This did not fully develop until technological advances allowed this area, once considered a treeless wasteland, to be a viable destination for settlers. These advances included the steel plow, sod houses, railroads, and dry farming techniques. With these advances the potential for settlement of the "wasteland" was forever altered. This great settlement, between 1870 and 1920, has had an everlasting effect on the nation.On March 16, 1936 Congress passed Public Law 480 of the 74th Congress created a new unit in the National Park System on the site of the Daniel Freeman homestead. On March 19, 1936, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the law and Homestead National Monument of America "as an appropriate monument to retain for posterity a proper memorial emblematical of the hardships and the pioneer life through which the early settlers passed in the settlement, cultivation and civilization of the Great West." The Dust Bowl was the name given to the Great Plains region devastated by drought in 1930s depression-ridden America. The 150,000-square-mile area, encompassing the Oklahoma and Texas panhandles and neighboring sections of Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico, has little rainfall, light soil, and high winds, a potentially destructive combination. When drought struck from 1934 to 1937, the soil lacked the stronger root system of grass as an anchor, so the winds easily picked up the loose topsoil and swirled it into dense dust clouds, called "black blizzards." Recurrent dust storms wreaked havoc, choking cattle and pasture lands and driving 60 percent of the population from the region. Most of these "exodusters" went to agricultural areas first and then to cities, especially in the Far West. Once upon a time, the region between the Midwest and mid-Atlantic states, roughly from Wisconsin to New Jersey, enjoyed booming economic growth because of an abundance of coal, iron ore, and other important natural resources. These states also had the ability to transport finished products over railroads or waterways to their own port cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Buffalo. By the 1970s, however, many of the region's factories had shut down, and the abundance of shuttered buildings guarded by rusting gates gave the region a new name, the Rust Belt.By the late 1950s, foreign steel was becoming cheaper to import and higher in overall quality. Negotiations between unionized workers and management resulted in higher wages and other benefits, but domestic steel buyers were no longer willing to absorb the higher cost of American steel produced in the Midwestern factories. By the 1970s, a general downturn in the American economy combined with foreign competition caused many steel mills and other heavy production industries to shut down, thus creating the severely depressed area. Many cities located in the Rust Belt had a very difficult time recovering from the loss of major industries as well as the flight of workers to other regions of the country. Recruiting new industry became a challenge for these states as companies sought cheaper labor and lower production costs in the non-unionized Sun Belt states located in the Deep South. Some cities, such as Detroit, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh, were hit especially hard, since their economies depended very heavily on the manufacturing industry. Illegal
It is the demographic changes of the population, meanwhile, that may loom the largest. At current rates of increase, Hispanics/Latinos will overtake European whites as the ethnic majority. Of course, one would expect there to exist a significant amount of mixing between these two races as well as other minority populations. Prejudice against illegal and legal immigrants alike on the basis of race is also of significant concern to civil liberties champions. While some employers may award positions to illegal aliens for economic reasons (i.e. they can exploit their fear of deportation for low wages), some, too, may be motivated by racial bias. Moreover, illegal immigrants will often be met with negative stereotypes, sometimes attributed to anyone on Latin descent, despite them being hard workers and possibly not even Mexicans, let alone illegal immigrants.Social Effects of Illegal immigration and the system that allows it have caused large effects on the United States, both economically and socially. These effects can be considered positive or negative, depending on the view point of the individual. Statistically, areas where illegal immigrants tend to congregate such as New York or southern California are experiencing an economic drain on social services that are funded by tax-payer dollars. These services include low-cost health insurance or Medicaid, low income housing, and food stamps.On the other hand, contrary the the majority opinion, statistics may suggest that illegal immigrants actually contribute more to social security and medicare than they actually receive. Still, the social understanding of illegal immigration does not tend to reflect this idea.Nationwide perceptions have been effected largely by the attacks that took place on September 11th. Social anxieties towards immigrants have increased as a result, and this has correlated in a resurgence of the national security argument levied against increased rights or opportunities for illegal immigrants.
The cause of immigration is to find better jobs. It is also to find safer places to live. Many people may immigrant to a country like the United States because their countries are filled with poverty and war. The effect of immigration can include the fact that these immigrants are taking jobs from Americans. This can include young Americans and those who are not well educated. The effect can also mean a financial one on the citizens of the United States. Some immigrants will have to apply for assistance to survive. This can include financial, food, and medical assistance
The National Park System of the United States is run by the National Park Service, a bureau of the Department of the Interior. Yellowstone, which was opened in 1872, was the first national park in the world. The system includes not only the most extraordinary and spectacular scenic exhibits in the United States, but also a large number of sites distinguished either for their historic importance, prehistoric importance, or scientific interest, or for their superior recreational assets. The National Park System is made up of 376 areas covering more than 83 million acres in every state except Delaware. It also includes areas in the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The years surrounding America's involvement in World War I were a watershed for how the United States treated foreigners within its borders during wartime. Immigrants had flooded the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. When the United States declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917, almost a third of Americans were either first or second-generation immigrants. Those born in Germany and even American-born citizens of German descent fell under suspicion of being disloyal.
