First Unit Global History and Geography I
Terms in this set (104)
Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age)
During this period, humans were nomads. The men hunted and the women gathered or foraged edible plants. The ability to make fire occurred and stone tools were crafted. It is humanity's earliest period.
These individuals move from place to place. They do NOT establish permanent settlements. In the Paleolithic era, movement was in search of food. Hunters followed the food.
It is the birthplace of humanity. Anthropologists like Mary Leakey found evidence of early humans in the Great Rift Valley in East Africa.
"Out of Africa" thesis
It is the theory, which most scientists support, that Homo Sapiens or humans first emerged in Africa and migrated outward. It maintains that human life began in Africa and then some humans moved to all of the habitable continents of the earth.
This anthropologist found bones in East Africa that were more than 1.5 million years old and believed that the bones belonged to an early hominid. A hominid is a bipedal primate. Bipedal means to walk upright.
The Neolithic Revolution
Ten thousand years ago, some early humans learned to farm and domesticate animals. This was a monumental change as farmers could now settle. Farming provided a reliable food source. People became food producers as opposed to food followers.
Effects of the Neolithic Revolution
When humans learned to farm and domesticate animals, they settled. They stayed in one permanent location. Population increased with a reliable food source and a settled way of life.
As humans farmed, their farming techniques improved and they began to grow more food than they could eat. This extra food allowed some people to specialize or engage in specific activities other than farming. This extra food gave rise to specialization, freeing some people from agriculture and even cities. People who live in cities do not farm. They buy this "extra" food.
It is to farm in a way that produces only enough food for the farmer and his family. It is farming in which only enough food to feed one's family is produced. It is the opposite of agricultural surplus.
It is to perform different jobs. It occurs when a person focuses on one particular job. For example, in hunting and gathering societies, there is little of this. Men hunt and women gather but in farming societies, there can be a lot of this. Some men farm; some men are government officials; some men are priest; etc.
It is a complex society. It requires agricultural surplus to occur. In this society, there are cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes. There is often writing.
It is the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in present-day Iraq. It is a fertile land. The rivers flood violently leaving behind a layer of fertile soil called silt. It was the region where the world's first civilization developed. It had few natural barriers and invaders easily entered.
They established the world's first civilization. They built ziggurats or temples to their gods. They developed the world's first writing system or cuneiform. They were polytheists or believed in many gods. They wrote the world's first epic - the Epic of Gilgamesh about a man's failed search for immortality. To be human is to be mortal.
It was the world's first system of writing. It developed in Mesopotamia. It was the Sumerian system of writing. It was a form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets.
Code of Hammurabi
It was one of the world's earliest written law codes. It had harsh punishments but class divisions. A poor man could pay for his crime with "an eye for an eye" but a rich man could pay a fine or money for his crime. It provided consistent rules in society. It was not based on the King's mood but on the written legal precedent. The Babylonians were responsible for this law code. They were one of the people that rose to power in Mesopotamia. Many kingdoms rose and fall.
The Nile River
It was a very important river in a land that was most desert. This Egyptian river allowed for a civilization to develop in Egypt. It flooded predictably and through predictable flooding, it provided a layer of fertile silt for farming.
Ancient Egyptian Civilization
A Greek historian called it the "Gift of the Nile" - the Nile River made it possible. It was famous for its long-lasting resilience or staying power and it developed writing called hieroglyphics and built pyramids for its rulers or pharaohs.
This ruler of ancient Egypt was considered a god-king. He was considered divine. When he died, his body was mummified or preserved for the afterlife. The ancient Egyptians believed in an afterlife. They believed in a life after death. Like many early people, they were polytheists and believed in many gods.
It developed by the banks of the Indus River. It could be called Indus Valley Civilization or this. It was particularly noted for its urban planning. In this civilization, every brick in every building was the same size and streets were laid out in a grid pattern. This is evidence of some kind of central authority or central government but who ruled this government is unclear. There are few images of self-glorifying kings in this civilization. Powerful kings generally liked selfies!
It is to carefully plan the layout of a city. Harappan civilization had evidence of it. Every brick in every building was the same size and streets were laid out in a grid pattern.
