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PSY 311 Exam two
Terms in this set (90)
Characteristics or conditions that change or have different values for different individuals
hypothetical attributes or mechanisms that help explain and predict behavior in a theory
Two measures change together in the same direction
two measures change in opposite directions; people score high on one end and low on the other end
degree to which measurement process Measures variable that it claims to measure
Does the measurement technique look like it measures the variable it claims to measure.
drawbacks: subjective and if the purpose of the measure is too obvious participants can see exactly what is being measured and change their answers or behavior
establishes consistency between two different procedures for measuring the same variable suggesting that the two measurement procedures measure the same thing. because one procedure is well established and accepted as valid we infer the second procedure must also be valid
when the measurement of a construct accurately predicts behavior according to the theory
measurements of a variable behave in exactly the same way as the variable itself
Creating two different methods to measure the same construct then showing that the two measurement procedures produce strongly related scores
involves demonstrating that we are measuring one specific construct and not combining two different constructs in the same measurement process.
The goal is to differentiate between two conceptually distinct constructs by measuring both constructs then showing that there is little or no relationship between the two measurements
the individual who makes the measurements can introduce simple human error
Environmental Error/ Changes
different testing conditions produce different scores
the participant(S) can change between measurements
Successive measure; the reliability estimate obtained from two successive measurements
Parallel Forms Reliability
If alternative versions of the measuring instrument are used for the two measurements, the reliability measure is called parallel-forms reliability.
the degree of agreement between two observers who simultaneously record measurements of the behaviors
obtained by splitting the items on a questionnaire or test in half, computing a separate score for each half, and then calculating the degree of consistency between the two scores for a group of participants.
The relationship between Validity and Reliablilty
A measure cannot be valid unless it is reliable, but a measure can be reliable without being valid.
the clustering of scores at the high end of a measurement scale, allowing little or no possibility of increases in value.
is the clustering of scores at the low end of a measurement scale, allowing little or no possibility of decreases in value.
Experimenter bias occurs when the measurements obtained in a study are influenced by the experimenter's expectations or personal beliefs regarding the outcome of the study
A research study is single-blind if the researcher does not know the predicted outcome.
A research study is double-blind if both the researcher and the participants are unaware of the predicted outcome
refers to any of the potential cues or features of a study that (1) suggest to the participants what the purpose and hypothe- sis is, and (2) influence the participants to respond or behave in a certain way.
occurs when participants modify their natural behavior in response to the fact that they are participating in a research study or the knowledge that they are being measured
Suppose a researcher wants to evaluate a self-esteem program by measuring students' self-esteem before and after a self-esteem program is administered. If all of the students score very high in self-esteem before the program begins, then the measurement procedure has a sensitivity problem known as_____.
a. can distort measurement.
b. can threaten validity of measures.
c. can threaten reliability of measures.
d. All of the other options are characteristics of artifacts.
d. All of the other options are characteristics of artifacts.
The behavior observed in a research study may be very different from behavior in normal circumstances because the participants modify their behavior when they know that they are being studied. This problem is known as_____
A variable such as intelligence that cannot be seen or measured directly is known as a(n)
It is possible for psychologists to study variables such as hunger, motivation, and self-esteem because these variables can be measured by___
c. operational definitions
What is the advantage of using an operational definition?
It guarantees that other researchers will know exactly how you defined and measured your variable
If people who score high on one measure tend to score low on another measure, then there is____
a negative relationship between the two measures.
You develop a new measure of honesty, and other researchers agree that it looks like an appropriate way to measure honesty. You have demonstrated
C. Face validity
A(n) _______measure produces similar results when the same individuals are measured under identical conditions.
Using letter grades (A, B, C, D, and E) to classify student performance on an exam is an example of measurement on a(n) ______scale of measurement.
After measuring two individuals, a researcher can say that Tom's score is 4 points higher than Bill's. The measurements must come from a(n)_____ scale.
D. interval or ratio
What additional information is obtained by measuring on an ordinal scale compared to a nominal scale?
B. the direction of the differences
An EEG, heart rate, and brain activity are all examples of ________measures.
Counting the number of people who smile at a baby in a stroller as they pass by is an example of a ______measure.
Which modality of measurement is least likely to be distorted by the participant's or the researcher's subjective interpretation?
A variable such as intelligence that cannot be seen or measured directly is known as a(n)______ .
It is possible for psychologists to study variables such as hunger, motivation, and self- esteem because these variables can be measured by______
the entire set of individuals of interest to a researcher. Although the entire population usually does not participate in a research study, the results from the study are generalized to the entire population.
set of individuals selected from a population and usually is intended to represent the population in a research study.
A representative sample is a sample with the same characteristics as the population.
A biased Sample
A biased sample is a sample with different characteristics from those of the population.
Selection/ Sampling Bias
Selection bias or sampling bias occurs when participants or subjects are selected in a manner that increases the probability of obtaining a biased sample.`
A researcher is interested in the television viewing preferences of adolescent boys and selects a group of 25 boys to participate in a research study. The group of 25 boys is a______
Typically, researchers plan to generalize their results to the entire group of individuals defined by their specific interests. This entire group is called_____
The Target population
In most research situations, the researcher does not have a list of all the individuals in the population and, therefore, must use ______sampling.
