131 terms

Unit 8

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Terms in this set (...)

Invertebrate
Animal that does not have a backbone, or vertebral column (657)
Vertebrate
Animal that has a vertebral column, or backbone (567)
Endoderm
Innermost germ layer of most animals; develops into the lining of the digestive tract and much of the respiratory system (661)
Mesoderm
Middle germ layer of most animals; gives rise to muscles and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems (661)
Ectoderm
Outermost germ layer of most animals; gives rise to outer layer of the skin, sense organs, and nerves (661)
radial symmetry
Body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body; characteristic of sea anemones and sea stars (662, 748)
bilateral symmetry
Body plan in which only a single, imaginary line can divide the body into two equal halves; characteristic of worms, arthropods, and chordates (662, 748)
Cephalization
Concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body (633, 748)
Coelom
Fluid-filled body cavity lined with mesoderm (683, 749)
Polyp
Usually sessile stage of the life cycle of cnidarian that has a cylindrical body with armlike tentacles (670)
Medusa
Motile stage of the lifecycle of a cnidarian that has a bell-shaped body (670)
nerve net
Loosely organized network of nerve cells that together allow cnidarians to detect stimuli (671)
hydrostatic skeleton
Layers of circular and longitudinal muscles, together with the water in the gastrovascular cavity, that enable movement (671, 756)
Acoelomate
Animal lacking a coelom, or body cavity (683)
Pharynx
Muscular tube at the end of the gastrovascular cavity, or throat, that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract and serves as a passageway for air and food (684, 956)
flame cell
Specialized cell that filters and removes excess water from the body of a flatworm (684)
Eyespot
Group of cells that can detect changes in the amount of light in the environment (507, 685)
Pseudocoelom
Body cavity between the endoderm and mesoderm tissues that is partially lined with mesoderm tissue (689)
Crop
In earthworms, part of the digestive system in which food can be stored; in birds, structure at the lower end of the esophagus in which food is stored and moistened (695, 809)
Gizzard
In earthworms, part of the digestive system in which food is ground into smaller pieces; in birds, a muscular organ that helps in the mechanical breakdown of food (695, 809)
Nephridia
Excretory organ of an annelid that filters fluid in the coelom (696)
closed circulatory system
System in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels (695, 754)
open circulatory system
System in which blood is not always contained within a network of blood vessels (703, 754)
Foot
Muscular part of a mollusk (702)
Mantle
Thin layer of tissue that covers most of a mollusk's body (702)
Shell
Structure in mollusks made by glands in the mantle that secrete calcium carbonate (702)
visceral mass
Area beneath the mantle of a mollusk that contains the internal organs (702)
Exoskeleton
External skeleton; touch external covering that protests and supports the body of many invertebrates (715, 757)
Chitin
Complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods (527, 715)
jointed appendage
...
tracheal tube
One of many branching, air-filled tubes that extend throughout the bodies of many terrestrial arthropods (717)
Spiracle
Small opening located along the side of the body through which air enters and leaves the body of many terrestrial arthropods (717)
book lung
Organ that has layers of respiratory tissue that is used by some terrestrial arthropods for the exchange of gases (717)
Malpighian tubule
Saclike organ in most terrestrial arthropods that extracts wastes from the blood, adding them to feces that move through the gut (717)
Molting
Process in which an arthropod sheds its exoskeleton and manufactures a large one to take its place (719)
Head
...
Thorax
Body part of a crustacean that lies just beneath the head and houses most of the internal organs (721)
Abdomen
Posterior part of an arthropod's body (721)
Metamorphosis
...
Society
Group of closely related animals of the same species that work together for the benefit of the group (732)
Endoskeleton
Structural support located inside the body of an animal (734, 757)
water vascular system
System of internal tubes in echinoderms that carriers out essential functions such as feeding, respiration, and circulation, and movement (735)
tube foot
Suction-cuplike structure attached to radial canals of echinoderms; used to walk and to open shells (735)
Chordate
Member of the phylum Chordata; animal that has, for at least some stage of its life, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a notochord, pharyngeal pouches, and a muscular tail
Notochord
Long supporting rod that runs through a chordate's body just below the nerve cord (767, 849)
pharyngeal pouch
One of a pair of structures in the throat (pharynx) region of a chordate (767)
Tail
...
dorsal nerve cord
...
swim bladder
Internal gas-filled organ in many bony fishes that adjusts their buoyancy (777)
Gills
Filamentous organ in aquatic animals specialized for the exchange of gases with water (696)
Cloaca
A muscular cavity at the end of the large intestine through which digestive wastes, urine, and eggs or sperm leave the body (748)
tympanic membrane
Eardrum of amphibians inside the skull; vibrates in response to sound, allowing hearing (787)
Ectotherm
Animal that relies on interactions with the environment to help it control body temperature (800, 855)
amniotic egg
Egg composed of shell and membranes that create a protected environment in which the embryo can develop out of water (802)
Feather
Structure made mostly of protein that develops from a pit in a bird's skin (806)
Endotherm
Animal that generates its own body heat and controls its body temperature from with (808, 855)
air sac
One of several sacs attached to a bird's lungs into which air moves when a bird inhales; allows for the one-way flow of air through the respiratory system (810)
mammary gland