Huang He River
It is an important river in China. It is sometimes known as the Yellow River. It appears yellow because the riverbed is rich in minerals. When this river floods, it brings that rich mineral soil called loess to the neighboring land and is very good for farming. But this river's flooding kills many as it is a shallow river. Thus, it is also called "China's Sorrows" for its flooding.
It is a ruling family. China had many ruling families. A family would rule until it was overthrown. When the Zhou established the concept of the Mandate of Heaven, a dynasty could be overthrown for failure to rule properly and well. The earliest Chinese dynasty with archaeological evidence was the Shang Dynasty.
The earliest Chinese writing is found on animal bones and tortoise shells carved with written characters which were used for telling the future. These tools for divination were often heated to predict the future. These bones are important because they show the evolution of Chinese writing.
It is the earliest belief system. This early religion taught of the existence of spirits in nature. Natural forces existed. In this religion, everything in nature has a spirit. A rock has a spirit; a tree has a spirit; etc.
It is Japanese animism. It translates as "the way of the kami". Kami is the Japanese word for spirits in nature. In this belief system, the emperor was considered divine. He was considered a descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu.
It is the belief in one God. Judaism, Christianity and Islam share this belief.
It is the belief in many gods.
This Abrahamic religion was founded by the Prophet Abraham. He lived in Mesopotamia and came to belief that God spoke to him. He moved with his close friends and relatives to present-day Israel, a land given to the Hebrews or Jews by God.
It is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. It is considered the most important part of the Bible because God's Commandments are presented to his people.
In Judaism, it is an agreement between God and the Hebrew people. The people must obey God's Commandments and in return, God will bless and multiple them. If the Hebrews break the Covenant, they will be punished by God.
The Ten Commandments
These are the moral and ethical laws of Judaism. According to Judaism, these laws were given to Moses, the great Hebrew Prophet, by God. These are guidelines for behavior and encourage people to do right.
It is a scattering out of people or a dispersion of people. The Jewish people were forced out of their homeland and went to other lands because of Roman persecution.
This religion is based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus was a Jewish teacher. His followers believe that he is the son of God and was resurrected from the dead. His followers believe he performed miracles. The Gospels or the first four books of the New Testament (the Christian Bible includes the Old Testament - the Hebrew Bible - and the New Testament) focus on the life and teachings of Jesus.
This is an individual who helps to spread a religion. Paul was a Christian missionary. He spread the Christian message of salvation (the idea that Jesus died for humanity's sins and through his death and resurrection, Christians are saved from Hell) to the gentiles or non-Jews.
This monotheistic religion was founded by the Prophet Muhammad in Mecca, Arabia. Muslims are followers of the religion. Muslims practice the Five Pillars of the Faith. The Five Pillars are the foundations of living a pious or religious life.
The Five Pillars
In Islam, these are beliefs and actions that must be practiced to ensure life as a good Muslim. A good Muslim must be a monotheist and believe in only one God. A good Muslim must pray five times a day facing the holy city of Mecca. A good Muslim must give charity or alms to the poor. A good Muslim must fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. A good Muslim must take a pilgrimage or holy trip to Mecca once in his lifetime.
It is the Arabic word for the pilgrimage to Mecca. A good Muslim must take the pilgrimage or holy trip once in his/her lifetime.
Sunni and Shia
In Islam, there are two main sects or groups. The first group believes that any pious or devoutly religious man may lead the Islamic community or umma. The second group believes that only a descendant from the Prophet Muhammad's family can lead the Islamic community or umma.
No Alcohol, No Pork, Polygamy
A Muslim may not drink intoxicating spirits. A Muslim may not eat the meat of the pig. A Muslim man may marry four wives.
It is the holy book of Islam. It is believed by Muslims to contain the actual words God (Allah in Arabic) spoke to Muhammad.
In Arabic, it means "struggle". It can mean the struggle within the self to live a pious or religious life. It can mean the struggle against nonbelievers in a holy war.
It is the term for the Prophet Muhammad's flight or journey from Mecca to Medina. It occurred in 622 C.E. It marks year one in the Islamic calendar.
It is the dominant religion of the Indian subcontinent. It includes concepts like reincarnation, karma, dharma, Moksha and the caste system.
It is the Hindu belief that all actions have consequences. Good deeds lead to good deeds returned to the doer. Bad deeds lead to bad outcomes. Karma is one of the factors that determines a person's reincarnation.
