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Once upon a time, the region between the Midwest and mid-Atlantic states, roughly from Wisconsin to New Jersey, enjoyed booming economic growth because of an abundance of coal, iron ore, and other important natural resources. These states also had the ability to transport finished products over railroads or waterways to their own port cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Buffalo. By the 1970s, however, many of the region's factories had shut down, and the abundance of shuttered buildings guarded by rusting gates gave the region a new name, the Rust Belt.By the late 1950s, foreign steel was becoming cheaper to import and higher in overall quality. Negotiations between unionized workers and management resulted in higher wages and other benefits, but domestic steel buyers were no longer willing to absorb the higher cost of American steel produced in the Midwestern factories. By the 1970s, a general downturn in the American economy combined with foreign competition caused many steel mills and other heavy production industries to shut down, thus creating the severely depressed area. Many cities located in the Rust Belt had a very difficult time recovering from the loss of major industries as well as the flight of workers to other regions of the country. Recruiting new industry became a challenge for these states as companies sought cheaper labor and lower production costs in the non-unionized Sun Belt states located in the Deep South. Some cities, such as Detroit, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh, were hit especially hard, since their economies depended very heavily on the manufacturing industry.
Illegal
It is the demographic changes of the population, meanwhile, that may loom the largest. At current rates of increase, Hispanics/Latinos will overtake European whites as the ethnic majority. Of course, one would expect there to exist a significant amount of mixing between these two races as well as other minority populations. Prejudice against illegal and legal immigrants alike on the basis of race is also of significant concern to civil liberties champions. While some employers may award positions to illegal aliens for economic reasons (i.e. they can exploit their fear of deportation for low wages), some, too, may be motivated by racial bias. Moreover, illegal immigrants will often be met with negative stereotypes, sometimes attributed to anyone on Latin descent, despite them being hard workers and possibly not even Mexicans, let alone illegal immigrants.Social Effects of Illegal immigration and the system that allows it have caused large effects on the United States, both economically and socially. These effects can be considered positive or negative, depending on the view point of the individual. Statistically, areas where illegal immigrants tend to congregate such as New York or southern California are experiencing an economic drain on social services that are funded by tax-payer dollars. These services include low-cost health insurance or Medicaid, low income housing, and food stamps.On the other hand, contrary the the majority opinion, statistics may suggest that illegal immigrants actually contribute more to social security and medicare than they actually receive. Still, the social understanding of illegal immigration does not tend to reflect this idea.Nationwide perceptions have been effected largely by the attacks that took place on September 11th. Social anxieties towards immigrants have increased as a result, and this has correlated in a resurgence of the national security argument levied against increased rights or opportunities for illegal immigrants.
Legal
The cause of immigration is to find better jobs. It is also to find safer places to live. Many people may immigrant to a country like the United States because their countries are filled with poverty and war. The effect of immigration can include the fact that these immigrants are taking jobs from Americans. This can include young Americans and those who are not well educated. The effect can also mean a financial one on the citizens of the United States. Some immigrants will have to apply for assistance to survive. This can include financial, food, and medical assistance
The Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment is one of the few provisions of the Bill of Rights that has been given a broader interpretation under the Burger and Rehnquist courts than under the Warren Court. It is a clause near and dear to the heart of free market conservatives.
Only certain types of takings cases present serious interpretive questions. It is clear that when the government physically seizes property (as for a highway or a park, for example) that it will have to pay just compensation. It is also clear that serious, sustained physical invasions of property (as in the case of low overflying aircraft, for example) require payment of compensation equal to the difference between the market value before and after the invasion. The difficult cases are generally those where government regulations, enacted to secure some sort of public benefit, fall disproportionately on some property owners and cause significant dimunition of property value. The Court has had a difficult time articulating a test to determine when a regulation becomes a taking. It has said there is "no set formula" and that courts "must look to the particular circumstances of the case." The Court has identified some relevant factors to consider: the economic impact of the regulation, the degree to which the regulation interferes with investor-backed expectations, and the character of the government action. Still, as our cases suggest, there is a lot of room for argument as to how these various factors should be weighed.
