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the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons. the basic unit of chemical structure


atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

chemical bond

formed by stripping an outer shell electron from one atom and transforming it to another


when an atom loses or gains electrons and it becomes negatively or positively charged

covalent bond

bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms

nonpolar covalent bond

covalent bond where electrons are shared equally

polar covalent bond

a covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally

oxygen hydrogen and carbon

the most abundant elements in living things


structual backbone of all organic molecules because it forms covalent bonds better than any other element


Large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together

hydrolysis reactions

breaks large molecules into smaller using up water molecules. These are the reverse of condensation reactions


Formed by joining together smaller units called monomers


- simpliest carbohydrate
- glucose, fructose, galactose


- Short chain of covalently bonded sugar monomers
- maltose, lactose, sucrose

complex carbohydrates

- Long chains of sugar units linked together to form starch or fiber
- cellulose, glycogen, chitin

fatty acids

long hydrogen chain terminating with an acid

saturated fats

only have single bonds of hydrogen

unsaturated fats

have at least one double bond of liquid

trans fatty acids

unsaturated but double bond keeps fatty acid chain straight(unhealthy)

cis fatty acids

unsaturated and double bond kinks fatty acid chain


glycerol + 3 fatty acids


Long-chain fatty acids tightly packed and linked to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.


- extremely complex ring systems
- cholesterol, sex hormones


cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles


having cells with 'good' or membrane-bound nuclei


most abundant compnent of cell membranes


earliest bacteria found on earth


most bacteria found

rough endoplasmic reticulum

An endomembrane system covered with ribosomes where many proteins for transport are assembled.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

No ribosomes, makes lipids


- powerhouse
- organelle for transferring energy in carbohydrates to ATP in eukaryotes


organelle for converting solar energy in the process of photosynthesis

central vacuole

large organelle which accumulates various useful chemical products of water as plant cells mature


extremely small and numerous structures which decode genetic info and then produce and modify proteins


provides cell with internal organization, shape, and sometimes capacity to move


long extentions of plasma membrane that are capable of whip-like movement and can provide cellular locomotion


short, numerous extentions that can also provide movement


temporary projections of cytoplasm that can be used in locomotion and engulfment of food

cell walls

generally carbohydrates that work for mecranical support

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