In Hinduism, it refers to a person's religious and moral duty. Each caste has its particular dharma - prayers to say, marrying within a person's caste, etc. In Buddhism, it refers to the teachings of the Buddha. In Hinduism, dharma and karma determine reincarnation.
Hindus believe that everything is part of the cosmic soul. The cosmic soul is called Brahman. Even the many gods of the seemingly polytheistic Hinduism are part of Brahman. Each person has an individual soul called an Atman. The goal of the individual soul is to reunite with Brahman. When the soul is reunited with Brahman, this occurs. It is the end of reincarnation.
The Hindu Caste System
It is a fixed social class system. A person is born into one of four castes: Brahmins or priests, warriors, merchants, and farmers. If a person has no caste, the person is an outcaste or untouchable. It is a fixed system because birth determines caste. If a person's parents are Brahmins, the child is a Brahmin. It is also fixed because a person cannot change his/her caste in this lifetime. The person must wait for reincarnation.
In Hinduism, the cow is considered a sacred animal and it cannot be killed or eaten. Hindus do not eat beef.
The Ganges River
It is a sacred river for Hindus. Hindus believe that if the ashes of the dead are scattered in this river, the person will have a favorable or good reincarnation.
Its founder was Siddhartha Gautama. He was a prince in the Indian subcontinent who came to believe in the existence of suffering. He meditated and in his enlightenment, he articulated the Four Noble Truths. This belief system concerns itself with suffering and the end of suffering.
The Four Noble Truths
In Buddhism, these principles are that all life has suffering; that desire causes suffering; that suffering can end; and that there is a path to the end of suffering - this path is called the Noble Eightfold Path.
The Noble Eightfold Path
In Buddhism, this is the path to the end of suffering. These eight actions end suffering: right mindfulness, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right concentration.
It is the end of suffering in Buddhism. It is the state of enlightenment.
This religion was founded by Mahavira and it stresses the goal of ending reincarnation by perfecting the soul, perfecting one's karma. It stresses total nonviolence. This concept of nonviolence is called Ahimsa.
This very important philosophy of China teaches the importance of proper relationships. When each person knows his or her place in society and acts accordingly, peace and harmony follow. A son must honor and obey his father. A father must set a good example for his son. Education is greatly valued. Its sayings can be found in the Analects - the sayings of Confucius. This philosophy was eventually adopted by the Han Dynasty and became a very important philosophy in China.
The Five Relationships of Confucianism
They consist of Emperor and subject; Husband and wife; Father and son; Elder brother and younger brother; and friend and friend. In the first four relationships, there is a clear superior and a clear inferior. The emperor is the superior. He must set a good example and lead with kindness or benevolence. The subject or the person who is ruled must obey the emperor and be respectful. When each person performs his proper role, peace and harmony occur. In this belief system, a proper social order leads to peace.
It is the Confucian belief that sons must honor and obey parents and ancestors. Sons do this by listening respectfully to parents, remembering the ancestors in rituals, and caring for their parents as they age.
This Chinese philosophy emphasized the importance of living naturally. It encouraged people to follow the way of nature. It did not emphasize book learning. It encouraged people to live in nature and not in cities. Its main book is called the Dao De Jing. It influenced Chinese art. Chinese art focuses on nature.
This Chinese philosophy maintained that people were fundamentally selfish and that only harsh punishments and rewards could ensure that people behaved properly. It was adopted by the Qin Dynasty but this dynasty only lasted fifteen years because it was so harsh.
The Mandate of Heaven
This Chinese concept was established by the Zhou Dynasty. It was essentially the right to rule. A ruler was given this right to rule by the gods or Heaven. The ruler was the Son of Heaven or a link between Heaven and Earth. If the ruler ruled properly, he could rule but if he ruled poorly, the people could overthrow the ruler. Due to this concept, China had many dynasties or a dynastic cycle where dynasties rose and fall and new dynasties rose.
The Qin Dynasty
This dynasty lasted only fifteen years (221 to 207 B.C.) China gets its name from this dynasty. It unified the people of China by providing one system of writing or a uniform system of writing and one system of weights and measures or a uniform system of weights and measures. But it was very harsh. It adopted Legalism with its harsh punishments and in beginning to build the Great Wall of China, overworked many Chinese peasants to death. When the ruler died (Emperor Shi Huangdi or First Emperor), it was overthrown.
