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Personal & Community Health Midterm
Terms in this set (232)
About ___ of adults are believed to have ADHD.
World Health Organization defines ____ as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity."
Health incorporates three ideas:
1. Being free from symptoms of disease and pain as much as possible.
2. Being active, able to do what you want and do what you must at the appropriate times.
3. Being in good spirits and feeling emotionally healthy most of the time.
Health is the absence of one or more of the "five Ds":
death, disease, discomfort, disability, and dissatisfaction
measures the health status of a population.
describes the predominance of a disease in a population
means the occurrence of particular diseases; the frequency at which certain diseases occur; the number of people who contract a disease or illness within a specifically given period of time.
are statistics on the number of people suffering from illness in a given population.
are the number of deaths in a given population.
The ____ encompasses the physiological, mental, emotional, social, spiritual, and environmental aspects of health. It emphasizes self-healing, the promotion of health, and the prevention of illness rather than solely the treatment of disease.
requires understanding emotions and coping with problems that arise in everyday life.
involves having a mind open to new ideas and concepts.
is the state of harmony between you and others.
is being able to enjoy what you are doing to earn a living or to contribute to society.
is the ability to perform social roles effectively, comfortably, and without harming others.
is a healthy body maintained by eating right, exercising regularly, avoiding harmful habits, making informed and responsible decisions about health, seeking medical care when needed, and participating in activities that help to prevent illness.
Today's _____ chronic diseases caused by lifestyle behaviors, are the leading causes of illness and death.
Approximately ____ of the 2.6 million deaths in the United States each year are due to lifestyle factors.
Leading the list of life-shortening behaviors is _____, which is responsible for more than 446,000 deaths among Americans per year.
Unhealthy _____ contribute to the next highest number of deaths in the United States after tobacco.
diet and activity patterns
______ accounts for close to 48,000 deaths each year.
Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent) was formerly referred to as ____ diabetes and is often is associated with being overweight.
Currently, ____ Americans have diabetes, and many more have prediabetes, which means they might develop diabetes in the next 10 years.
For every ______, the chance of diabetes doubles.
20% increase in weight gain
_____ often occurs when vision is affected by lifestyle.
Watching TV and computer screens closely, and reading books, magazines, and newspapers for many hours daily, cause ____.
Americans spend twice as much per capita on ____ than other medically developed countries.
The ____ went into effect in 2013 and aims to provide everyone access to medical care regardless of income, age, and health status.
Affordable Care Act
This is the government's health objectives for the nation to achieve by the year 2020:
-Help all people live longer and improve the quality of their lives.
-Eliminate health disparities among segments of the U.S. population.
_____ was developed with a greater understanding of advances in preventive services such as vaccinations and other pharmaceuticals, assistive technologies, computerized systems, and heightened awareness and demand for preventive health services and quality health care.
Healthy People 2020
College students are affected by specific health issues that are unique to their stage of life. Some of these issues affect students of any age such as ____, _____, and _____.
time pressure, academic stress, and financial stress.
Optimism ____ whereas pessimism ____.
Positive thoughts promote healthy behaviors, decreased risk of disease, and longer life when transformed into action through:
-Strategies for action
-Expectations for success
-Barriers to taking action
-Cues to action
____ are making note of things that you want to do or things that you want to avoid.
____ are the plans generated for attaining the goals that have been set.
Strategies for action
___ is the belief that one can influence the nature and quality of one's life, rather than believing that one's fate is determined by reacting to circumstances not in one's control.
___ was developed to explain and predict preventive health behavior. Also includes general health motivation for the purpose of distinguishing between illness and sick-role behavior from healthy behavior.
Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model includes:
-Perceived benefits of taking action
____ an individual's perception of how susceptible he or she is to disease.
____ the belief a person holds concerning the effects of a given disease or condition.
____ after accepting the susceptibility and seriousness, the action a person chooses is affected by his or her perception of how much the action will outweigh the costs.
