-"Pensees": represented a defense of the Christian religion
-The rationalists like Descartes pursued a sort of intellectual perception—they sought truths of reason. That is, they looked for knowable "necessary truths" which would provide an indisputable account of, and explanation for, the world. Pascal did not have this "faith in reason."
-According to Pascal, the truths of the Christian faith (reached by revelation) solve the problems which arise out of the "human situation." He contends that "skeptical doubts" are appropriate, and he maintains that we may overcome the skeptical allure only by recognizing that "first principles" must come to us through revelation. In contrast to Descartes, then, Pascal believed that human reason was wholly unable to establish "first principles."5 Indeed, though this seems hard to believe, Pascal held that Descartes was too preoccupied with the material world, and too little concerned with the deity!
-Character: Emma Bovary: stuck in the provinces and her only possible intellectual quality is wit. she has no imagination, yearning for an upper class that has been glamorized for her, reads fashion magazines, imitation governs her behavior
-Emma may be said to be the embodiment of a romantic; in her mental and emotional process, she has no relation to the realities of her world. She inevitably becomes dissatisfied since her larger-than-life fantasies are impossible to realize.
-a commentary on the entire self-satisfied, deluded, bourgeois culture of Flaubert's time period. His contempt for the bourgeoisie is expressed through his characters: Emma and Charles Bovary lost in romantic delusions; absurd and harmful scientific characters, a self-serving money lender, lovers seeking excitement finding only the banality of marriage in their adulterous affairs. All are seeking escape in empty church rituals, unrealistic romantic novels, or delusions of one sort or another.
2nd EditionLawrence Scanlon, Renee H. Shea, Robin Dissin Aufses
3rd EditionDarlene Smith-Worthington, Sue Jefferson
David W. Moore, Deborah Short, Michael W. Smith
1st EditionCarol Jago, Lawrence Scanlon, Renee H. Shea, Robin Dissin Aufses