30 terms

Chapter 25

The Consolidation of Latin America
STUDY
PLAY
Toussaint L'Overture
leader of slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791 that led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
agreement that ended the Mexican-american war; Provided for loss of texas and California to the united states; Left legacy of distrust of the united states in latin America
Andres Santa Cruz
mestizo general who established union of independent Peru and Bolivia btwn 1829 and 1839
Juan Manuel de Rosas
strongman leader in Buenos aires; Took power in 1831; Commanded royalty of gauchos; Restored local autonomy
Mexican-American War
fought btwn mexico and the united states from 1846 to 1848; Led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces, loss of about one-half of mexicos national territory to the united states
Maximilian von Habsburg
proclaimed emperor maximilian of mexico following intervention of france in 1862; Ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under benito juz in 1867
Centralists
latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national govts with broad powers Often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives
Benito Juz
1806-1872 indian governor of state of Oaxaca in mexico; Leader of liberal rebellion against santa anna; Liberal govt defeated by French intervention under emperor napoleon III of france and establishment of Mexican empire under maximilian; Restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872
Manifest destiny
belief of the govt of the united states that it was destined to rule the continent from coast to coast; Led to annexation of texas and Mexican-american war
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; Despite early victories, was captured and executed
Caudillos
independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; Sometimes seized national govts to impose their concept of rule; Typical throughout newly indep countries of latin America
Spanish American war
war fought btwn spain and the US beginning in 1898; Centered on cuba and Puerto rico; Permitted American intervention in Caribbean, annexation of Puerto rico and the Philippines
Federalists
latin America politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional govts rather than centralized national administrations; Often supported by politicians who described themselves as liberals
Positivism
French philosophy based on observation and scientific approach to problems of society; Adopted by many latin American liberals in the aftermath of independence
Argentine Republic
replaced state of Buenos aires in 1862; Result of compromise btwn centralists and federalists
Panama Canal
an aspect of American intervention in latin America; Resulted from united states support for a Panamanian indep. Movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the panama isthmus; Provided short route btwn atlantic and pacific oceans; Completed 1914
Cientificos
advisors of govt of porfirio d who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; Permitted Mexican govt to project image of modernization
Simon Bolivar
creole military officer in northern south America; Won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador btwn 1817 and 1822; Military success led to creation of independent state of gran Colombia
Pedro I
son and successor of JoaoVI in brazil; Aided in the declaration of brazilian indep. From Portugal in 1822; Became constitutional emperor of brazil
Monroe doctrine
American declaration stated in 1823; Established that any attempt of a European country to colonize in the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act by the US; Supported by Great Britain as a means of opening latin American trade
Spanish Civil War
war pitting authoritarian and military leaders in spain against republicans and leftists btwn 1936 and 1939; Germany and italy supported the royalists ; The soviet union supported the republicans; Led to victory of the royalist forces
Joao VI
Portuguese monarch who established seat of govt in brazil from 1808 to 1020 as a result of Napoleonic invastion of iberican peninsula; Made brazil seat of empire with capital at rio de Janeiro
Gran Colombia
independent state created in south America as a result of military successes of simon bolr; Existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate nations
La Reforma
the liberal rebellion of benito juz against the forces of santa anna
Guano
bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; Exported from peru as a major item of trade btwn 1850 and 1880; Income from trade permitted end to American Indian tribute and abolition of slavery
Domingo F. Sarmiento
1811-1888 liberal politician and president of argentine republic from 1868 to 1874; Author of facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; Increased international trade, launched internal reforms in education and transportation
Augustde Iturbide
1783-1824 conservative creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; Combined forces entered mexico city in 1821; Later proclaimed emperor of mexico until its collapse in 1824
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
seized power in mexico alter collapse of empire of mexico in 1824; After brief reign of liberals, seized power in 1835 as caudillo; Defeated by Texans in war for independence in 1836; Defeated by united states in Mexican- American war in 1848; Unseated by liberal rebellion in 1854
Jose de San Martin
leader of independence movement in rio de la plata; Led to independence of the united provinces of the rio de la plata by 1816; Later led independence movement in chile and peru as well
Fazendas
coffee estates that spread within interior of brazil btwn 1840 and 1860; Created major export commodity for brazilian trade; Led to intensification of slavery in brazil