The New Deal measures involved government directly in economic areas that had never before been contemplated. The National Recovery Act involved steps toward a planned economy. The Works Progress Act involved the Government into virtuly every area of the economy. Jobs were found for virtually every area of employment. There was also major steps made in Government social programs. The Tenessee Valley Authority sought to remake the physical and social envirmoent of an entire area. These and other New Deal programs resulted in greatly increased spending and unbalanced budgets. This led to increasingly criticisms of Roosevelt's programs. He became, as a result, one ofthe most contriversial president's in American history. Before the New Deal, the American people had very very limited expectations. After the New Deal, Americans began expecting much more from the Federal Government. Each of the New Deal programs need to be evaluated on their own merits. Some such as the REA and CCC were clearly beneficial. Other agencies are more controversial. Many social reforms such as Social Security were clearly needed. Few will deny that greatly required relief programs were needed for those in need. And Government refulation of banks and the security indistry was clearly involved. But one question is to often ignored by liberal historians for which the New Deal is a virtual icon. Did the New Deal help end the Depression or did it actually prolong it. Often ignored is the fact that the Depression in other countries such as England and France, although the continuing Depression in Aneruca was a drag on other economies. New Deal defenders might argue that conservative and business interests were oposed to basic changes and unsettled by the more invasive government role. Support for labor in particular required adjustment on the part of industry. Some may argue that the oponets of the New Deal attempted to sabatoge it. This is rather a streach because it would mean financial costs to themselves. But it surely would have affected the invesrment climate. New Deal critics argue that Government spending and defecit spending absorbed available credit and thus crowded out or made it more difficult for the private sector to recover. This is a very difficult issue which is still a matter of economic discussion. While President Roosevelt's motives were questioned at the time, I think it is clear that his goal and that of New Deal figures were humanitarian. But the question of whether they helped end or prolonged the Depression is a very important question.
The years surrounding America's involvement in World War I were a watershed for how the United States treated foreigners within its borders during wartime. Immigrants had flooded the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. When the United States declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917, almost a third of Americans were either first or second-generation immigrants. Those born in Germany and even American-born citizens of German descent fell under suspicion of being disloyal.

Later, partially in reaction against the Bolshevik Revolution and the rising tide of socialism in Europe, a more general anti-immigrant sentiment gripped America. For example, through the Palmer Raids of the 1920s, the Department of Justice rounded up thousands of foreigners who were alleged communists, anarchists, labor reformers, or otherwise menaces to society. Many were forcibly deported.
The Sedition Act provided fines and jail penalties for anyone who "shall write, print, utter or publish . . . false, scandalous and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States, or either house of the Congress . . . or the President . . . with intent to defame . . . or to bring them . . . into contempt or disrepute; or to excite against them . . . the hatred of the good people of the United States . .
On April 16, 1917, all males older than 14 who were still "natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects" of the German Empire became alien enemies. In 1918, an act of Congress included women aged 14 and older. In time, however, the term "alien enemy" came to apply to virtually any foreign resident the government deemed undesirable. It became an effective weapon the government wielded against individuals and organizations which were pacifist, critical of the war, or otherwise objectionable politically.
Alien enemies were a high priority on the wartime agenda. On the same day that Congress declared war, President Wilson issued 12 regulations for their treatment. Alien enemies were prohibited from owning such goods as firearms, aircraft, or wireless apparatus. They could not publish an "attack" upon any branch of the U.S. government. They could not reside in an area designated as "prohibited" by the president. They could be removed to a location designated by the president. Alien enemies could not depart the United States without permission and they were required to register with the government to receive a registration card.
On November 16, 1917, 8 more regulations were added to the original 12. They restricted how closely and under what circumstances enemy aliens could approach facilities such as docks, railroads, and warehouses—thus, de facto restricting their employment. Aliens were banned from air travel and from the District of Columbia.
