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Humanities and Science Midterm
Terms in this set (58)
What metal, which was used to compose the buttons on soldiers, might have been a potential cause of the downfall of Napoleon's army?
There are ____ single and _____ double bonds in the structure below.
What is the name of the island in present-day Indonesia that the English traded to the Dutch because of its prominent nutmeg production?
What element defines a compound as being organic?
Shape, structure, or geometry of a compound.
What about a compound determines what it does (function)?
Historical importance of Nutmeg
Ascorbic Acid is more commonly known as Vitamin ____.
Scurvy. Exhaustion and weakness, softening of the gums, foul breath.
What disease was the result of a deficiency of ascorbic acid, common on many seaships? List at least three symptoms
of that disease.
Human body cannot synthesize ascorbic acid
What is the difference between humans and other animals in terms of how they acquire ascorbic acid?
Which of the following is not an example of an artificial sweetener that can be used in place of sugar?
Mono - one single sugar or glucose unit, ex- glucose Di - two glucose units, sucrose, fructose, Poly - more than two glucose units, ex- cellulose, starch, chitin
What is the difference between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides? Give one example of each
Name one of the industries we discussed in the text that was greatly impacted by slavery.
True or False: Humans can digest and absorb cellulose.
same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms
Isomers have _______.
Long chain molecules with repeating units of monomers. Cellulose is a polymer of beta-glucose. Starch is a polymer of alpha-glucose, and is a storage polysaccharide, whereas cellulose is a structural polysaccharide.
Define polymer. Cellulose is a polymer of what? How is starch different from cellulose?
What explosive product did Alfred Nobel invent?
potassium nitrate, carbon and sulfur
What is the composition of gunpowder?
What does TNT stand for?
In what country did the silk industry get started?
The production of silk and the rearing of silkworms for this purpose is called ________.
Artificial: different chemical structure from natural, but has similar properties, and manmade
Synthetic: same chemical structure as natural, but manmade
Explain the difference between a silk being "artificial silk" vs. "synthetic silk"
Give one example of an artificial silk.
Marijuana contains ______ as an active ingredient.
What animals were saved by using Bakelite to produce billiard (pool) balls?
Other than billiard balls, what was another early use of Bakelite plastic?
What color of dye was reserved for kings/emperors/royalty?
The most expensive spice today is ____________, which was also used as yellow dye
Collaboration between industries and academia.
Give a major reason behind the successful growth of the German dye industries.
Foxglove, poppy plant
Name one plant that was used as medicinal herbs in the past.
Some microorganism would absorb a dye, and could be selectively killed by toxic dye (or drugs).
What is "magic bullet" approach termed by Paul Ehrlich?
In 1900, the average life expectancies in the US was only _______ years for a male and _______years for a female.
A scientist gave his daughter an oral dose of the still-experimental dye called prontosil - which was not effective in other animals. What is the name of that scientist?
True or False: Our bodies do not manufacture folic acid.
Acetylsalicylic Acid is the scientific name for what common pain reliever?
__________ was first used successfully as an antiseptic by Joseph Lister on a leg surgery of a young boy.
What was the first sex hormone ever isolated?
What chemical was synthesized as a hormone treatment to support pregnancy or to relieve menstrual irregularity, but became "the pill"?
Who is the "father of the Pill"?
Name one of the two animals most commonly associated with witches or witchcraft.
True or False
In the earlier days, about 90% of accused witches were women
Which of the following plants were NOT used in flying ointments?
Alkaloids are plant-derived organic compounds that cause a physiological reaction in humans (i.e., morphine or strychnine). They contain one or more atoms of _____, often within a ring of carbon atoms.
China and Britain
Which two countries fought The First Opium War?
Morphine mimics the action of _____________, compounds found in the brain that serves as natural pain relievers.
Which of the following alkaloids are most accepted by society for common-use today?
True or false:
Nicotine is thousand times more potent when taken orally than absorbed through skin.
What was the first source of caffeine according to archaeological discoveries?
Grown over the last 5000-7000 years, the _______________ is a common source of oleic acid and grows well in the Mediterranean climate.
What hygienic item can be made from fat (or fatty acids) and lye (sodium or potassium hydroxide)?
Saturated with hydrogen: no C-Cdouble bonds, no more hydrogen can be added.
Unsaturated: with C=C double or triple bonds, more hydrogens can be added.
What is the difference between a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid?
Olive oil was also called ______.
attempting to make peace
"Extending the olive branch" means ___________
True or False
Monounsaturated fatty acids, like oleic acid, have a neutral effect on the serum (blood) cholesterol level.
Originally, due to its very high monetary value, salt was known as "__________."
Use of refrigeration, and industrial production.
Name two reasons for the price of many chemicals, including salt, going down.
magnesium chloride and calcium chloride
Sea salt contains two thirds of sodium chloride (NaCl), the rest is the mixture of ____________.
True or False:
Salt is composed of a regular array of positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged chloride ions - held together by ionic bond.
from the meat of herbivorous animals
How did prehistoric people fill their dietary need for salt?
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