CAH Chapter 30/31
Terms in this set (56)
An international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices.
When a company would produce parts abroad and then assemble them in their country. Goal was to save money.
Author of the 1962 bestselling book, The Silent Spring.
An independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment.
(1974-1977), Solely elected by a vote from Congress. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. Evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam, closing the war. We are heading toward rapid inflation. He runs again and debates Jimmy Carter. At the debate he is asked how he would handle the communists in eastern Europe and he said there were none and this apparently sealed his fate.
(1977-1981), Created the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
Israeli statesman (born in Russia) who (as prime minister of Israel) negotiated a peace treaty with Anwar Sadat (then the president of Egypt)
Egyptian statesman who (as president of Egypt) negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel)
Camp David Accords
(1978) were negotiated at a presidential retreat by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin; they were brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. They led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and more-or-less normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. This isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981.
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
Iran Hostage Crisis
(Nov. 4) group of Iranian students attacked the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran and about 90 Americans were captured and held for around 444 days in captivity; almost all of the situation occurred under Carter's presidency, but do to the Iranian dislike of Carter, Iran waited until hours after Reagan was elected to release the hostages
A political group made up of fundamentalist Christians. Although not it did not accomplish much, it did show that Americans were starting to worry about the moral fabric of society.
It was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women. It was originally written by Alice Paul and, in 1923, it was introduced in the Congress for the first time. In 1972, it passed both houses of Congress and went to the state legislatures for ratification.
(1981-1985) and (1985-1989), first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Roe v Wade
The 1973 Supreme Court decision holding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer.
Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981
A federal law passed to boost the economy, reduce inflation and increase employment.
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
This Supreme Court Case decided in 1978 that affirmative action is legal as long as race is not the only factor considered; Also known as the The University of California vs. Alan, it was an issue that he had not been admitted into U.C. because they only preferred the minority races; it threatened the progress made by the Civil Rights Movement.
A region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest that has seen substantial population growth in recent decades, partly fueled by a surge in retiring baby boomers who migrate domestically, as well as the influx of immigrants, both legal and illegal.
A syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
War on Drugs
A prohibition campaign undertaken by the United States government with the assistance of participating countries, intended to reduce the illegal drug trade; DEA; Costs more money.
Reagan's proposed Initiative (1983), also known as "Star Wars," called for a land- or space-based shield against a nuclear attack. Although it was criticized as unfeasible and in violation of the Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, Congress approved billions of dollars for development.
A label given to the various rebel groups that were active from 1979 through to the early 1990s in opposition to the Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua. Among the separate contra groups, the Nicaraguan Democratic Force (FDN) emerged as the largest by far. In 1987, virtually all organizations were united, at least nominally, into the Nicaraguan Resistance.
Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagan's administration continued to illegally support the rebels. These officials secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages being held in the Middle East. Profits from these sales were then sent to the contras.
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
Persian Gulf War
(1990 - 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States' coalition emerging victorious.
Operation Desert Storm
1991 air attack operation launched by George H.W. Bush after Iraq invaded Kuwait; Iraq's attempted retaliation caused defeated & Iraq was soon forced to sign a ceasefire agreement with the US.
Osama Bin Laden
Founder of al Qaeda, the terrorist network responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001, and other attacks.
A network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001.
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
Contract with America
In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limits for members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut.
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached; scandal with White House intern Monica Lewinsky and Whitewater business faults
After the disagreement in the federal government over the budget between Republican leaders and the president, Public opinion turned quickly and powerfully against the Republican leadership and against much of its agenda. This controversial Republican Speaker of the House, quickly became one of the most unpopular political leaders in the nation, while President Clinton slowly improved his standing in the polls.
Welfare Reform Act
Limited people to no more than two consecutive years on welfare and required them to work to receive welfare benefits. It also increased childcare spending and gave tax breaks to companies that hired new employees who had been on welfare
An international body that enforces agreements that reduce barriers to international trade.
A nickname for the Southern part of San Francisco Bay Area in the northern California, originally referring to the concentration of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers, but eventually referring to the concentration of all types of high-tech businesses
A global network connecting millions of computers, making it possible to exchange information.
California measure designed to deny welfare and other benefits to illegal aliens. Overwhelmingly passed the popular vote, but overturned in federal court because it extending beyond the bounds of state rights to attempt to control immigration.
A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
An agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, initially created by Presidential Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978 and implemented by two Executive Orders on April 1, 1979. The agency's primary purpose is to coordinate the response to a disaster that has occurred in the United States and that overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities. Essentially there to help with natural disasters.
George W. Bush
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and anti-terrorism in 2001.
World Trade Center
Once an icon for the global economy in New York, became a target for terrorism in 1993 and 2001; al Qaeda was solely responsible for the 9-11 attacks.
USA Patriot Act
Law passed due to 9/11 attacks; sought to prevent further terrorist attacks by allowing greater government access to electronic communications and other information; criticized by some as violating civil liberties
Department of Homeland Security
After 9/11 occurred, it was established as the newest member of the cabinet with the goal to secure America.
No Child Left Behind
Holds states, schools, and school districts more accountable for their standardized tests scores. The wanted outcome was better tests scores all around and overall a smarter and better population of young people that would positively contribute to a growing America.
First african-american president of the US.
First Lady from 1992-2000; maintained a significant career as First Lady; attacked by conservatives and anti-feminists; took leading role in government affairs; promoted equality of sexes
Arizona Senator and war hero was runner up to George W. Bush for the GOP presidential nomination in 2000; also ran for president in 2008 -lost to President Obama
Former Governor of Alaska and John McCain's running mate in the 2008 Presidential Election. She tried to paint Obama as not belonging to the "real America." Some say McCain's decision to choose her was a big mistake, as she made some controversial statements and showed poorly in some interviews.
Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP)
A 2008 Federal government program that authorized the U.S. Treasury to loan up to $700 billion to critical financial institutions and other U.S. firms that were in extreme financial trouble and therefore at high risk of failure.
Real Estate Bubble
A run-up in housing prices fueled by demand, speculation and the belief that recent history is an infallible forecast of the future - when demand decreases while supply increases so the price drops
Term for when homeowners owe more on their mortgage than their house is worth.
Military base granted to the US in Cuba which is now used as a prison.