One motivation behind the regulations was clearly to establish control over radical groups The federal government also intruded upon civil liberties, especially the right to dissent. The radical labor movement became a focus of government for several reasons. It was successful: in the first decades of the 20th century, labor unrest had spread like wildfire across broad sections of America and sparked effective strikes. It was anti-war: its prominent communist and socialist leaders believed the war was being fought for capitalism and they felt comradeship, not hostility, toward foreign workers. Socialism, in general, had become a political threat. The radical labor movement was also an easy target because of its immigrant-heavy membership. Politically minded immigrants had a history of bringing radical ideas with them. For example, in the last decades of the 1800s, the International Working People's Association (IWPA) issued no fewer than five papers out of Chicago alone, three of which were in German.
Moreover, by World War I, there was a bitter history of clashes between radical labor movements and the authorities. The Haymarket incident in Chicago is a notorious example. In the spring of 1886, 65,000 workers in the city either went on strike or were locked out by their employers. On May 3, the police fired upon a crowd of laborers, killing several. The next day, a protest meeting ended in a violent clash that left seven policemen and an unknown number of workers (estimated at about 20) dead.
We learned that politics are very likely to determine how one views evidence in impeachment case--not a surprising lesson to be sure, but the final votes in both the House and Senate turned out to be surprisingly partisan. Moreover, the analysis of academics--people trained to look objectively at evidence--who threw themselves into the impeachment fray was, if anything, even more partisan than that of the politicians.
We learned that the Administration's decision to go on "a war footing" when allegations of the President's affair with Lewinsky first surfaced proved costly. Relentless attacks by Clinton and his aides on the Office of Independent Counsel and Linda Tripp angered Republicans, polarized debate, and made impeachment by the House inevitable. (At the same time, the aggressive approach might have made acquittal in the Senate inevitable.)
We learned also that an impeachment trial is not necessarily a national calamity and might even have some benefits. George W. Bush has shown that the presidency was not seriously weakened by the ordeal. The public might be better off today for having had to think seriously about issues of both private and public morality during the impeachment process. The Clinton-Lewinsky scandal also contributed to a franker national discussion about sex and, by demonstrating how many skeletons exist in the closets of politicians, might--it is hoped-cause future elections to turn more on matters of substance than what one of the candidates did in bed sometime in the past.
Finally, as Richard Posner astutely observes in An Affair of State, the impeachment of William Clinton has "by the dint of its riviting detail" made it "difficult to take presidents seriously." The destruction of the mystique of the presidency is for "those who think that authority depends upon mystery" a consequence to be lamented. But Posner disagrees: "My guess is that they are wrong, that Americans haves reached a level of political sophistication at which they can take in stride the knowledge that the nation's political and intellectual leaders are their peers, and not their paragons. The nation does not depend upon the superior virtue of one man."
In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center buildings in New York, the United States Congress passed the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot) Act of 2001. Several sections of the USA Patriot Act directly threaten the civil liberties of the citizens of the United States.
The USA Patriot Act could also possibly be used as a stepping stone for more invasive spying measures and consequently a loss of civil liberties, and the destruction of the free American society. Section 215 of the act, "Access to records and other items under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act," is particularly abrasive in terms of a negative impact on civil liberties. According to this section, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has the power to command any person or entity to relinquish "any tangible things" if the organization suspects the item(s) to be related to terrorism in any way and subsequently conduct an investigation. Section 215 severely violates the U.S. Constitution, specifically the Fourth Amendment, which elicits the protection against unreasonable searches and seizures by requiring a warrant for search and probable cause. The act also permits the FBI to violate the First Amendment in that a person's library borrowing records can be searched, and any websites viewed on public access terminals by a person can potentially subject him to an investigation of which he has no knowledge. One can easily conclude that Section 215 completely fails to accomplish what the title of the act implies, particularly to "Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism," though it seems rather adept at trying to instill fear into the American public'
Civil liberties are further eradicated in Section 209, "Seizure of voice mail messages pursuant to warrants." Under normal circumstances the government must obtain a Title III warrant in order to receive copies of voicemail messages from service providers that the intended recipient has not yet heard. Section 209 therefore allows the federal government to acquire these communications without a warrant, which is clearly an obstruction of
The USA Patriot Act just brings the nation as a whole one step closer to this reality, which would cast our civil liberties behind an impenetrable wall through which they could not escape, while we suffer on the other side, possibly to the point that we cower with fear.