Gland in mammals that produces milk to nourish the young (821)
fur/hair
...
Monotreme
Egg-laying mammal (828)
Marsupial
Mammals which bear live young that complete their development in an external pouch (829)
Placenta
Organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother (829, 1019)
binocular vision
Ability to merge visual images from both eyes, which provides depth perception and a three-dimensional view of the world (834)
Hominid
Primate that walks upright, has opposable thumbs, and possesses a large brain; only living members are humans (835)
Behavior
The way an organism reacts to changes in its internal condition or external environment (871)
Stimulus
A signal to which an organism responds (19, 871)
Response
Single, specific reaction to a stimulus (871)
innate behavior
Instinct, or inborn behavior; behavior that appears in a fully functional form the first time it is performed (873)
learned behavior
Alterations in behavior as a result of experience; also called acquired behavior (873)
Habituation
Learning process by which an animal decreases or stops its response to a repetitive stimulus that neither rewards nor harms it (874)
classical conditioning
Learning process in which an animal makes a mental connection between a stimulus and some kind of reward or punishment (874)
operant conditioning
Learning process in which an animal learns to behave in a certain way through repeated practice, in order to receive a reward or avoid punishment; also called trial-and-error learning (875)
insight learning
Also called reasoning; learning process in which an animal applies something is has already learned to a new situation without a period of trial and error (875)
Imprinting
Learning based on early experience; once imprinting has occurred, the behavior cannot be changed (876)
Migration
Periodic movement and return of animals from one place to another (878)
circadian rhythm
Behavioral cycle that occurs in a daily pattern (878)
courtship
Type of behavior in which an animal sends out stimuli in order to attract a member of the opposite sex (789)
Communication
Passing of information from one organism to another (881)
True
All the members of Kingdom Animalia are HETEROTROPHS.
Invertebrates
Worms and insects are both VERTEBRATES.
Sessile
Sponges are MOTILE, meaning they live their entire adult lives attached to a single spot.
True
Cnidarians have a central MOUTH surrounded by numerous tentacles.
Hydrostatic
A sea anemone moves its body by using a STATOCYSTIC skeleton.
Flatworms
ROUNDWORMS are the simplest animals to have three embryonic germ layers.
True
Annelids and mollusks, both of which possess a COELOM, may be more closely related to each other than either is to flatworms or roundworms.
True
MOLLUSKS are soft-bodied animals that usually have an internal or external shell.
Exoskeleton
One of the common features of arthropods is a tough ENDOSKELETON.
Molting
The process in which an arthropod sheds its skeleton and manufactures a larger one is called FLEXING.
True
The three major groups of arthropods are CRUSTACEANS, spiders and relatives, and insects.
True
An adult starfish has RADIAL symmetry.
True
Arthropods have BILATERAL symmetry.
True
Book lungs and tracheal tubes are used for breathing in ARTHROPODS.
Closed
If an animal's blood never comes in direct contact with its tissues, the animal has an OPEN circulatory system.
True
In chordates, the nerve cord runs along the DORSAL part of the body.
Vertebrate
An animal cannot be a CHORDATE if it lacks a backbone.
Movement
The fins of fishes are used for PROTECTION.
Lara
Most amphibians live in water as ADULTS.
Dry, scaly
A reptile is a vertebrate that has MOIST skin.
True
An animal that controls its body temperature by varying its position in the environment is an ECTOTHERM.
True
The most important characteristic that separates birds from living reptiles is FEATHERS.
Endotherms
All mammals are ECTOTHERMS.
Binocular
Primates have OPPOSABLE vision, which is the ability to merge images from both eyes.
Innate
LEARNED behaviors appear in fully functional form the first time they are performed.
True
When a marsupial embryo crawls into its mother's pouch to complete its development, it is exhibiting an INNATE BEHAVIOR.
True
An "invisible fence" delivers a mild shock to a dog each time the dog tries to leave a defined area. Through CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, the dog eventually learns to avoid the shock by staying inside the area.
Classical conditioning
A cat that runs into the kitchen when it hears a can being opened shows that its behavior has been modified through REASONING.
True
IMPRINTING involves both innate and learned behavior.
Circadian rhythm
Most bats sleep during the day and hunt or forage at night. This activity pattern in bats is an example of a MIGRATION CYCLE.
d. (they are primarily filter feeders)
e. (they have eyes)
All of the following are characteristic of cnidarians except
a. they have a gastrovascular cavity with one opening.
b. their body form consists of a polyp or medusa.
c. they have a simple nervous system.
d. they are primarily filter feeders.
e. they have eyes.
e. (an exoskeleton)
At some point in their development, chordates possess all of the following except
a. a dorsal, hollow nerve cord.
b. a notochord.
c. pharyngeal pouches
d. a tail
e. an exoskeleton
b. (reptiles)
Terrestrial, ectothermic animals that lay shelled eggs are
a. fishes.
b. reptiles.
c. birds.
d. amphibians.
e. mammals.
d. (sparrow)
Which of the following is able to regulate its own body temperature?
a. frog
b. fish
c. snake
d. sparrow
e. turtle
b. (giving birth to live young)
Which of the following is not characteristic of all mammal species?
a. the ability to nourish young with milk
b. giving birth to live young
c. having hair or fur
d. breathing air
e. being endothermic
Different cnidarians move in different ways. Some cnidarians, such as sea anemones, have a hydrostatic skeleton. The hydrostatic skeleton consists of a layer of circular muscles and a layer of longitudinal muscles that, together with the water in the gastrovascular cavity, enable the cnidarian to move. (muscles)

