The Primary Chronicle
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false Dmitry, convinced himself he was Dmitry, from Poland, had Polish army behind him, secretly converted to Catholicism, gets engaged to princess Marina, crossed into Russia with 4,000 person army, beginning of the time of troubles, civil war broke out, had a lot of followers, Fyodor (Godunov's son) kicked out by boyars and Ostrepov put on the throne as Dmitry I, in power and took Godunov's daughter as a concubine, downfall was his connection to Poland, rule ended in 1606 when he got married to polish princess, burnt and shot out of a cannon back towards Poland
Alexis Ison of Mikhail Romanov, called the quiet tsar, violent temper, ordered killing of Astrokhan rebels, accomplishment was the Assembly of the land in 1648 to draw up law code, faced uprising 1670-71 rebellion led by Stepan Razin,1648 Law Codedrawn up by assembly of land under Alexis I,967 articles, first attempt to define Russian law, ratified institution of serfdom, sign of societies progress, increasing turn of Russia toward the west, enslaves the majority of the populationOld BelieversOld Believers or Old Ritualists are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they were before the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.The Foreign Settlement (Or German) in the 17th centurypopulated by foreigners from Western Europe (collectively called "Germans" by the Russian people. The residents of the Old German Quarter mainly engaged in handicrafts and flour-milling. In the early 17th century, the army of False Dmitri II ravaged the Old German Quarter. It did not immediately recover, since many residents relocated closer to the Moscow Kremlin or fled the country.The Grand EmbassyPeter's long visit to Western Europe to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques to help westernize RussiaThe Petrine Reformsmostly military, modernized the Army and Navy, new bureaucratic structure, The Senate, political police (similar to the oprichnina), reorganized the map (subdivided the nation into smaller districts to make it easier for taxes and drafting), the church under state control (nationalized state lands, refused to elect another Patriarch after the death of the other one, he made the holy synod- à secular body to control the church, gave out stipend to monks and priests to make them dependent on him), the Table of Ranks (gave out ranks based on merit and not on birth, power belongs toThe All-mad All-drunken assemblyPeter the Great's ongoing party, best friends, foreigners, parades through the streets, you can't leave and they last for days, people get honest when they are drunk, show of his power that he can make most powerful people do anything he wants, keep elite busy,Saint PetersburgFounded by Peter the Great, Imperial capital of Russia; important trade city because of location of the Baltic Sea.Elizabethshe was notoriously indolent and indulgent, she was committed to culture and art (made St. Petersburg what it is), she was Peter the Great's daughter, she rationalized government institutions, founded Moscow University, supported entrepreneurship, stimulated the economy, solidified Russia as à world power, wanted to bring beauty and culture to Russia, made the Winter Palace, the "cult of happiness", image of the tsarina being à generous, loving figure who cared for all of her subjects, took à lot of lovers and didn't care who knew ("cult of happiness" thing)Peter IAlso known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.Catherine IItotally instigated the coup to overthrow her husband, 100% German but she understood she needed to embody the Russian culture, learned Russian, baptized Orthodox, ruled during Pugachev's rebellion, shes so important because she was committed to Westernization, enlightenment but not too much freedom where everything will fall to pieces, contradiction in enlightened despotism, 1767 legislative commission, The Nakaz- instruction,The Legislative Commissioncreated by Catherine the Great, members were drawn from a broad spectrum of the nobility and upper service class, was directed to review the current state of the law and to generate concrete recommendations for revamping Russia's entire political-legal systemCatherine's Nakazpre-legislative commission, kind of the instruction booklet for how to bring about codified reform. This whole thing is a justification for monarchy, reveals cracks within the argument for absolutism, liberty of everybody but at the same time not everyone is reasonable contradiction, asserting her power, reflections of US constitution, inherent problem- the tsar sits above the law,Pugachev's rebellionEmelyan Pugachev promised the serfs land of their own and freedom from their lords, initiating a peasant revolt, the largest of the 18th century.Nikolai Novikovfrom à landowning family who went to Moscow University and joined an elite guard regiment. He was selected because of his birth and education to keep notes during the Legislative Commission for Catherine. Rather than continuing in the Army, he left and decided to become à publisher, printer, editor, writer. he starts his satirical critical journals. His main target were the landowners. People should be useful" Catherine paid for the journals- he mostly praised her, but every so often he would make à dig at her- he did get censored sometimes and told not to write various things, but he had à pretty stable relationship with Catherine (the critique of the nobility was the main thing she agreed with). He wasn't à total rebel- critiquing the symptoms but not the disease. He walked à really treacherous line, but everything changed in 1773 with Pugachev. This showed him the reality of the peasants' anger, and he was blown away by how cruel everyone was and how angry people really were. He drew new conclusions: he became convinced that révolution was futile and the nobility had to get together and fix itThe morning lightNovikov's new journal after the Pugachev Rebellion, moralistic and heavy stuff, "On the Dignity of Man" was his first article, the important thing wasn't that he was thinking it- it was that he was publishing it, 1779: moves to Moscow and becomes the chief editor at the Moscow University Press, Published Morning Light and other publications and opened à secret press publishing freemason literature with Catherine's money. He also published children's literature- spreading literacy that creates revolutionaries. 