The USA Patriot Act also gives the government the ability to peruse financial, student, and medical records without jumping through many of the hoops that a warrant for that information would require.
From wiretapping to illegally detaining citizens, the negative impact of the USA Patriot Act on civil liberties has been great.
by a ruling of 6-1[2] on May 15, 1972, upheld the judgment of the Wisconsin Supreme Court in voiding the convictions of the Amish plaintiffs (Yoder et al) under the state's compulsory school attendance law. The convictions of the plaintiffs were voided under the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The case had come to the U.S. Court as a result of a Wisconsin compulsory school attendance law which required parents to enroll their children in public or private schools until at least the age of 16. The defendants, who were members of an Old Order Amish community, refused to send their 14 and 15 year old children to the consolidated public schools, or to otherwise provide education for them, in satisfaction of the statutes, after they had completed the eighth grade. The consequences of any judicial ruling can be viewed from one of two major perspectives. On the one hand, there are the practical consequences of the ruling while; on the other hand, there are the ramifications in the sphere of legal theory.
Considered from the former, practical, point of view, the ruling in Wisconsin v. Yoder ended the Amish schools controversy in favor of the Amish by assuring their right to maintain their own schools and their way of life, thus enabling their survival as a distinct people and culture within modern American industrial society, at least in the short run.
The legal legacy of the ruling is far less decisive.
The Yoder case represents the Court's most complete development of the position which holds that the Free Exercise Clause is to be implemented on the basis of constitutionally mandated exemptions. That is, in those instances where a general law, neutral on its face, is nevertheless such as to negatively impact a certain religion, or religion as a whole, then, in the absence of a "compelling state interest", it is necessary that an exemption be created to cover this situation.
The danger of the "exemptions theory", of course, is that it could give rise to a flood of false or opportunistic claims of religious objection which are, in reality, based on nothing more that the secular consideration of wanting to avoid some obligation imposed by a law or, alternatively, desiring to perform some act proscribed by the law.
o The pursuit of the American Dream has been alive in the imagination of its immigrants since the beginning of the nation. Many people have been inspired by the belief that in the United States, hard work leads to prosperity and social mobility.
o After World War II, the United States has exported its popular culture to the world. Many aspiring immigrants grew up watching U.S. movies and television, listening to U.S. music and wanting to wear and possess U.S. brands. This American image represented all that was cool and modern for the youth abroad.
o Being a relatively new country, with an abundance of land and resources, America was once seen as a land of opportunity, where there was enough land and a vibrant economy to accommodate all its residents.
o Because of its economic wealth and large middle-class, immigrants come to the United States to study at its well-known universities or work in its market leader industries for generally higher salaries than in their home countries.
o Because of its size and its being a country of immigrants, many foreigners see America as a clean slate, taking the country's young history to symbolize the potential for their own new beginning.
o A new trend, however, finds many foreigners who came to the United States to study or work returning to their home countries for better career prospects
From Census:
White alone, percent, 2012 (a) 77.9%
Black or African American alone, percent definition and source info Black or African American alone, percent, 2012 (a) 13.1%
American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent definition and source info American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, 2012 (a) 1.2%
Asian alone, percent definition and source info Asian alone, percent, 2012 (a) 5.1%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent definition and source info Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent, 2012 (a) 0.2%
Two or More Races, percent definition and source info Two or More Races, percent, 2012 2.4%
Hispanic or Latino, percent definition and source info Hispanic or Latino, percent, 2012 (b) 16.9%
White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent definition and source info White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent, 2012
The problem with the use of violent confrontation strategies is that they quickly escalate to the point where the parties' only concerns are victory, vengeance, and self-defense. In these cases, the moral arguments of people who are being unjustly treated become irrelevant. What matters is that they have used violent strategies and their opponent is, therefore, justified in a violent response. This problem is complicated by the fact that both sides are usually able to argue that the other side started the violence.
