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fungi and bacteria that break complex organic material into smaller molecules.

Hydrothermal Vents

fissures in the seafloor where molten rock superheats water; Seawater percolates through cracks and is heated to about 350 degrees Celsius


requires oxygen and produces water, energy, and carbon-dioxide.


saturated and unsaturated. Essential to the body. Second macro-nutrient burned.


carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. They provide energy to the body.


the last macro-nutrient burned. Comes from meat. Formed from long chains of amino acids. Effects every chemical reaction in the body.

Essential Amino Acids

nine amino acids that cells cannot manufacture. Must eat proteins such as milk, meat, fish, and eggs.


has information to tell the cells how to make proteins.


cold blooded animals: dont have control over internal temperature. Needs less food/ energy.


basil metabolic rate. Rate at which your body burns energy to perform minimum functions.

Metabolic Rate

two factors; 1. BMR 2. the amount of activity you engage in every day.

Higher BMR

endothermic animals. takes a lot of energy to maintain in constant internal temp.

Lower BMR

Ectothermic animals. internal temp varies.


power house of the cell, cell organelle that releases energy from stored food molecules

Kreb Cycle

produces carbon-dioxide and hydrogen when oxygen and glucose are combined.

Electron Transport System

third step of the combustion process. oxygen combines with hydrogen to make water. Large energy release.

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