A protective reaction caused by nonliving agents (heat, trauma). Always present with infection. It establishes an environment for healing. Its a good thing
The entry and multiplication of an organism in a host. Involves invasion of tissue or cells by microorganisms. Always has inflammation present. Often reveals altered lab values. only occurs through superimposed evasion of microorganisms.
if the infectious disease can be transmitted directly from one person to another
An infection that affects the entire body instead of just a single organ or part. spreads through blood stream
Local or systemic. PT information, clinical appearance (objective and subjective). Vital signs. Lab results (CBC and culture report)
Typical signs and symptoms may not be present bc of reduced immune and inflammatory response
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
RBC. Transport gases and maintain acid-base balance. Elevated in inflammation. normal male 4,710,000-5,140,000 and females 4,200,000-4,870,000
platelets. essential role in coagulation, hemostatsis, and blood thrombus formation. normal 150,000-450,000
White blood cells
increase in acute infection. Normal 5,000-10,000. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes
First type of phagocyctic cell to migrate from blood in inflammation; increase in acute; short life span 24-48hrs; normal 55-70% of WBC.
immature neutrophils. during infection bone marrow releases bands. bands arent normally there only there during infection.
Increased in parasitic infection and allergic reactions. normal 1-4% of WBC
normal during infection; elevated in healing stage on inflammation. normal 0.5-1.5% of WBC
2nd type of phagocytic cell to migrate from blood in inflammation/infection. arrives 3-7 days after onset of inflammation (tells you infection has been going on for awhile); long life span; can remain in tissue for extended period of time. Turn into macrophages. normal 5-10% of WBC.
WBC. increase in chronic bacterial and viral infections. decreased in sepsis. normal 20-40% of WBC
elevate WBC count
lower WBC count
shift to the left
bands are present
Signs of inflammation
swelling, redness (hyperemia), heat, pain/tenderness, loss of function
the destruction and absorption of bacteria. monocytes become macrophages
an increase in the number of circulating WBCs. the body's response to WBCs leaving blood vessels.
short term, heals in 2-3 weeks, no residual damage, neutrophils predominant
lasts for weeks, months, or years. Persistence (injured tissues), predominant cells are lymphs and marcrophages. Debilitation leads to decreased immunity and more at risk for infection.
A place where a pathogen can survive but may or may not multiply. Warm dark moist places
portal of exit
after microorganisms find a site to grow and multiply, they must find a portal of exit if they are to enter another hose and cause disease. usually blood or body fluids
Mode of transmission
hands, direct, or indirect
portal of entry
where organisms enter the body. Through breaks in the skin, eyes, nose, mouth, ears, vagina, rectum
person who show no symptoms of illness but who have pathogens on or in their bodies that can be transferred to others.
hospital acquired, primarily transmitted by health care workers, #1 cause is improper handwashing. occurs in urinary tract, surgical wounds, respiratory tract, blood stream.
a type of HAI from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. ex from surgery
is present outside the PT. ex: wound infection. decontamination in surgery
part of normal flora or virulent organism
occurs when part of the PTs flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results
the absence of pathogenic (disease-producing) microorganisms. Refers to practices/procedures that assist in reducing the risk for infection
reduce number of organisms, spores, prevents spread from place to person or person to person, invasive procedures
Sterile, eliminates all microorganisms and pathogens, requires sterile field and equipment
age (infants and elderly), nutritional status, stress, disease process, medical therapy, clinical appearance, laboratory data
Applies to all blood and body fluids except sweat even if blood is not present, contact with blood, body fluids, nonintact skin, and mucous membranes
direct is applied to the care and handling of contaminated body fluids. Indirect involves the transfer of an infectious agent through a contaminated intermediate object.
focus on diseases that are transmitted by large droplets that are expelled into the air 3-6 ft. wear mask within 3ft of PT, hand hygiene
focus on diseases that are transmitted by smaller droplets that remain in the air for long periods of time. negative air flow
focuses on a very limited PT population. positive airflow
control/eliminate infectious agents
medical asepsis, administer medication, disinfection/sterilization
dressing changes, apply principles of wound care, discard contaminated articles, incontinent care
control portals of exit
careful handling of body fluids and linen
consistent handwashing, cleaning or equipment and environment, do not share bedpans, teach PTS and family about handwashing
control portal of entry
maintain skin integrity, avoid wrinkles in linen, maintain integrity of mucus membranes, maintain closed drainage systems
breaks in skin and mucous membranes, invasive devices, stasis of body fluids, inadequate nutrition, dehydration, stress, immune system dysfunction coexisting medical problems, drug therapy