Non-violent resistance strategies, such as those pioneered by Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King are designed to avoid this trap by absolutely refusing to be drawn into a violent confrontation. Far from being cowardly, this is a strategy that requires tremendous courage, self-control, as well as a willingness to endure pain and sometimes even death. The strength of nonviolence lies in its ability to dramatically reduce the moral legitimacy of those who persist in using violent strategies against non-violent opposition. This loss of legitimacy can, in turn, contribute to coalition-building efforts leading to widespread condemnation of parties using violent strategies and often the imposition of sanctions by the international community. In essence, non-violent resistance is a strategy for countering the power of violent force with the power of the integrative system. Many non-violent techniques ca also be effective when used against illegitimate uses of legal, political, or other types of force.
Integrity is the integration of outward actions and inner values. A person of integrity is the same on the outside and on the inside. Such an individual can be trusted because he or she never veers from inner values, even when it might be expeditious to do so. A leader must have the trust of followers and therefore must display integrity.
Honest dealings, predictable reactions, well-controlled emotions, and an absence of tantrums and harsh outbursts are all signs of integrity. A leader who is centered in integrity will be more approachable by followers.
Dedication means spending whatever time or energy is necessary to accomplish the task at hand. A leader inspires dedication by example, doing whatever it takes to complete the next step toward the vision. By setting an excellent example, leaders can show followers that there are no nine-to-five jobs on the team, only opportunities to achieve something great.
Magnanimity means giving credit where it is due. A magnanimous leader ensures that credit for successes is spread as widely as possible throughout the company. Conversely, a good leader takes personal responsibility for failures. This sort of reverse magnanimity helps other people feel good about themselves and draws the team closer together. To spread the fame and take the blame is a hallmark of effective leadership.
Leaders with humility recognize that they are no better or worse than other members of the team. A humble leader is not self-effacing but rather tries to elevate everyone. Leaders with humility also understand that their status does not make them a god. Mahatma Gandhi is a role model for Indian leaders, and he pursued a "follower-centric" leadership role.
Openness means being able to listen to new ideas, even if they do not conform to the usual way of thinking. Good leaders are able to suspend judgment while listening to others' ideas, as well as accept new ways of doing things that someone else thought of. Openness builds mutual respect and trust between leaders and followers, and it also keeps the team well supplied with new ideas that can further its vision.
Creativity is the ability to think differently, to get outside of the box that constrains solutions. Creativity gives leaders the ability to see things that others have not seen and thus lead followers in new directions. The most important question that a leader can ask is, "What if ... ?" Possibly the worst thing a leader can say is, "I know this is a dumb question ... "
Fairness means dealing with others consistently and justly. A leader must check all the facts and hear everyone out before passing judgment. He or she must avoid leaping to conclusions based on incomplete evidence. When people feel they that are being treated fairly, they reward a leader with loyalty and dedication.
Assertiveness is not the same as aggressiveness. Rather, it is the ability to clearly state what one expects so that there will be no misunderstandings. A leader must be assertive to get the desired results. Along with assertiveness comes the responsibility to clearly understand what followers expect from their leader.
Many leaders have difficulty striking the right amount of assertiveness, according to a study in the February 2007 issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, published by the APA (American Psychological Association). It seems that being underassertive or overassertive may be the most common weakness among aspiring leaders.
A sense of humor is vital to relieve tension and boredom, as well as to defuse hostility. Effective leaders know how to use humor to energize followers. Humor is a form of power that provides some control over the work environment. And simply put, humor fosters good camaraderie.
Intrinsic traits such as intelligence, good looks, height and so on are not necessary to become a leader. Anyone can cultivate the proper leadership traits.
Literary genres are ever-changing. The number and scope of genres cannot be broken down simply or easily—even the most popular and well-known genres may be combined together, broken apart, or expanded to create fresh new ones. This reflects the malleable nature of literature; it demonstrates the sharing of ideas and the innovation that makes literature worthwhile age after age. Nevertheless, certain motifs and themes remain over time, and literature continues to be studied by genre.
