Wrote Common Sense; basically said we tried, they tried, its not working, time to leave; it works
Why was John Locke important?
Social Contract theory
What was the Declaration of Independence? When? Who?
Jefferson; July 4th, 1776; locke's social contract and listed colonies grievances
What was Battle of Trenton?
Surprises Hessians; army only had 1000 people and 13 canons; colonists win
What was first phase of revolution?
New England and battles before declaration
What was second phase of revolution?
What was third phase of revolution?
Focused on southern colonies hoping for loyalist support
With what country's help were the americans able to gain independence?
Washington's army vs. Howe's army
Washington - 19,000 men, no navy, no training, in-fighting; howe's - 35,000 men, hundreds of ships, disciplined and angry, hessians
When did the french join colonial forces? Who helped with this?
Saratoga; ben franklin; NAVY
What was Saratoga?
Changes course of war, french aid w/ ben franklin; oct 17, 1777
Important things in third phase?
English government splits w/ protests; patriotism is huge in colonies; french support; fighting focused in south; three years
Why were the first two phases different fighting wise?
Mostly Guerrilla fighting; british won the few major battles; slow going in the colonists' favor
Who is Cornwallis?
General who surrenders (is British) october 19, 1781
When/what was Peace of Paris?
September 3, 1783, colonies get independence; americans receive all colonial land