Perceived benefits of taking action
____ are internal or external motivators.
Cues to action
____ an action may not take place even though the person believes in its benefit because of barriers such as cost, time, pain, etc.
Barriers to taking action
____ acknowledges that behavior change go through the following stages.
____ person is not considering change at any time in the foreseeable future.
____ person is aware that change is desirable but has not committed to act.
____ person desires change and commits to do so in the near future.
Person starts a change.
Person strengthens the change, realizing that even when a lapse occurs, he/she will not consistently return to the old behavior.
Person is no longer tempted to return to the previous behavior.
Changing a ____ begins with an intention to adopt a new behavior.
This intention is a combination of positive attitude about the new behavior and a perception of how others will respond to the new behavior.
Theory of Reasoned Action/ Theory of Planned Behavior
____ is affected by how much control the person thinks he/she has over changing the behavior.
Things you can do to stay healthy:
-Get seven to eight hours of sleep per night.
-Maintain a healthy body weight.
-Get regular exercise.
-Consume little or no alcohol.
-Eat breakfast regularly.
The ____ can affect health in powerful ways.
____, ____, and ____ lead to a state of mind-body harmony.
Joy, creativity, and contentment
____, ____, ____, and ____ contribute to mind-body disharmony, which increases risks for many illnesses, impedes healing, and fosters a sense that life is difficult and unpleasant.
Fear, anxiety, stress, and depression
Stress and trying to accommodate too many things at once can lead to continuous ____ of the ANS, leading to sleep disturbances, muscle tension, GI problems, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
It is possible to affect the ANS with ____; 20 to 30 minutes daily of quiet time to focus and reflect on the day to come or the day that has passed.
____ are chemical substances produced by certain organs and tissues in the body. They regulate specific biological functions.
The ____ is responsible for combating infections and illness and removing foreign organisms and toxic substances from the body.
____ is the occurrence of physical symptoms without any bodily disease or injury present.
Somatic Symptom Disorder
____ can have a positive effect on health—it increases comfort levels and decreases stress and anxiety.
_____ healing brought about by belief in a treatment that has no medical value in itself. Healing is not imagined, but the expectation of healing brings about physiological changes in the body that lead to healing.
Almost any physiological or psychological condition responds to ____.
As much as ____ of a drug's effectiveness is the result of the placebo effect.
30% to 70%
____ and ____ are especially impacted by placebo effects.
Depression and pain
____ is a negative, harmful placebo effect.
____ uses autosuggestion to establish a balance between the mind and body through changes in the autogenic nervous system.
____ involves learning to concentrate on one of six autogenic phrases for a few minutes each day.
____ is a method for using the mind to alter bodily functions. A recording device helps the subject see the physiological effects of his thoughts on a screen. This allows the person to learn self-control of those physiological activities.
____ is a state of concentration and focused attention; typically involves attaining a relaxed mental state in which suggestions for imaginative experiences are presented by another person. Can alter perception, sensation, emotion, thought, or behavior.
____ uses hypnosis to treat sickness.
____ is a long-standing religious and spiritual practice of focused awareness, trance induction, and relaxation that is increasingly used to promote health and healing.
____ involves sitting still with legs crossed while trying to empty the mind of its chatter.
____ teaches practitioners to focus on a particular phrase or mantra.
____ or ____ teaches meditators to observe the flow of thoughts that pass through the mind.
Insight or mindfulness meditation
The ____ is an automatic physiological response that is the opposite of autonomic nervous system activation
Methods of Relaxtion Response include:
-Progressive muscle relaxation
When the mind is ____ and ____, it is more open to suggestion, both positive and negative.
focused and relaxed
The mind can be made ____ to suggestion by many things in daily life such as movies, music, or anything else that causes us to focus our attention on images or sound or both.
____ can be used to reduce pain, alter many habits, improve performance, and much more.
____ can promote one's health and relieve one's stress through another's verbal suggestions to help create a particular physical response such as reducing stress, lowering blood pressure, or reducing pain.
