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Earth Science Final review
Terms in this set (57)
A possible explanation or answer to a question
A series of steps scientists follow to solve problems
Communicating the results of an investigation allows other scientists to do what?
review the evidence; use it for their own needs
What do scientists do to determine if their results support their hypothesis?
What is key about variables in a controlled experiment?
they are tested on at a time
Why is it important to have the International System of Units?
used to measure the volume of a liquid
liters (mL, L, kL, etc.)
basic unit for mass
grams (mg, g, kg, etc.)
measure of how hot or cold something is
basic SI unit of length
meters (mm, cm, m, km, etc.)
amount of matter in an object
size of a body or region in a three-dimensional space
ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of a substance
lines on a map that connect points of equal elevation
What kind of features would most likely be identified on a topographical map?
rivers, bridges, mountains
lines on a map that measure distance north and south of the equator
latitude; they run parallel to the equator (side-to-side)
What causes differences in the air pressure around the Earth?
unequal distribution of heat
a mode of the transfer of heat; gas/liquid is heated, becomes less dense and rises, as it gets farther from heat source it cools, once cooled it becomes denser and it sinks, gets closer to heat source , heats up and rises, process repeats
What causes wind to occur?
changes in air pressure
What makes winds traveling north in the Northern Hemisphere appear to curve to the east?
global winds that blow west to east
prevailing westerlies; east to west is polar easterlies
Where is the protective layer of ozone found in the atmosphere?
What two elements compose most of Earth's atmosphere?
nitrogen and oxygen
What is the temperature at which condensation begins called?
What is the dark gray flat layered cloud called that produces a steady rain?
intrument that measures and records air pressure
instrument that measures wind speed
instrument that measures relative humidity
instrument that measures altitude of object above a fixed level
air mass that would cause a hot and humid spell
characteristics of a continentaly tropical air mass
hot and dry
describe an air front
air boundry between air masses
two fronts (warm and cold) collide and create a stand still
Why do thunderstorms often occur in the afternoon?
surface warming throughout the day causes unstable conditions in the troposphere
What data do infared satelites use to create images?
What causes seasons to change?
changes in the Earth's tilt
What's seen on the windward side of a mountain in a rain shadow effect?
plethora of vegetation and precipitation
define microclimate, give example(s)
localized, smaller-area climate that differs from the main, regional climate; heat islands created by concrete/asphalt
two most important factors in determining the climate of an area
temperature and precipitation
Where does El Nino originate?
Pacific coast of South America
average change in temperature during an ice age
5 degrees Celcius
gases most associated with glbal warming
ozone and carbon dioxide
as latitude increases, average yearly temperature...
A city near the equator can be cooler than other cities farther away from the equator if the city in question is...
at a high altitude
possible way the Earth might cool
increased reflection of sunlight back into space
area of Earth that receivees almost-vertical sun-rays throughout the year
latitudes near the equator
Why would a forest be cooler than a city on a hot summer day, even if they were located in the same region?
the city is a heat-island
What is the primary cause of smog?
bad ozone and vehicle exhaust
purpose or ozone in stratosphere
absorbs harmful UV radiation
What would happen to Earth's surface if there was no greenhouse effect?
appearance of ocean currents in Northern Hemisphere with Coriolis effect
curved path to the right
How are deep ocean currents different from surface currents?
denser and slower
What happens to the water left behind after evaporation?
salinity (concentration of salt) increases
describe the use of sonar for mapping the ocean floor
amount of time sound waves take to travel to ocean floor and back is used to measure depth of ocean floor
temperature of ocean be the lowest at what locations
near the poles, and the deeper you go in to the ocean
cause of surface ocean currents
cause of curved paths of global winds and surface ocean currents
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