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biology

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atoms
the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons. the basic unit of chemical structure
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
chemical bond
formed by stripping an outer shell electron from one atom and transforming it to another
ion
when an atom loses or gains electrons and it becomes negatively or positively charged
covalent bond
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
nonpolar covalent bond
covalent bond where electrons are shared equally
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally
oxygen hydrogen and carbon
the most abundant elements in living things
carbon
structual backbone of all organic molecules because it forms covalent bonds better than any other element
macromolecules
Large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together
hydrolysis reactions
breaks large molecules into smaller using up water molecules. These are the reverse of condensation reactions
polymers
Formed by joining together smaller units called monomers
monosaccharides
- simpliest carbohydrate
- glucose, fructose, galactose
oligosaccharides
- Short chain of covalently bonded sugar monomers
- maltose, lactose, sucrose
complex carbohydrates
- Long chains of sugar units linked together to form starch or fiber
- cellulose, glycogen, chitin
fatty acids
long hydrogen chain terminating with an acid
saturated fats
only have single bonds of hydrogen
unsaturated fats
have at least one double bond of liquid
trans fatty acids
unsaturated but double bond keeps fatty acid chain straight(unhealthy)
cis fatty acids
unsaturated and double bond kinks fatty acid chain
triglycerides
glycerol + 3 fatty acids
waxes
Long-chain fatty acids tightly packed and linked to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.
sterols
- extremely complex ring systems
- cholesterol, sex hormones
prokaryotic
cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles
eukaryotic
having cells with 'good' or membrane-bound nuclei
phospholipids
most abundant compnent of cell membranes
archaea
earliest bacteria found on earth
eubacteria
most bacteria found
rough endoplasmic reticulum
An endomembrane system covered with ribosomes where many proteins for transport are assembled.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
No ribosomes, makes lipids
mitochondria
- powerhouse
- organelle for transferring energy in carbohydrates to ATP in eukaryotes
chloraplast
organelle for converting solar energy in the process of photosynthesis
central vacuole
large organelle which accumulates various useful chemical products of water as plant cells mature
ribosomes
extremely small and numerous structures which decode genetic info and then produce and modify proteins
cytoskeleton
provides cell with internal organization, shape, and sometimes capacity to move
flagella
long extentions of plasma membrane that are capable of whip-like movement and can provide cellular locomotion
cilia
short, numerous extentions that can also provide movement
pseudopodia
temporary projections of cytoplasm that can be used in locomotion and engulfment of food
cell walls
generally carbohydrates that work for mecranical support