____ can be a very effective treatment for pain. This is why practices like meditation, hypnotherapy, and prayer can be so effective.
____ has been used to help treat posttraumatic stress disorder.
Virtual reality therapy (VRT)
____ occurs as a result of the interplay of environmental situations and life events and the mental, emotional, and physical reactions.
____ are situations and events that bring about stress.
____ are stressful event caused by death or by loss of property.
____ are perceived or interpreted as potentially causing harm or loss.
____ are major life transitions that are opportunities for growth.
Positive challenges create ____.
negative challenges create ____.
____ is knowing a stressful situation will occur.
____ is the appraisal of a situation as absolutely or potentially damaging to one's physical or psychological well-being or a threat to one's survival. Believing that one's personal resources are insufficient to overcome the threat to one's well-being.
Mental Component of Stress
___ are those who believe they can influence the course of their lives will have less stress than those who believe they are not in control.
____ consists of unpleasant emotions that arise from one's appraisal of a situation as harmful or threatening and one's resources for protection as limited.
Emotional Component of Stress
____ are those who believe things will improve experience less stress than those who believe things will get worse.
Belief in outcome
____ is having someone to talk to and believing they can help.
These are automatic physiological responses to real or imagined situations that are considered damaging or threatening.
Physiological Component of Stress
____ is a defensive reaction that prepares the organism for conflict or escape by triggering hormonal, cardiovascular, metabolic, and other changes.
Emotions arise in the ____, and a subsequent physiological response is mediated by the hypothalamus.
_____ includes loss of skeletal muscle tone (creates predator disinterest), drop in blood pressure (reduces blood loss if injured), and tightening of the larynx (prevents vocalization).
____ is a coordinated physiological response to stress involving the hypothalamus of the brain and the pituitary and adrenal glands.
____ is when prolonged stress produces a characteristic response called the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
General Adaptation Syndrome
General Adaptation Syndrome has three phases:
1) Stage of alarm
2) Stage of resistance
3) Stage of exhaustion
____ is how the body adapts to the continued presence of the stressor by producing more epinephrine, increasing alertness and blood pressure, and suppressing the immune system; if prolonged, the ability to resist is depleted.
Stage of resistance
____ is when the ability to resist is depleted, the person becomes ill; this can take months or years to occur.
Stage of exhaustion
____ results from stress caused by involvement in war, living through a natural disaster, rape, physical assault, life-threatening illness, or any other traumatic experience.
____ is a person's ability to withstand or resist a stressor is lowered by the need to deal with the stressor, no matter what the stressor is.
Stage of alarm
____ is a serious, long-lasting, psychological condition produced by stress.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
____ is when your mental functions produce a sense or optimism, vitality, and well-being, and when your intentional behaviors lead to productive activities, fulfilling relationships with others, and the ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity.
____ are alterations in thinking, emotions, and/or intentional behaviors that produce psychological distress and/or impaired functioning.
Much of human behavior is motivated by basic ____.
____ involve physical safety and survival.
____social belonging, self-esteem.
____ is interpreting data gathered by the senses (sight, smell, hearing, taste, touch, movement).
____ is integrating new perceptions with previous ones and storing them in memory as values, beliefs, and attitudes.
____ is formulating plans of action.
Reasoning and problem solving
____ provide a sense of what is pleasant and unpleasant, which helps us evaluate experiences. This in turn sets the stage for appropriate behavior.
____ can help those in psychological stress by encouraging individuals to change the cognitions that contribute to stress.
Cognitive behavioral therapy
____ are the methods people use to solve life problems that cause emotional distress.
____ are mental processes people use to distort their own perceptions and awarenesses of reality to avoid unpleasant thoughts, memories, emotions, and situations.
____ is a personal trait characterized by an ongoing mistrust of others, cynicism, a personal emotional style of anger mixed with distrust and contempt, and a tendency to act out those feelings with overt aggression, snide comments, or criticism.