The basic genres of film can be regarded as drama, in the feature film and most cartoons, and documentary. Most dramatic feature films, especially from Hollywood fall fairly comfortably into one of a long list of film genres such as the Western, war film, horror film, romantic comedy film, musical, crime film, and many others. Many of these genres have a number of sub-genres, for example by setting or subject, or a distinctive national style, for example in the Indian Bollywood musical.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably.[citation needed] There are numerous genres in Western classical music and popular music, as well as musical theatre and the music of non-Western cultures. The term is now perhaps over-used to describe relatively small differences in musical style in modern rock music, that also may reflect sociological differences in their audiences.
The beat generation was one of the largest cultural movements of the 20th century. What started off as a literary phenomenon soon progressed to a life-changing attitude for thousands of people around the world. It embraced originality and individuality in the way people thought and acted, throwing out the old rules of literature, music, sex and religion. The effects are still felt in the world today.
The beat generation was really a response to World War II, which had just ended. Questions arose about the old way of life and social rules that people were supposed to adhere to. A lot of the questions that the beats asked were greeted with court trials and the attempted banning of their material. Ginsberg's and Burrough's literature was subject to bans, and one of Ginsberg's most famous poems, Howl, still cannot be played on daytime American radio.
The movement was not about questioning society, authority, and its rules just for the sake of it. There was a new sense of freedom after the war, and the beat generation led the way in exploring it.
Negatives:
1. They (young generation) frequently change their jobs; hence, they seem to be less committed and oldies doubt their integrity as well.
2. They are restless people and will not find peace and respect in their life.
3. They do anything to succeed in life.
4. They lack patience and persistence.
5. They are too anxious and want to know much more than they should.
6. They do not respect older generation.
7. They spend a lot on self and will not be able to run their family well.
8. They are more extrovert and shameless outspoken while social networking.
9. They are more willing to earn fast money. Higher the degree more is the lust for money. More from the business background more the requirement for money.
10. They are more willing to go abroad, even immigrate to developed nations.
Rock music owes its roots to the decade where the music industry first started picking up momentum, the 1950s. The music was targeted for being offensive for it's lyrical content and African American roots, usually the latter was the cause of the former. We can trace Rock 'N Roll back to the 1920s, this ancestor of rock music is Jazz. Jazz started in the same light as Rock. Jazz was seen as obscene for the liberal behavior that it encouraged and the African American roots it had. It seems that the common denominator in the music of both these genre's scorn is the African Americans who first started playing it. This is only the beginning of the undeserved hatred that Rock music has so infamously acquired.
While racism was a factor in the in initial resentment to Rock 'N Roll, another was the lyrical content that eventually became one of the motto's of Rock 'N Roll and its sub-genres, Sex, Drugs, and Rock 'N Roll.
On to Drugs, the word in the motto does not have to do as much with singing about drugs as it does the hard party life style of a rock star, the motto as a whole addresses. Rock music was about having a good time, it was exactly the kind of mellowing out the country needed in the so called innocence and apple pie age of the 1950s.
Rock music has had some definite positive effects. A large majority of our pop culture is based off of Rock Music and the industry it pushed along. The guitar has become a symbol of not only Rock 'N Roll but of American teenagers in general, it is the most popular instrument.
• According to research cited by the Center for Youth Studies, country music has a similar effect on teens as it does adults. So even if you've grown out of your teen years, pay attention to how this genre has been known to make its mark on listeners.
• Research reports that country music encourages suicide in some listeners by encouraging more drastic reactions to life challenges.
As country music increases on the airwaves, suicide rates for whites increased, the Center for Youth Studies cites. This is particularly true in metropolitan areas. According to the article, the genre encouraged listeners in the midst of difficult circumstances to consider suicide.
• Country music filled with sexual themes can encourage youth to engage in sexual activity, research reports.
Country music that includes content that is heavily sexual has a reactionary effect on listeners, according to research cited by the Center for Youth Studies. Not all country music is explicit, but that which is can encourage early sexual activity. Keep the content of music in mind while listening and consider if the behavior is something you would approve of for yourself.
Negative Messages Aren't Isolated to Country Music
• Whatever the genre, music has an effect on behavior, so make sure what you listen to doesn't conflict with your personal values.