Arthropods are surrounded by a tough external covering, or exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is like a suit of armor that protects and supports the body. It is made from a protein and carbohydrate called chitin (same as in fungi cell walls). (outside, nonliving material)

Echinoderms are characterized by spiny skin, an internal skeleton (endoskeleton), a water vascular system, and suction-cuplike structures called tube feet. Most adult echinoderms exhibit five-part radial symmetry. Don't have cephalization. (under skin, living body tissues)
Contrast hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons, and endoskeletons in terms of their structures.
Birds have a number of adaptions that enable them to fly. These adaptions include highly efficient digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems; aerodynamic feathers and wings; strong chest muscles; and light bones.
Discuss the adaptions in birds that make the well-adapted for flight.
Sponges
Sessile, meaning they spend their entire adult life attached to a single spot.
Classified as animals because they are multicellular, heterotrophic, have no cell walls, and contain a few specialized cells.
Chindarians
Soft-bodied, carnivorous animals that have stinging tentacles arranged in circles around their mouths. They are the simplest animals to have body symmetry and specialized tissues.
Flatworm
Soft, flattened worms that have tissues and internal organ systems. They are the simplest animals to have three embryonic germ layers, bilateral symmetry, and cephalization.
Acoelomates (without coelom)
Roundworms
Unsegmented worms that have pseudocoeloms and digestive systems with two openings-a mouth and an anus.
Pseudocoelom (false coelom) (body cavity lined only partially with tissue derived from the mesoderm)
Annellids
Worms with segmented bodies. They have a true coelom that is lined with tissue derived from mesoderm.
Mollusks
Soft-bodied animals that usually have an internal or external shell.
Arthropods
Segmented body, a tough exoskeleton, and jointed appendages.
Insects
Body divided into three parts-head, thorax, and abdomen. Three pairs of legs are attached to the thorax.
Echinoderm
Spiny skin, an internal skeleton, a water vascular system, suctioncuplike structures called tube feet. Most adults exhibit five-part radial symmetry.
Chordate
Animal that has, for at least some stage of its life, a dorsol, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal pouches; and a tail that extends beyond the anus.
Fish
Aquatic vertebrates; most have paired fins, scales, and gills.
Amphibians
Vertebrates that, with some exceptions, lives in water as a larva and on land as an adult, breathes with lungs as an adult, has moist skin that contains mucous glands, and lacks scales and claws.
Reptile
Vertebrate that has dry, scaly skin, lungs, and terrestrial eggs with several membranes.
Bird
Reptilelike animals that maintain a constant internal body temperature. They have an outer covering of feathers; two legs that are covered with scales and are used for walking or perching; and front limbs modified into wings.
Mammals
All characterized by two notable features: hair and mammary glands. In females, mammary glands produce milk to nourish the young.
In addition, all breathe air, have four-chambered hearts, and are endotherms that generate their body heat internally.
Primates
In general, they have binocular vision, a well-developed cerebrum, relatively long fingers and toes, and arms that can rotate around their shoulder joints.