____ are resources that one receives from others, especially those in immediate contact and with whom a person has emotional or social ties.
_____ reassurance, acceptance, love, trust, and intimacy.
____ tangible help, and material and financial assistance.
____ is specific information and knowledge about available resources in the environment.
____ helps with decision making
____ is the encouragement of feelings of belonging to the community
____ is a powerful emotion that arises in response to situations that are interpreted as dangerous.
___ is the fear of heights.
____ is the fear of open spaces.
____ is the fear of dirt and germs.
____ is the fear of snakes.
A ____ is an intense, irrational fear that can seriously disrupt a person's life.
___ is the fear of animals.
____ is the fear of being observed and evaluated by others in all social situations most of the time.
Social phobia (social anxiety disorder)
____ is the response to an imaginary or future situation that is interpreted as threatening.
____ is an ongoing, pervasive fear of being observed and evaluated by others in almost all social situations most of the time.
Social anxiety disorder
____ is a condition that involves sudden, terrifying panic attacks that generally occur without warning.
____ is a persistent excessive worry and feelings of anxiety.
Generalized anxiety disorder
____ is a persistent, excessive worry and feelings of anxiety.
Generalized anxiety disorder
:____ is characterized by persistent, unwelcome thoughts or images (obsessions) that often are accompanied by an uncontrollable, urgent need to engage in certain rituals.
Some people are susceptible to depression during the winter months; this is known as ____ and is believed to be linked to lack of exposure to sunlight.
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
____ is a more mild form of depression associated with disturbances in sleep, appetite, and ability to concentrate.
____ interpreting one setback as evidence that every similar situation will forever turn out badly.
____ focusing only on the negative and filtering out the positive.
____ transforming positive occurrences into negative experiences.
Disqualifying the positive
____ is characterized by major episodes of depression alternating with periods of excited euphoria ("mania").
In the United States, suicide ranks among the ___ most frequent causes of death.
A person with ____ has difficulty focusing on activities, organizing and finishing tasks, and managing his or her time.
adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
____ is a group of conditions characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills and social interactions, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)
____ enhances attentiveness, concentration, mood, and motivation.
____ is linked to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, susceptibility to stress, excess body weight, and perturbed immune functioning.
____ is characterized as having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep.
____ is an extreme tendency to fall asleep during the day.
____ is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15-24 in the United States.
____ are activities that interrupt restful sleep.
____ and ____ are major influences on food consumption patterns.
Marketing and advertising
____ are food items that are high in nutrition in proportion to their calorie content.
____ are food items that contain considerable calories but are of little nutritional value.
The ____ produces large quantities of inexpensive calories, but at a potential cost to health. Fast and processed foods are major contributors to heart disease, type 2 diabetes, overweight, high blood pressure, and some cancers.
industrialized food system
The U.S. government requires all manufactured foods to carry two food labels:
-Nutrition Facts label
____ is the percentage of the recommended daily amount that is contained in the food.
Percent daily value (PDV) of each nutrient
____ outline the daily nutrient requirements of most Americans.
Recommended dietary allowances (RDAs)
____ are set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences.
____ recommended nutrient intakes intended to prevent chronic diseases resulting from improper nutrition, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, certain cancers, diseases resulting from overweight, and other diseases that are diet related.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
____ is the total amount of a nutrient from food, considered safe for 98% of the population.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
____ is measured in calories.
A ____ is equivalent to 1,000 calories.
____ is the process of breaking down molecules to derive energy and obtain material for the manufacture of cellular molecules.
Energy is needed for:
-Growth and repair
____ is the minimum energy needed just to keep the body alive at complete rest.
Daily calorie need is called ____, which is about 1,100 calories per day for women and about 1,300 calories per day for men.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Proteins are composed of chemical units called ____ (20 total).
