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Chapter 6 Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure
Terms in this set (24)
Name the five primary functions of the skeletal system.
support, storage of minerals and lipids, blood cell production, protection, and leverage
Identify the six broad categories for classifying a bone according to shape.
sutural bones, irregular bones, short bones, flat bones, long bones, and sesamoid bones
Define bone marking.
(surface feature); area on the surface of a bone structured for a specific function, such as joint formation, muscle attachment, or the passage of nerves and blood vessels
Mature bone cells are known as _____, bone-building cells are called _______, and _______ are bone-resorbing cells.
osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts
How would the compressive strength of a bone be affective if the ratio of collagen to hydroxyapatite increased?
the bone would become less strong (as well as more flexible)
If the activity of osteoclasts exceeds the activity of osteoblasts in a bone, how will the mass of the bone be affected?
because osteoclasts break down or demineralize bone, the bone would have a decreased mineral content (less mass); as a result, it would also be weaker
Compare the structures and functions of compact bone and spongy bone.
Compact bone consists of osteons (Haversian systems) with little space between them; lies over spongy bone and makes up most of the diaphysis; protects, supports, resists stress.
Spongy bone makes up most of the structure of short, flat, irregular bones and is also found at the epiphyses of long bones; stores marrow, provides some support
A sample of bone has lamellae, which are not arranged in osteons. Is the sample most likely taken from the epiphysis or diaphysis?
indicative of spongy bone, which is located in an epiphysis
In endochondral ossification, what is the original source of osteoblasts?
cells of the inner layer of the perichondrium differentiate into osteoblasts, and a cartilage model is gradually replaced by bone
During intramembranous ossification, which type of tissue is replaced by bone?
fibrous connective tissue
How could x-rays of the femur be used to determine whether a person has reached full height?
Long bones of the body have an epiphyseal cartilage, a plate of cartilage that separates the epiphysis from the diaphysis so long as the bone is still growing lengthwise; x-ray would indicate whether the epiphyseal cartilage is still present; if it is, growth is still occurring
Describe bone remodeling.
refers to the process whereby old bone is continuously being destroyed by osteoclasts while new bone is being constructed by osteoblasts
Explain how heavy-metal ions could be incorporated into bone matrix.
osteoblasts cannot differentiate heavy-metal ions from normal calcium ions, so the heavy-metal ions become incorporated into the bone matrix; over time, ions can be released into the bloodstream during normal bone remodeling
Why would you expect the arm bones of a weight lifter to be thicker and heavier than those of a jogger?
the larger arms of the weight lifter would apply more mechanical stress to the bones of the upper limbs
A child who enters puberty several years later than the average age is generally taller than average as an adult. Why?
At puberty, a growth spurt takes place and is followed by the closure of the epiphyseal cartilages. The later puberty begins, the taller the child will be when growth spurt begins, so the taller the person will be when growth is completed
A 7-year-old child has a pituitary gland tumor involving the cells that secrete growth hormone (GH), resulting in increased levels of GH. How will this condition affect the child's growth?
Increased levels of growth hormone prior to puberty will result in excessive bone growth, making the person taller
Identify the hormones involved in stimulating and inhibiting the release of calcium ions from bone matrix.
PTH influences osteoclast activity, which causes a release of stored calcium ions from bone. Under the influence of calcitonin, osteoclast activity is inhibited, while osteoblasts continue to lock calcium ions in the bone matrix. PTH serves to increase blood calcium levels by causing calcium to remain in bone
Why does a child who has rickets have difficulty walking?
The bones of children who have rickets are poorly mineralized and as a result are quite flexible. Under the weight
What effect would increased PTH secretion have on blood calcium levels?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) indirectly stimulates osteoclasts to release calcium ions from bone and enhances calcitriol's effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. Increased PTH secretion would result in an increase in the level of calcium ions in the blood
How does calcitonin help lower the calcium ion concentration of blood?
by inhibiting osteoclast activity and increasing the rate of calcium excretion by the kidneys
List the four steps involved in fracture repair, beginning at the onset of the bone break.
Extensive bleeding occurs at the injury site. After several hours, a large blood clot called a fracture hematoma develops. Next, an internal callus forms as a network of spongy bone unites the inner edges, and an external callus of cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges. The cartilaginous external callus is eventually replaced by bone, and the struts of new spongy bone now unite the broken ends. With time, the swelling that initially marks the location of the fracture is remodeled, new compact bone is formed, and little evidence that a break occurred remains
At which point in fracture repair would you find an external callus?
forms early in the healing process, when cells from the endosteum and periosteum migrate to the are of the fracture; cells form an enlarged collar (external callus) that encircles the bone in the area of the fracture
inadequate ossification and is common during the aging process; results from decreasing osteoblast activity accompanied by normal osteoclast activity
Why is osteoporosis more common in older women than in older men?
In women, the sex hormones known as estrogens play an important role in moving calcium into bones. After menopause, the level of these hormones decreases dramatically. As a result, older women have difficulty replacing the calcium in bones that is being lost due to normal aging. In men, the level of sex hormones (androgens) does not decrease until much later in life.
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