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Biology 1 Unit 1 and 2 Terms, Holland Christian Bredeweg


use of one of more of the senses-sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste-to gather information.


logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience.


well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations


possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question.

controlled variables

factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely keeps the same

independent variable

factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as a responding variable.

dependent variable

factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change because of the manipulated variable; also known as a responding variable.


A piece of information known to be true because it has been verified by observation or measurement, NOT based on inference.

scientific method

a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses


a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations


a diagram used by scientists, to design an experiment.


an alphabetical list of technical terms


an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed


a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation


people or documents from which you get information

natural laws

principles that govern nature


process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment


compound that forms hydrogens (H+) in solution


compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution


the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0-14

H+ concentration

pH measures this-the acidity or alkalinity of a solution

organic compound

any compound of carbon and another element or a radical, covalent bonding, can be large with many atoms, associated with living things


smallest unit of most compounds


a chemical reaction in which monomers are binded together


large compound formed from combinations of many monomers


compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body


small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers


sugar molecules


a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds

dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.


macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes


lipid; made up of fatty acids and glycerol

hydrogenated/trans fats

hydrogen has been added to liquid oils in order to make lid fats

saturated fat

fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms

unsaturated fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms


any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base


A type of lipid based on cholesterol; includes testosterone and estrogen.


macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes

amino acid

compound with amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end


protein that acts as a biological catalyst


substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction


reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

active site

the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs

nucleic acid

macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus


monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base


types of nucleic acids


a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers


a white crystalline sugar formed during the digestion of starches


a complex carbohydrate found in many plants and used as a sweetening agent (glucose+fructose)


A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose


The form in which the liver and muscles store glucose; the animal equivalent of starch.


a sugar comprising one glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule


a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.

salivary amylase

in mouth, released by salivary glands and begins chemical breakdown of starch

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