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A protective reaction caused by nonliving agents (heat, trauma). Always present with infection. It establishes an environment for healing. Its a good thing


The entry and multiplication of an organism in a host. Involves invasion of tissue or cells by microorganisms. Always has inflammation present. Often reveals altered lab values. only occurs through superimposed evasion of microorganisms.

Communicable disease

if the infectious disease can be transmitted directly from one person to another


An infection that affects the entire body instead of just a single organ or part. spreads through blood stream

recognizing infection

Local or systemic. PT information, clinical appearance (objective and subjective). Vital signs. Lab results (CBC and culture report)


Typical signs and symptoms may not be present bc of reduced immune and inflammatory response

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes


RBC. Transport gases and maintain acid-base balance. Elevated in inflammation. normal male 4,710,000-5,140,000 and females 4,200,000-4,870,000




platelets. essential role in coagulation, hemostatsis, and blood thrombus formation. normal 150,000-450,000

White blood cells

increase in acute infection. Normal 5,000-10,000. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes


First type of phagocyctic cell to migrate from blood in inflammation; increase in acute; short life span 24-48hrs; normal 55-70% of WBC.


immature neutrophils. during infection bone marrow releases bands. bands arent normally there only there during infection.


Increased in parasitic infection and allergic reactions. normal 1-4% of WBC


normal during infection; elevated in healing stage on inflammation. normal 0.5-1.5% of WBC


2nd type of phagocytic cell to migrate from blood in inflammation/infection. arrives 3-7 days after onset of inflammation (tells you infection has been going on for awhile); long life span; can remain in tissue for extended period of time. Turn into macrophages. normal 5-10% of WBC.


WBC. increase in chronic bacterial and viral infections. decreased in sepsis. normal 20-40% of WBC


elevate WBC count


lower WBC count

shift to the left

bands are present

Signs of inflammation

swelling, redness (hyperemia), heat, pain/tenderness, loss of function


the destruction and absorption of bacteria. monocytes become macrophages


an increase in the number of circulating WBCs. the body's response to WBCs leaving blood vessels.

Acute inflammation

short term, heals in 2-3 weeks, no residual damage, neutrophils predominant

Chronic inflammation

lasts for weeks, months, or years. Persistence (injured tissues), predominant cells are lymphs and marcrophages. Debilitation leads to decreased immunity and more at risk for infection.


A place where a pathogen can survive but may or may not multiply. Warm dark moist places

portal of exit

after microorganisms find a site to grow and multiply, they must find a portal of exit if they are to enter another hose and cause disease. usually blood or body fluids

Mode of transmission

hands, direct, or indirect

portal of entry

where organisms enter the body. Through breaks in the skin, eyes, nose, mouth, ears, vagina, rectum


person who show no symptoms of illness but who have pathogens on or in their bodies that can be transferred to others.

nosocomial infections

hospital acquired, primarily transmitted by health care workers, #1 cause is improper handwashing. occurs in urinary tract, surgical wounds, respiratory tract, blood stream.

iatrogenic infections

a type of HAI from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. ex from surgery

exogenous organism

is present outside the PT. ex: wound infection. decontamination in surgery

endogenous organism

part of normal flora or virulent organism

endogenous infection

occurs when part of the PTs flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results


the absence of pathogenic (disease-producing) microorganisms. Refers to practices/procedures that assist in reducing the risk for infection

Medical asepsis

reduce number of organisms, spores, prevents spread from place to person or person to person, invasive procedures

Surgical asepsis

Sterile, eliminates all microorganisms and pathogens, requires sterile field and equipment


age (infants and elderly), nutritional status, stress, disease process, medical therapy, clinical appearance, laboratory data

standard precautions

Applies to all blood and body fluids except sweat even if blood is not present, contact with blood, body fluids, nonintact skin, and mucous membranes

contact transmission

direct is applied to the care and handling of contaminated body fluids. Indirect involves the transfer of an infectious agent through a contaminated intermediate object.

droplet precautions

focus on diseases that are transmitted by large droplets that are expelled into the air 3-6 ft. wear mask within 3ft of PT, hand hygiene

airborne precautions

focus on diseases that are transmitted by smaller droplets that remain in the air for long periods of time. negative air flow

protective environment

focuses on a very limited PT population. positive airflow

control/eliminate infectious agents

medical asepsis, administer medication, disinfection/sterilization

control/eliminate reservoirs

dressing changes, apply principles of wound care, discard contaminated articles, incontinent care

control portals of exit

careful handling of body fluids and linen

control transmission

consistent handwashing, cleaning or equipment and environment, do not share bedpans, teach PTS and family about handwashing

control portal of entry

maintain skin integrity, avoid wrinkles in linen, maintain integrity of mucus membranes, maintain closed drainage systems

susceptible host

breaks in skin and mucous membranes, invasive devices, stasis of body fluids, inadequate nutrition, dehydration, stress, immune system dysfunction coexisting medical problems, drug therapy

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