Whatever the genre, negative messages in music influence risk behaviors in children, the New York Times article explains. So whether it's an acoustic guitar with a decided twang or an urban beat with lyrically spoken words, the meaning of the message is important. Music that encourages smoking, alcohol use and other actions encourages youth to emulate the habit as well.
Positive:
Positive Country is often the term used to describe much of the music we hear on country radio today. It's indeed country, yet excluding much of the ancient country-song lyrics that were primarily drinking-cheating-and-heartbreak driven. Regardless of its label, fans simply like how it makes them feel -- good.
The term Positive Country surfaced only a few years ago, and whether or not music industry trade publications continue to chart such a format, it's here to stay.
This brand of not-hardly gospel, yet spiritually-laced country music, stems from its predecessor Christian Country.
Americans are divided about the value of spreading Americans culture around the world. In August 2002 an Investor's Business Daily/Christian Science Monitor poll found that only 47% felt that "American movies and popular culture" had a positive impact on "the rest of the world." Forty-four percent thought the impact was negative.
At the same time, Americans reject the idea that US popular culture is a threat to foreign cultures. In October 1999 PIPA asked, "How much of a threat, if at all, do you think American popular culture, such as music, television and films, is to the cultures of other countries in the world?" Just 24% said American popular culture was a "very serious" (7%) or "serious" threat (17%) to other countries. By contrast 33% considered it only a minor threat and a plurality (41%) said it was not a threat at all. They may also see foreign concerns as overblown. The public certainly does not view the spread of US culture as a threat serious enough to provoke a lethal reaction. When a December 2001 by Greenberg Quinlan Rosner and Public Opinion Strategies offered a list of 6 potential causes of international terrorism, just 10% cited the "spreading of US culture and values" as one of their top two choices. All of the others were cited by at least 21%.
A strong majority thinks US culture had a lot of impact on other countries in the 20th century, and an overwhelming majority believes it will have equal or greater influence in the 21st century. When asked in a December 1999 CBS News survey "how much impact...the United States has had on popular culture in the rest of the world" in "this past century", 70% said it had "a lot." Another 22% said it had "some" and just 6% said the impact was "not much" or "none at all." In the same CBS survey, nearly 9 out of 10 said the US would have either more impact (34%) or the same impact (55%) on popular culture throughout the world than it has now. Only 20% felt the impact would be less.
• Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in many aspects of life, including employment, education, and access to public accommodations.
• Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Intentional Employment Discrimination)
To amend the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to strengthen and improve Federal civil rights laws, to provide for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination, to clarify provisions regarding disparate impact actions, and for other purposes.
• Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act
Provides for equitable and impartial relief operations, without discrimination on the grounds of race, color, religion, nationality, sex, age, or economic status.
• The Equal Credit Opportunity Act
Prohibits creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or because an applicant receives income from a public assistance program.
• Equal Pay Act of 1963
Requires that employers pay all employees equally for equal work, regardless of whether the employees are male or female.
• Fair Housing Act
Prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, and disability.
• Family and Medical Leave Act
Gives employees the right to take time off from work in order to care for a newborn (or recently adopted) child, or to look after an ill family member.
• Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Ensuring that the rights of students with disabilities are protected, and that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education.
• Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
Prohibits sex discrimination in education programs that receive federal funds, to increase educational and athletic opportunities for females in schools and colleges nationwide.
• U.S. Code Title 42, Chapter 21 -- Civil Rights
Title 42, Chapter 21 of the U.S. Code prohibits discrimination against persons based on age, disability, gender, race, national origin, and religion (among other things) in a number of settings -- including education, employment, access to businesses and buildings, federal services, and more. Chapter 21 is where a number of federal acts related to civil rights have been codified -- including the Civil Rights Act of 1866, Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act.
• Voting Rights Act of 1965
Prohibits the denial or restriction of the right to vote, and forbids discriminatory voting practices nationwide.