1787: terrible famine and Novikov organizes à huge philanthropic effort to ease people's burdens. Catherine does not like the Freemasons at all- financing them while mocking them. 1792: Catherine had Novikov arrested and had him condemned to 15 years in à terrible fortress for being subversive. He only stayed for 4 years but he came out à broken man and à deep mysticFree Masonswas the most famous secret society to develop during the age of the Enlightenment.Paul Ihe wanted to undo everything his mom did, but he couldn't, moved his "dad" to St. Petersburg to show his affiliation, really superstitious and hated independent thought, took away the nobility from independent affairs, reinstated mandatory state service for the nobles, wanted Prussian militarization, passed à law that made it impossible for women to become tsars, all à total slap to his mother and to Peter the Great, he was completely neurotic, he hated everything to do with France... the nobility finally just went, "nope," and had the Palace Guard murder himAlexander I, his reforms his ideas about constitutionalitymade it abundantly clear that he was nothing like his father and promised to rule in the spirit of his grandmother, he was fine with the coup, he had à habit of making great reforms and then turning around and doing something terrible so he's difficult to pin down, awesome and fierce for protecting the throne, but compassionate and possibly open to abolishing serfdomthe unofficial committeeA group of close friends and advisers to Alexander I. Consisted of Czartoryski, Kochubei, Stroganov, Novosiltsev. Helped Alex establish many reforms including some sort of a constitution, did not like serfdom but realized they could not do anything about it.Mikhail Speranskyliberal statesman, Duma of the Empire, no real reforms in the endThe Bronze HorsemanPossibly the most famous Russian poem of all time by the most famous Russian poet, Tsars can't control nature- just another human despairing over the nature of nature, If he couldn't take care of the Russians during the flood, how can he still be the father tsar? The tsar lost God's favor?, Why mention the Statue of Peter the Great by Catherine the Great? To emphasize Alexander's smallness against them, The average Russian is destined to be crappy (the being chased by the bronze horsemen thing), Everything is the Enlightenment's fault, Rejection of Peter the Great's hubris- thinking he could make à great Western window on the banks of the Neva "à portal to Hell" À sense of motion coming from the statue to show that Peter was dragging Russia forward into the future, Yvgeny was being chased by Peter's vision of "Progress", Romantic Era poemThe DecembristsThe Decembrist rebellion occurred in the midst of a succession crisis after the childless Tsar Alexander I died unexpectedly in November 1825. The Rebellion: December 14, 1825, The day that all of the officers were supposed to swear loyalty to the new tsar, and the coup was to begin, People who were supposed to lead the rebellion didn't show up when the day came, some got cold feet, it was chaos, Trubetskoi was supposed to be the new revolutionary government head, but he didn't show and hid in the Austrian embassy- his lieutenant went to the tsarist military and swore an oath of allegiance to Nicholas, then he felt bad about it, so he recanted it and said he wanted Nicholas dead..., then he got arrested, sent to prison, and before they could kill him he committed suicide... The soldiers weren't even aware of what was happening, it was all the officers, so it was utter chaos. One officer shot à government official, but that's about it, they were rich nobles who were suffering in their minds because of an idea, angry with Alexander I, had higher expectations, fought against tyranny (Napoleon) to realize that's what their leader was, disappointed in Russia, went to Europe and came back seeing the world differently (1825) Europeans had higher standards of living and vibrant public lives, embarrassed of their backwards russia and they had no respect for it, disagree with serfdom,Nicholas I(1825-1855) takes over after the Decembrist revolt, more conservative, tried reform- recognized the need, passed codification- more streamline, improves state serfs conditions: builds schools, hospitals, self govt, he was a reactionary: frantic about stopping revolutions, stops revolution in Hungary, sees Russia as the protector of Autocracy, really conservative, nickname in Europe was gendarme of Europe, stops rebellion in Poland, time of revolution: all of europe broke into rebellion in 1848 but all were squashed, promoted a policy of Rusification: making people more russian, forced Polish people to speak in Russian, streamlining communication, all correspondents in same language, gets poles assimilated, Nationalism, frantic need for culture control, censors the press and university professors, created the third section, looks to religion as a form of order, orthodoxy is the correct belief 1830s, birth of official nationalityOfficial Nationality1833 ideology articulate this under Nicholas's orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality, rejection of reason and enlightenment, argument that Russia is a special place, created Russian identity through the lens of the peasantry: obedience, tolerance of suffering, deep and personal relationship with the Tsar, Russians are childlike, deeply loyal, not talking about nobility or intelligentsia, created domestic consent, complicity, way to create an other, sense of national identity, first attempt to create an official nationality, brings to the forefront the peasant question and what is russia? pull in different ethnic groups, isn't necessarily going to work, serfs disagree (avrich), not going to be bought by intelligentsia, represents the growing gap between the public and the tsar