The Han Dynasty
This imperial dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to 221 C.E. It overthrew the Qin Dynasty and adopted Confucianism as its official philosophy. It had a central government and utilized the examination system to select candidates for government service. It also encouraged trade via the Silk Roads.
The Examination System
It was a system of selecting officials based on competitive written examinations. Although the Han used exams to appoint men to government service, a formal system of examinations was not established until later. Nonetheless, in this system, a candidate for government service takes a test on Chinese history and Confucianism to determine competency. Only individuals who pass the test are appointed to government service. The examination system for government service is the civil service system.
Limited Social Mobility
The examination system in China allowed some men to rise from lower classes to higher classes in society. Since all men could take the test - even a poor man - a poor man could theoretically pass the test, be appointed for government service, and become a high official. A poor man could move up. Of course, it would be difficult for a poor man to have the money necessary for private education but his village might support him in hopes of favors when he passes. So, yes, some poor men did rise based on the exams and thus this existed.
This was an ancient trade route that connected China and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. It crossed Central Asia and it was largely a relay trade as goods were passed from one trader to the next. Few merchants traveled the full length of the route. It allowed for Chinese goods like silk and porcelain to even reach Rome. It was an overland trade routes and the route ended at the Mediterranean Sea but boats could easily carry the goods to Europe.
It is the spread of cultural ideas and objects from one culture to another. Buddhism spread on the Silk Roads from India to China. That is an example of cultural diffusion.
It is the belief that one culture is superior to other cultures. The Chinese exhibited this belief when they referred to China as the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom implied that China was superior, more advanced - that China was the center of the world.
It is a way of life of a group of people. It includes language, clothing, family systems and food preferences. It is learned.
It is an object made by a human that is often excavated or dug up by archaeologists. It can give an archaeologist insight into the human past.
He was the most significant ruler of the Maurya Empire. He converted to Buddhism after a violent battle and encouraged the spread of Buddhism. He was religious tolerant and respected other religions and cultures. He had his words of wisdom carved on pillars throughout the empire. These Pillars are sometimes referred to as edicts.
The Mauryan Empire
It was an Indian empire founded by Chandragupta, beginning with his kingdom in northeastern India and spreading to most of northern and central India.. It was the first Indian Empire and its greatest ruler was Asoka. It existed from 322 BC - 185 BC. It had a highly centralized government.
The Edicts of Asoka
These were the wise words or "laws" of Asoka that were written on rocks and pillars. Many of the laws emphasized Buddhist ideas and tolerance. Asoka converted to Buddhism after a particularly violent battle, the Battle of Kalinga. After the battle, he was filled with remorse for all the killings that he had ordered. He sought a religion of peace and a new way of life.
The Gupta Empire
This Indian Empire existed from 320-550 A.D. It was founded many years after the Mauryan Empire. It was more decentralized than the Mauryan Empire and its founder called himself Chandra Gupta. This empire was very important because it experienced a golden age. Many advances in math and science occurred during this golden age. A golden age is a time of peace, prosperity and great achievements.
The Gupta Golden Age
This empire returned to Hinduism and experienced peace and prosperity. Great advances in mathematics occurred. The concept of zero was created; the concept of infinity was created; and the decimal system was created. In addition, great works of art were created in the Caves of Ajanta.
It was a great civilization located in Central America that saw its height from 300 - 900 A.D. It experienced a golden age. It was the only civilization in the Americas that had a complete writing system. It also made advances in astronomy and had a number system. Its mathematicians independently developed the concept of zero.
It was the largest ancient Mayan city in the northern part of Guatemala. Mayan civilization consisted of many independent city-states like the Sumerians and the Greeks. Each city had its own ruler.
It was an early type of corn grown by Native American Indians. It was the basis of Mayan agriculture and made civilization in Mesoamerica possible as it was highly caloric.
It was a Greek city-state. It was also the birthplace of democracy. In this city-state, any free man born in the city could vote. Women, slaves and foreigners could not vote. It experienced a golden age and had advances in math and science. It had beautiful architecture and was the first to use columns in architecture. The Parthenon was a beautiful temple to the goddess Athena.