Roy Benavidez, a Medal of Honor recipient, died November 29, 1998, at age 63. He had been a member of Chapter 1919, Military Order of the Purple Heart for two years at the time of his death. On May 2, 1968, Master Sergeant (then Staff Sergeant) ROY P. BENAVIDEZ distinguished himself by a series of daring and extremely valorous actions while assigned to Detachment B-56, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, Republic of Vietnam. A 12-man Special Forces Reconnaissance Team was inserted by helicopters in a dense jungle area west of Loc Ninh, Vietnam...the team met heavy enemy resistance, and requested extraction. Three helicopters attempted extraction, but were unable to land due to intense enemy...fire. Sergeant Benavidez was at the Forward Operating Base in Loc Ninh monitoring the operation by radio when these helicopters returned to off-load wounded crew members...Sergeant Benavidez voluntarily boarded a returning aircraft to assist in another extraction attempt. Realizing that all the team members were either dead or wounded and unable to move to the pickup zone, he directed the aircraft to a nearby clearing where he jumped from the hovering helicopter, and ran approximately 75 meters under withering small arms fire to the crippled team...he was wounded in his right leg, face, and head. Despite these painful injuries, he took charge, repositioned the team members and directed their fire to facilitate the landing of an extraction aircraft, and the loading of wounded and dead team members...Despite his severe wounds and under intense enemy fire, he carried and dragged half of the wounded team members to the waiting aircraft. He then provided protective fire by running alongside the aircraft as it moved to pick up classified documents on the dead team leader. When he reached the team leader's body, Sergeant Benavidez was severely wounded by small arms fire in the abdomen and grenade fragments in his back. At nearly the same moment, the aircraft pilot was mortally wounded, and his helicopter crashed. Although in extremely critical condition due to his wounds, Sergeant Benavidez secured the classified documents and made his way back to the wreckage, where he aided the wounded out of the overturned aircraft, and gathered the stunned survivors into a defensive perimeter. Under increasing automatic weapons and grenade fire, he moved around the perimeter distributing water and ammunition to his weary men, re-instilling in them a will to live and fight....Sergeant Benavidez...began calling in tactical air strikes and directed the fire from supporting gunships to suppress the enemy's fire and so permit another extraction attempt. He was wounded again in his thigh by small arms fire while administering first aid to a wounded team member just before another extraction helicopter was able to land...he began to ferry his comrades to the craft. On his second trip with the wounded he was clubbed from behind by an enemy soldier. In the ensuing hand-to-hand combat, he sustained additional wounds to his head and arms before killing his adversary. He then continued to carry the wounded to the helicopter. Upon reaching the aircraft, he spotted and killed two enemy soldiers who were rushing the craft from an angle that prevented the door gunner from firing upon them he made one last trip to the perimeter to ensure that all classified material had been collected or destroyed, and to bring in the remaining wounded. Only then, in extremely serious condition from numerous wounds and loss of blood did he allow himself to be pulled into the aircraft. His valorous actions in the face of overwhelming odds were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service, and reflect the utmost credit on him and the United States Army.
Chest deep in mud, the French force dug onward. Time and time again, the rain and the Chagres destroyed what engineering and hard labor had wrought. Mudslides buried men, supplies, and machines. And from the freshwater pools that lay everywhere, a deadly plague of insects rose. In 1881, the French recorded about 60 deaths from disease. In 1882, the number doubled. The following year, 420 died. Malaria and yellow fever were the most common killers. Because the company often fired sick men to reduce medical costs, the numbers probably reflect low estimates. Believing the fumes from rotting vegetation caused the disease, doctors at the French hospital at Ancon advised workers to avoid the night air. Only after thousands of deaths would the cause be attributed to virus-carrying mosquitoes. Three out of four men hospitalized at Ancon died, despite the massive investments that made the hospital among the finest in the tropical world. In no small manner was this hastened by the architecture of the hospital gardens. To protect the potted plants from attack by ants, gardeners had set the pots in pottery bowls filled with water. Disease-carrying mosquitoes multiplied in these reservoirs by the million and carried their deadly cargo through the screenless windows of the hospital each night.The word Panama quickly became synonymous with scandal and fraud. About $287 million had been spent. Fifty million cubic meters of earth and rock had been moved. Eleven miles of canal had been dug. Twenty thousand men had died. The canal remained unfinished, but the dream had not yet ended. Theodore Roosevelt would soon take up the cause.