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Provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
componet based development
Building large software systems by combining pre-existing software components.
computer-aided software engineering
Automation of step-by-step methodologies for software and systems development to reduce the amounts of repetitive work the developer needs to do.
The process of changing from the old system to the new system.
The modification of a software package to meet an organization's unique requirements without destroying the package software's integrity.
data flow diagram
Primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a system's component process and the flow of data between them.
A risky conversion approach where the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day.
Descriptions of how an information system works from either a technical or end-user standpoint.
The development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists.
The interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end-user interface of information systems.
As part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization's resources and constraints.
formal planning and totals
Improve project management by listing the specific activities that make up a project, their duration, and the sequence and timing of tasks.
Visually represents the timing, duration, and human resource requirements of project tasks, with each task represented as a horizontal bar whose length is proportional to the time required to complete it.
Simon's final stage of decision-making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution.
A detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy; identifies who needs what information, and when, where, and how the information is needed.
information systems plan
A road map indicating the direction of systems development the rationale, the current situation, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget.
Benefits that are not easily quantified; they include more efficient customer service or enhanced decision making.
joint application design
Process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions.
Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency.
Approach to systems development that uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. The system is modeled as a collection o objects and the relationship between them.
organizational impact analysis
Study of the way a proposed system will affect organizational structure, attitudes, decision making, and operations.
A safe and conservative conversion approach where both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly.
Graphically depicts project tasks and their interrelationships, showing the specific activities that must be completed before others can start.
Introduces the new system in stages either by functions or by organizational units.
An analysis of the portfolio of potential applications within a firm to determine the risks and benefits, and to select among alternatives for information systems.
Describe the logic of the processes occurring within the lowest levels of a data flow diagram.
The stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete; during this time the system is reviewed by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals.
A planned series of related activities for achieving a specific business objective.
Application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to achieve specific targets within specified budget and time constraints.
The process of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that users can better determine information requirements.
rapid application development
Process for developing systems in a very short time period by using prototyping, fourth-generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists.
request for proposal
A detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of software or other services to determine how well the vendor's product can meet the organization's specific requirements.
Defines what work is or is not included in a project.
A quick method for deciding among alternative systems based on a system of ratings for selected objectives.
System documentation showing each level of design, the relationship among the levels, and the overall place in the design structure; can document one program, one system, or part of one program.
Refers to the fact that techniques are carefully drawn up, step by step, with each step building on a previous one.
Tests the functioning of the information system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned.
The analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system.
Details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis.
systems development lifecycle
A traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists.
Benefits that can be quantified and assigned a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increased cash flows.
Prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it includes all of the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.
The exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions.
The process of testing each program separately in the system. Sometimes called program testing.
user-designe dcommunications gap
The difference in backgrounds, interests, and priorities that impede communication and problem solving among end users and information systems specialists.
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