Micro Ch. 8 & 9

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Terms in this set (20)
consequences of mutations-show genetic diversity -may improve adaption to the envir. & cause evolution -are haploid=mutations r immediately expressedDNA transfer-small circles of DNA can exist outside the chromosome or insert themselves into the chromosome; plasmids -can be transferred from one bacterial cell to another -Recombination: insertion of new, functional DNA into a cell's chromosomeTransformation*means of DNA transfer -naked DNA in the medium can be sucked up by bacteria and integrated into the genomeTransduction*means of DNA transfer -bacterial viruses can pick up bacterial DNA and transfer it to newly infected bacterial cellsConjugation*means of DNA transfer -related bacterial cells can transfer DNA through a pilus if they are touchingplasmids-small circles of extrachromosomal DNA -replicate independently -can recombine w/the chromosomes and pop back out -vary in size from a few to many genes -can be transferred btwn bacteria through conjugation -often contain optional genes like antibiotic resistance genesImportance of DNA transfer-creates new genetic info in the recipient ---functional, gives an advantage in survival, transfer is fast -often moves related genes together as a set ---may acquire several new survival factors or enzymes at onceGenetic engineering-involves manipulating genes to produce the product you wantBiotechnology-involves using microbiology and biochemistry techniques to solve problems & produce products -make scarce human proteins (insulin, growth hormones, antibodies) -Make safer vaccines -Bioremediation (use microorganisms to degrade unwanted chemical pollution)polymerase chain reaction-denature the DNA using temperature -add regulatory primers and DNA polymerase -keeps making new copies every time you cycle the temperature -make large #s of any DNA sequence ---Amplification