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PSY-P 103 Module 6
Terms in this set (35)
Our biological rythms
24 hour Circadian rhythm and 90minute sleep cycle
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle
-while asleep your brain is still awake and will respond to auditory stimuli
-as morning approaches body tempatures rise, and peaks during the day, when our thinking is at its highest
can be altered by artificial light, age, exprience
periodic, natural loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
-4 sleep cycles every 90 minutes
Stages of sleep
Awake but relaxed
NREM stages and descriptions
NREM-1-slowed breathing and first stage of sleep, experience hallucinations, sudden jerk (hypnagogic)
2-deep relaxation, about 20 minutes, periodic sleep spindles of rapid brain activity. you are clearly asleep but could be awaken without much difficulty
3-slow wave sleep, 30 min, your brain emits large slow delta waves, and you are hard to awaken
Awake but relaxed
your eyes are closed but still awake
brain starts to slow down to a large amplitude and slow, regular alpha waves (9-14 cps). Similar to that of someone meditating
early, light sleep the brain enters a high-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves (5-8 cps) Similar to that of someone day dreaming
During deepest sleep, brain activity slows down. Large amplitude, slow delta waves (1.5-4 cps)
stage 5 (REM)
deepest stage, and after start to move back to stage 1. Although asleep the brain engages in low amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like an awake individual
As the night goes on stage 4 decreases and stage 5 increases, 20-25% nights sleep is in REM
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur, also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active, about 60 min after you fall asleep for about ten minutes, waves look like NREM-1 when awake but your heart is eleveated, rapid breathing, genitals aroused unless scared
also your paralyzed so dont act out dreams (90)
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus. NREM-1
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
what affects sleep patterns?
they are genetically influenced, and biology and envioronment interact.
-bright light changes our sleepiness by activating light-sensitive retinal proteins, signaling the brains supreachiamatic nucleus to decrease production of melatonin (91)
a pair of cell clusters in thr hypothalamus that responds to light-sensitive retinal proteins; causes the pineal gland to increase or decrease production of melatonin, this modifying our feelings of sleepiness.
a sleep inducing hormone. It decreases in the moringin and increases at night
Why do we sleep?
we spend 1/3 our lives sleeping, to remain healthy, with a strong immune system, focused, and avoid accidents
1. sleep protects-better in a cave than wondering woods, evolution
2. sleep helps us recuperate-restore brain tissue and repair
3. sleep helps restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day's experiences-consolidates and strengthens memories, builds fading memories
4. sleep feeds creative thinking-inspire creativity to think smart and critically think
5. sleep supports growth- pituitary gland release hormones during deep sleep necessary for muscle development
(infants release more thus rapid growth spurts, older people release less and sleep less)
consequences of sleep deprivation
1) fatigue and death
2) impaired concentration, memory, and learning
3) emotional irritability
4) depressed immune system, damage and difficulty with infections- animals with high waking metabolisms produce free radicals that are toxic to neurons
5) vulnerable to
obesity, depression, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high BP, stroke, decrease in sex drive
slow reactions and visual attention -like all disasters occurring during midnight
more car wrecks when tired (see book)
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
usually include traces of the previous days nonsexual experiences
6 years is spent sleeping
What are the Dream Theories?
* Freud's wish-fulfillment
*Activation-synthesis- neural activation
see pages96-98 for more information)
Dreams provide a "psychic safety valve"—expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contain manifest (remembered) content and a deeper layer of latent content—a hidden meaning. understand our inner conflicts
fulfilling erotic wishes
Lacks any scientific support; dreams may be interpreted in many different ways
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content), believed to be symbolic of unconscious content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
Why do we dream?
*To satisfy our own wishes
*To file away memories
*To develop and preserve neural pathways
*To make sense of neural static
*To reflect Cognitive Development
We all need will develop memory and learning deficits
Dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidate our memories.
But why do we sometimes dream about things we have not experienced?
Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways. neural pathways of newborns are quickly developed, thus needing more sleep
This may be true, but it does not explain why we experience meaningful dreams.
Activation-synthesis or neural activation
REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories. making a dream and story out of random things
The individual's brain is weaving the stories, which still tells us something about the dreamer.
Dream content reflects dreamers' cognitive development - their knowledge and understanding. dreaming as we mature
Does not address the neuroscience of dreams.
When are you most likely to have a happy dream? a negative dream?
NREM, you are likely to have happy dreams. here you also increase performance and ability to remember
REM, you are likely to have negative dreams. People with depression go straight to REM so amygdala is very active
What do we dream of while sleeping?
1) negative emotional content: negative emotional content 80% of the time
2) failure dreasm: people commonly dream about failure, being attacked or pursued, rejected, or experiencing misfortune
3) sexual dream: contrary to belief, only occur 10% of the time in men and 1/30 in women
people suffering from tramas commonly report nightmares, like after 911
after playing a game we may dream about the games if played long
dream about what we do, muscians dream about music
more positive emotions occur, more compress in time ( repetitive thoughts), incorporate memories and information and also improves information processing and learning
more negative emotions, amtgadala is very active
depressed people go righ to REM
REM dreams are longer with more plots
can facilitate memory
may be related to creativity
sleeping pills reduce REM sleep, like alcohol
T/T on page 87 and handout
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