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75 terms

Chapter 5 Histology

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True
Mesoderm Gives rise to muscle, bone, and blood.
True
Columnar Cells Cells lining the small intestine that show a brush border of microvilli in the apical surface.
False
Nonkeratinized cells exfoliate from the surface of the skin
True
The clear gel that usually surrounds cells is called interstitial fluid
True
Fibrocartilage is found in intervertebral discs
True
Smooth and cardiac muscle are under involuntary control
False
Blood consists of cells and a ground substance made of formed elements
False
Plasma cells produce the ground substance that forms the matrix of connective tissues.
False
Excitable cells respond to outside stimuli by means of changes in plasma membrane shape
True
The secretory product of a gland is produced by its parenchyma, not its stroma
True
Scar Tissue Helps hold an organ together but does not restore normal function.
fibrous
The four primary tissue types found in adult organs include all of the following except
ectoderm; nervous system and epidermis
The _______________ gives rise to the _______________.
cytosol
The clear gel inside a cell is called
Histological Section
A thin, stained slice of tissue mounted on a microscope is called a
longitudinal section
This image shows a
Epithelial tissue
_______________ lines body cavities, covers the body surface, and forms the lining of many organs.
simple columnar
An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called ________________ .
epithelium and connective tissue.
The basement membrane is found between
Simple squamous
______________ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.
simple cuboidal epithelium
Most kidney tubules are made of this tissue specialized for absorption and secretion
Stratified squamous; stratified columnar
________________ epithelium is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas _______________ epithelium is rare.
Eplithelial Tissue Location and Apperance
Epidermis, Inner lining of digestive tract, liver and other organs. Composed of layers of closely spaced cells. Thin extracellular material so thin not visible with a light microscope. No blood vessels. Lie on a loose connective tissue layer and depend on its blood vessels for nourishment and waste removal.
The basement membrane is found between
epithelium and connective tissue.
Simple Squamous
______________ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.
Goblet
_____________ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes
simple columnar; small intestine
A brush border of microvilli belongs to _______________ epithelium found in the ______________.
pseudostratified columnar
All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia
Goblet
___________ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes
simple columnar; small intestine
A brush border of microvilli belongs to _______________ epithelium found in the ______________.
Pseudostratified Columnar
All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia
Transitional; stratified squamous
__________________ epithelium found in the bladder resembles ______________ epithelium, but the apical cells are rounded, not flattened.
Nonkeratinized; vagina
_______________ epithelium provides a moist and slippery surface and is well suited to resist stress, as in the ________________.
Simple squamous; stratified squamous
__________________ epithelium is associated with rapid transport of substances through a membrane, whereas __________________ epithelium is associated with resistance to abrasion.
interstital fluid is so scarce that it is not visible with a light microscope.
These features are common to all connective tissues except
Areolar; cartilage
__________________ tissue is highly vascular, whereas _______________ is not.
a calcified matrix
These are features that fibrous connective tissues have in commone except
Elastic Cartilage
the shape of a person's external ear is given by
hyaline cartilage
These are all types of fibrous connective tissues except
Adipose tissue
New triglycerides are constantly synthesized and stored and other are hydolyzed and released into circulation mostly from cells in
Chondroblasts; fibroblasts
__________________ secrete the cartilage rubbery matrix, whereas ________________ produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of fibrous connective tissue
Hyperextensible joints
Marfan syndrome is a hereditary defect in elastin fibers. People with this syndrome have
collagen
All these substances account for the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue ground substance except
tendons, ligament and the deeper portion of the skin
Collagenous fibers are very abundant in
dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues
Fibroblasts and protein fibers are associated with both
holding water and maintaining electrolyte balance
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) help give the ground substance some of its qualities such as
Blood; transport nutrients to the tissues
__________________ is found in the heart, and one of its functions is to __________________.
Areolar tissue
______________ exhibits a lot of apparently empty space, and is found in many serous membranes.
Muscular and nervous; excitable
__________________ tissues respond quickly to outside stimuli by means of changes in membrane potential, thus they are called __________________ tissues
neuroglia
Nervous tissue consists predominantly of two cell types, neurons and
smooth muscle produces waves of contractions that propel material through the digestive tract
Astronauts in zero gravity are able to move food through their digestive tracts because
striated and voluntary.
Skeletal muscle is described as
*E. complex of macromolecules; part of a cell; entire cell
A connective tissue fiber refers to a(n) __________________, a nerve fiber refers to a(n) ____________________, and a muscle fiber refers to a(n) _______.
tight junctions
In the intestine, __________________ ensure(s) that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them.
Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood
__________________ secrete __________________ into __________________.
Mucous; serous
__________________ glands secrete mucin, which combines with water and form a thick and sticky product, whereas __________________ glands produce a relatively watery fluid
Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood
__________________ secrete __________________ into __________________.
tight junctions
In the intestine, __________________ ensure(s) that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them.
Compound acinar glands
__________________ glands have branched ducts and secretory cells that form sacs at one end of the ducts.
mucous membrane (mucosa)
This membrane lines passageways that open to the exterior environment.
hypertrophy
After six months of lifting weights at the gym you notice that some of your muscles have increased in size. This increase in size is due to _______ of muscle cells.
mesoderm; mesenchyme
This primary germ layer is the middle layer, called ______, and gives rise to a gelatinous material called ________________, which gives rise to different types of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, and blood.
totipotent
Most biologists see embryonic stem (ES) cells as a possible treatment for diseases that result from the loss of functional cells. This possibility is based on the fact that ES cells are _______________ stem
metaplasia
The pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the bronchi in smokers may transform into stratified squamous epithelium. This exemplifies
phagocytize and digest tissue debris
Macrophages __________________ in the healing of a skin wound.
apoptosis
It is normal for breasts to shrink after lactation ceases. This is a consequence of __________________ in human breast cells.
fibrosis
The replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue is called
fibrous
The four primary tissue types found in adult organs include all of the following except
ectoderm; nervous system and epidermis
The _______________ gives rise to the _______________.
cytosol
The clear gel inside a cell is called
simple columnar
An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called ________________
Stratified squamous; stratified columnar
________________ epithelium is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas _______________ epithelium is rare.
Merocrine; holocrine
__________________ glands (such as tear glands) have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis, whereas __________________ glands (such as oil-producing glands) secrete a mixture of disintegrated cells and their products
epithelium and lamina propria
The membrane that lines digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts consists of
False
Dendrites in a neuron send outgoing signals to other cells.