Simple Random Sampling
each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected
Sampling with replacement
This method requires that an individual selected for the sample be recorded as a sample member and then returned to the population (replaced) before the next selection is made. This procedure ensures that the probability of selection remains constant throughout a series of selections. (it will constantly be 30/100 not)
Sampling without Replacement
As the term indicates, this method removes each selected individual from the population before the next selection is made. Although the probability of being selected changes with each selection, this method guarantees that no individual appears more than once in a single sample.
Systematic sampling begins by listing all the individuals in the population, then randomly picking a starting point on the list. The sample is then obtained by moving down the list, selecting every nth name.
stratified random sampling
A form of probability sampling; a random sampling technique in which the researcher identifies particular demographic categories of interest and then randomly selects individuals within each category.
Proportionate Random Sampling
selection of population units for study according to strata, based on the size of each stratum in the population
A probability sampling technique in which clusters of participants within the population of interest are selected at random, followed by data collection from all individuals in each cluster.
The use a mix of sampling strategies, if appropriate, to try to get a good representation of the population;
Which of the following is not required for a simple random sample from a population of 20 individuals?
a. Each individual in the population has a 1/20 probability of being selected.
b.The selection of one individual is independent of the selection of any other individual.
c. After 20 selections, each individual must have been selected exactly one time.
d. The individual obtained on any specific selection must be unpredictable.
After 20 selections, each individual must have been selected exactly one time
A class consists of 20 girls and 12 boys. The names of all the students in the class are listed on separate pieces of paper. The teacher places all the boys' names in one hat, all the girls' names in another hat and mixes them thoroughly before reaching in to draw out five names from each hat. The teacher is using
stratified random sampling.
If your primary concern is that the composition of your sample should accurately reflect the composition of the population, then you should use
proportionate stratified sampling.
non-probability method where researchers simply use as participants those individuals who are easy to get. People are selected on the basis of their availability and willingness to respond.
A non-probability sampling technique in which researchers divide the population into groups and then arbitrarily choose participants from each group. ensure that subgroups are equally represented in a convenience sample.
A researcher obtains a sample of 50 research participants by asking for volunteers from an introductory psychology class. What kind of sampling is the researcher using?
What kind of sampling is used by a researcher who obtains a sample of preschool children by selecting individuals from a local daycare center?
A researcher asks students to sign up for a research study and then selects the first 15 males and 15 females who sign up. The researcher is using___
Descriptive Research Strategy
intended to answer questions about the current state of individual variables for a specific group of individuals
Relationships between variables
A relationship between variables simply means that changes in one variable are consistently and predictably accompanied by changes in another variable
A type of relationship that exists between two variables whose graphed data points lie on a straight line
A relationship in which increases in the values of the first variable are accompanied by both increases and decreases in the values of the second variable.
A research study that simply measures two variables for each individual in which each variable is measured with numerical scores
intended to answer cause and effect questions about the relationship between two variables
this strategy usually attempts to answer cause-and-effect questions about the relationship between two variables, it can never produce an unambiguous explanation
A study examining what percentage of married couples is satisfied with their marriages is an example of what research approach?
A research study records a score measuring alcohol use and a score measuring income level for each individual in a group of 40-year-old men. The study intends to determine whether there is a relationship between the two variables. This study is an example of the ________research strategy.
A research study begins by separating a sample of 40-year-old men into two groups: a high-income group and a low-income group. A score measuring alcohol use is then obtained for each man. The study intends to determine whether there is a relationship be- tween income and alcohol use. This study is an example of the _________research strategy.
refers to the extent to which we can generalize the results of a research study to people, settings, times, measures, and characteristics other than those used in that study.
threat to external validity
any characteristic of a study that limits the ability to generalize the results from a research study
A research study has internal validity if it produces a single, unambiguous explanation for the relationship between two variables.
threat to internal validity
A threat to internal validity is any factor that allows for an alternative explanation.
Any factor that raises doubts about the research results or the interpretation of the results is a(n)_____
Threat to Validity
Any factor that limits the ability to generalize the results of the study is a threat to_____
Any factor that allows an alternative explanation for the results of a study is a threat to___
An extraneous variable is any variable in a research study other than the specific variables being studied.
A confounding variable is an extraneous variable (usually un-monitored) that changes systematically along with the two variables being studied. A confounding variable provides an alternative explanation for the observed relationship between the two variables and, therefore, is a threat to internal validity.
Assignment bias occurs when the process used to assign different participants to different treatments produces groups of individuals with noticeably different characteristics.
A research study finds that a group of participants who received relaxation training had lower exam anxiety scores than a group who did not receive training. However, the re- searcher suspects that the difference between groups may be caused by the fact that the participants in one group are generally smarter than those in the other. This study has a problem with____
A researcher designs a study to determine whether female preschoolers prefer sweetened or unsweetened cereal. The researcher uses a box of sweetened colorful cereal and a box of unsweetened tan-colored cereal. The research finds that the group of preschoolers ate more of the sweetened colorful cereal and therefore prefers the sweetened cereal. Which two variables are confounded in this experiment?
color of the cereal and sweetness of the cereal
A researcher evaluates the effectiveness of an art class by having an art expert judge the quality of student's paintings at the beginning of the class, in the middle of the class, and at the end of the class. If the art expert's standards for judgment change during the class, then the internal validity of the study is threatened by
a time-related variable
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