26 terms

The Industrial Revolution

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Britain
The Industrial Revolution began here. (name the country)
Textile
Fabric or cloth. One of the major industries developed during the Industrial Revolution
Steam Engine
Source of mechanical power for factories. Allowed them to be built away from rivers. Caused a lot of pollution.
Coal
Found in abundance in England. Burns more efficiently than wood.
Urbanization
Rapid growth in the size and population of cities as people moved in from the country-side in search of work in factories
Canal System
Before the railroad, this was the most efficient way of moving large quantities of raw materials around England
Thomas Malthus
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because food production could not keep up
Robert Owen
Utopian socialist who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist Utopian communities
David Ricardo
English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," which stated that increasing wages would not improve the quality of life for the working class
Karl Marx
Often recognized as the father of communism. Believed that communism would replace capitalism. Believed in a classless society.
Adam Smith
"wealth of nations" advocated the idea of laissez faire; or government not involving themselves in the economy.
James Watt
Refined and improved the steam engine to make it more useful as a source of power in factories
Jeremy Bentham
British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.
A.T.E. U.P.
CAUSES: Agriculture; Transportation; Energy - - EFFECTS: Urbanization; Population growth/shift
Women in Factories
Could be paid less than men; experienced with spinning, weaving and sewing; needed work because of the end of the "putting-out" system
Putting-Out System
Manufacturing system in which work was distributed to individuals who completed work in their own homes.
Caused many to move to cities
New farming technology which required less labor; More and more farm land under the control of a few rich landowners; Need for work to support family
Enclosure Movement
Process by which "the commons" was divided up and sold - often to rich estate owners - leaving small-time farmers and the poor without land to farm
Utilitarianism
Theory of Jeremy Bentham; Laws and policies should cause the greatest good for the greatest number
"Scientific Socialism"
Approach to socialism used by Marx to emphasize that there was research and evidence behind their theory. Intended to be more realistic and practical than Robert Owen's "Utopia"
Laissez-Faire
Adam Smith's theory that government should not interfere with free trade and business. "Hands-off"
Utopia
A perfect place - often associated with Robert Owen's failed attempts at creating a socialist community
Tenement
A building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
Parliament
English governing body responsible for making laws.
Communism
Karl Marx's theory of community ownership and responsibility - intended to replace capitalism
Entrepreneur
A person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business