It was a Greek city-state or polis. It was a militaristic city-state. All men had to serve as soldiers and weak babies were left to die. It had slaves or helots do all of the farming. Its men had to prepare for war.
It is a city-state in ancient Greece.
They separated the Greek city-states. The rugged terrain of Greece made unified government impossible. Instead the Greeks had many independent city-states with many different forms of government.
This Athenian leader was noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
The Persian Wars
It was a series of conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire as a result of the Ionian Revolt. Surprisingly the Greeks defeated the mighty empire and the Greeks experienced a golden age.
This war was primarily between Athens and its allies and Sparta and its allies. Athens had taken money from the city-states' alliance (the Delian League - formed to fight the Persians) to benefit Athens. This angered Sparta and war ensued. This war was fought for many years. Although Sparta won, it left Greece as a whole weak and ready to fall to its neighbors to the north.
Geography of Greece
Mountains and small islands allowed city-states to develop into independent communities. Greece is primarily a peninsula and islands. Mountains separated the Greek city-states and the seas allowed the Greeks to trade, travel and fish.
Alexander the Great
He was the son of King Philip II of Macedonia; he received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of the Greek philosopher, Aristotle; he was a great leader who conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; his goal was to conquer the known world. He conquered from Greece to the Indus River Valley. He spread Greek culture wherever he traveled.
It was a Greek-like culture that was spread as a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great. Alexander spread Greek culture wherever he conquered. Greek ideas about architecture like columns and Greek ideas about philosophy as well as math were spread as a result of Alexander's conquests. This is an example of cultural diffusion.
The Geography of Rome
Rome is a city in central Italy. Italy is a peninsula. Italy is also in the center of the Mediterranean Sea. Its location helped the Romans build a mighty empire by controlling trade on the Mediterranean Sea.
The Mediterranean Sea
It was the center of the Roman Empire. It connected three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa. It allowed for the exchange of goods between three continents. It was a great center for trade. The Romans conquered the land around the sea and became "kings" of the sea.
It was a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.) and it resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean. It was the beginning of Rome's serious expansion.
It was the language of the Romans. It is the basis of five modern languages today: Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese and Romanian.
The Twelve Tables
It was the civil laws developed by the Roman Republic following demands by plebeians. It was the written law code of Rome. It included concepts like innocent until proven guilty and trial by jury as well as equality under the law.
The Pax Romana
It was a period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180. It was the golden age of Rome. The Romans had many advances in engineering, architecture and philosophy. It was a time of peace in the Roman Empire.
Reasons for the Fall of Rome
Attacks from Germanic tribes, border disputes, disease, and high taxes - these were some of the reasons for the fall of Rome. The Romans called the invaders barbarians.
Similarities Fall of Rome and Fall of Han
Both empires experienced invasions that aided in their collapse.
The Romans developed a government where citizens vote for representatives. Representatives of the Patricians (landholding classes) were called Senators. American government has been influenced by Rome. Citizens vote for representatives too.
Who Voted in Athenian Democracy
Only free men born in Athens voted. Women, slaves and foreigners did not vote.
In Rome, the working people were called Plebeians. They did not have the rights of the wealthy Patricians. They were the citizen-soldiers but they could not vote for Senators or serve as Senators. These individuals were tired of such few rights and they organized and protested to gain a representative. They gained these representatives. These individuals could veto or say no to a law. They could not make a law but they could veto a law.
Why were Athens and Sparta different
One had a direct democracy where citizens voted; one was militaristic and required all men to serve as soldiers and helots or slaves to farm; one valued art and philosophy; one valued war - ultimately the fought against one another over charges of corruption
The Mystery of the Maya
They developed an advanced civilization in Mesoamerica. They built pyramids. They lived in independent city-states. They developed the concept of zero and engaged in astronomy but they abandoned their cities. It is possible that an environmental catastrophe forced them to abandon their cities.
It is a time of peace, prosperity and great achievements. The Gupta experienced one and had great advances in math and science. The concept of zero, the concept of infinity and the decimal system developed. The Maya had one with their number system, concept of zero and astronomy. The Romans had one in their Pax Romana.
Ways that geography influences a historical or current event
the historical period that shapes an event and allows the student to understand important issues in a given time period
It is an eyewitness account. The person was there and recorded observations. A letter, a diary or a newspaper article might be one.
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