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54 terms

Unit 1 and 2 Biology 1

Biology 1 Unit 1 and 2 Terms, Holland Christian Bredeweg
STUDY
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Observation
use of one of more of the senses-sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste-to gather information.
Inference
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience.
theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question.
controlled variables
factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely keeps the same
independent variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as a responding variable.
dependent variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change because of the manipulated variable; also known as a responding variable.
fact
A piece of information known to be true because it has been verified by observation or measurement, NOT based on inference.
scientific method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
hypotheses
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
EDD
a diagram used by scientists, to design an experiment.
glossary
an alphabetical list of technical terms
index
an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed
bias
a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
sources
people or documents from which you get information
natural laws
principles that govern nature
homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
acid
compound that forms hydrogens (H+) in solution
base
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution
pH
the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0-14
H+ concentration
pH measures this-the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
organic compound
any compound of carbon and another element or a radical, covalent bonding, can be large with many atoms, associated with living things
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds
polymerization
a chemical reaction in which monomers are binded together
polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
carbohydrate
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
monomer
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
mono/di/polysaccharide
sugar molecules
hydrolysis
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
lipids
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
fat
lipid; made up of fatty acids and glycerol
hydrogenated/trans fats
hydrogen has been added to liquid oils in order to make lid fats
saturated fat
fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
unsaturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms
phospholipid
any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base
sterols/steroids
A type of lipid based on cholesterol; includes testosterone and estrogen.
protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
amino acid
compound with amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end
enzyme
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
substrate
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
active site
the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs
nucleic acid
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
DNA/RNA
types of nucleic acids
cellulose
a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
maltose
a white crystalline sugar formed during the digestion of starches
sucrose
a complex carbohydrate found in many plants and used as a sweetening agent (glucose+fructose)
starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose
glycogen
The form in which the liver and muscles store glucose; the animal equivalent of starch.
lactose
a sugar comprising one glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule
glucose
a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
salivary amylase
in mouth, released by salivary glands and begins chemical breakdown of starch