_____ are those that must come from food (our body can't make them).
Essential amino acids (9)
____ are those that the body can make, therefore they are not specifically required in the diet.
Nonessential amino acids (11)
____ contains all of the essential amino acids.
Men should consume about ____.
Women should consume about ____.
____ are the major source of the body's energy.
____ are the most common simple sugar, found in all plants and animals, circulates in the blood stream because the body converts all sugars to glucose.
____ are one of the sweetest sugars, e.g., high fructose corn syrup.
____ = glucose + fructose; table sugar.
_____ = glucose + galactose.
____ consists of many glucose molecules linked together.
____ form in which carbohydrates are stored in humans and animals.
____ is a group of substances that are all insoluble in water.
____ is the most common type of fat in your body.
____ are fatlike compounds that occurs in bile, blood, brain, nerve tissue, liver, other body parts.
____ is the essential component of cell membranes.
____ are completely bound to hydrogen.
Saturated fatty acid
____ carries one less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that it possibly could carry.
____ lacks two or more hydrogen atoms.
____ are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils.
Trans fatty acids
____ are chemicals that are added primarily to packaged food.
____ are substances that facilitate (but don't cause) a variety of biological processes.
There are two types of vitamins:
-Water-soluble (C, Bs)
-Fat-soluble (A, D, E, K)
____ are substances that can inhibit the oxidation of free radicals.
Antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E)
____ are substances derived from the essential amino acid methionine, high levels increase the risk of coronary artery disease and heart attack.
Folic acid helps lower the body's manufacture of ____.
____ are inorganic substances that assist body functions.
Adults need about ____ of dietary salt per day.
____ are non-nutrients which come from plants that positively affect human physiology.
____, an essential nutrient, is a major component of cells and blood.
A ____ provides one or more of the 40 essential nutrients, or nonessential vitamins, minerals, enzymes, amino acids, herbs, hormones, and nucleic acids.
____ many dietary supplements for weight loss have been taken off the market after complications from their use were discovered.
____ are agricultural plants and animals in which one or more genes from different organisms have been inserted using modern biotechnological methods.
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
Each day, about ____ of the U.S. population, or 46 million people, eat at a fast-food restaurant.
Research indicates that ____ are generally at lower risk than nonvegetarians are for coronary heart disease, hypertension, some forms of cancer, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and obesity.
____, or strict vegetarian, diets exclude all animal products, including milk, cheese, eggs, and other dairy products.
____ diets exclude meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs but include dairy products.
____ intake can cause a low blood sugar reaction, or reactive hypoglycemia.
_____ is needed for normal physiological function.
____ is energy stored as fat.
1 lb = ____ calories
____ is storage fat exceeding 30% of body weight.
____ is a way of calculating body fatness.
Body mass index
____ is taking in only what you need so that your input equals output.
____ is the storage form of carbohydrates
_____ is the storage form of fat
____ , or restricting calories, doesn't work in the long run because the body turns on a mechanism that conserves body fat.
Going on a diet
____ reduces portion size to limit calories consumed, e.g., Weight Watchers, LA Weight Loss, and Jenny Craig.
____ reduces intake of breads, rice, pasta, potatoes, sweets, and snacks, e.g., Atkins and South Beach.
____ recommend high complex carbohydrates and little fat, e.g., Ornish.
____ is a person's mental picture of her or his own body.
____ judgment a person makes about his or her body image.
Three most common eating disorders are:
anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating.
Athletes are at risk for ____, a rigid fixation with righteous and healthy eating whereby one prepares proper meals but carries guilt and anxiety, self-punishing through excessive exercise when they do not follow their desired eating regimen.
____ is the voluntary refusal to eat that leads to severe underweight and disturbances in metabolism.
____ is the voluntary restriction of food intake followed by extreme overeating and self-induced vomiting or use of laxatives.
____ is an uncontrollable consumption of large quantities of food in a short period of time, even if the person is not hungry.
Binge eating disorder
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