Later, partially in reaction against the Bolshevik Revolution and the rising tide of socialism in Europe, a more general anti-immigrant sentiment gripped America. For example, through the Palmer Raids of the 1920s, the Department of Justice rounded up thousands of foreigners who were alleged communists, anarchists, labor reformers, or otherwise menaces to society. Many were forcibly deported.
The Sedition Act provided fines and jail penalties for anyone who "shall write, print, utter or publish . . . false, scandalous and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States, or either house of the Congress . . . or the President . . . with intent to defame . . . or to bring them . . . into contempt or disrepute; or to excite against them . . . the hatred of the good people of the United States . .
On April 16, 1917, all males older than 14 who were still "natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects" of the German Empire became alien enemies. In 1918, an act of Congress included women aged 14 and older. In time, however, the term "alien enemy" came to apply to virtually any foreign resident the government deemed undesirable. It became an effective weapon the government wielded against individuals and organizations which were pacifist, critical of the war, or otherwise objectionable politically.
Alien enemies were a high priority on the wartime agenda. On the same day that Congress declared war, President Wilson issued 12 regulations for their treatment. Alien enemies were prohibited from owning such goods as firearms, aircraft, or wireless apparatus. They could not publish an "attack" upon any branch of the U.S. government. They could not reside in an area designated as "prohibited" by the president. They could be removed to a location designated by the president. Alien enemies could not depart the United States without permission and they were required to register with the government to receive a registration card.
On November 16, 1917, 8 more regulations were added to the original 12. They restricted how closely and under what circumstances enemy aliens could approach facilities such as docks, railroads, and warehouses—thus, de facto restricting their employment. Aliens were banned from air travel and from the District of Columbia.
One motivation behind the regulations was clearly to establish control over radical groups The federal government also intruded upon civil liberties, especially the right to dissent. The radical labor movement became a focus of government for several reasons. It was successful: in the first decades of the 20th century, labor unrest had spread like wildfire across broad sections of America and sparked effective strikes. It was anti-war: its prominent communist and socialist leaders believed the war was being fought for capitalism and they felt comradeship, not hostility, toward foreign workers. Socialism, in general, had become a political threat. The radical labor movement was also an easy target because of its immigrant-heavy membership. Politically minded immigrants had a history of bringing radical ideas with them. For example, in the last decades of the 1800s, the International Working People's Association (IWPA) issued no fewer than five papers out of Chicago alone, three of which were in German.
Moreover, by World War I, there was a bitter history of clashes between radical labor movements and the authorities. The Haymarket incident in Chicago is a notorious example. In the spring of 1886, 65,000 workers in the city either went on strike or were locked out by their employers. On May 3, the police fired upon a crowd of laborers, killing several. The next day, a protest meeting ended in a violent clash that left seven policemen and an unknown number of workers (estimated at about 20) dead.
The "Teapot Dome" referred to an area in Wyoming where oil fields were located. Oil fields in Elk Hills and Buena Vista Hills, in California, were also involved in the scandal. These oil fields were designated as reserves for the U.S. Navy, and were stored on public land. There had been turmoil regarding the oil in the first place, as many politicians and oil corporations "opposed the restrictions placed on the oil fields, claiming that the reserves were unnecessary and that American oil companies could provide for the Navy." The effect on the population of the country was tremendous. Big-business Republicans were voted out of office during the Depression-era elections, though, both sides of the political spectrum were affected by the scandal; citizens' trust in politics was starting to waver. Amazingly, President Coolidge (President Harding had died, so Coolidge had taken over at this point) received little damage to his reputation as a result of the scandal. He was able to minimize attachment to it, and handle it discreetly.This was the start of a new era of politics-an era of "dirty" politics in which there were more corrupt men in office than honest. It is no wonder that around this time, people started becoming more apathetic towards politics, and we are still feeling the apathy today. We learned that politics are very likely to determine how one views evidence in impeachment case--not a surprising lesson to be sure, but the final votes in both the House and Senate turned out to be surprisingly partisan. Moreover, the analysis of academics--people trained to look objectively at evidence--who threw themselves into the impeachment fray was, if anything, even more partisan than that of the politicians.
We learned that the Administration's decision to go on "a war footing" when allegations of the President's affair with Lewinsky first surfaced proved costly. Relentless attacks by Clinton and his aides on the Office of Independent Counsel and Linda Tripp angered Republicans, polarized debate, and made impeachment by the House inevitable. (At the same time, the aggressive approach might have made acquittal in the Senate inevitable.)
We learned also that an impeachment trial is not necessarily a national calamity and might even have some benefits. George W. Bush has shown that the presidency was not seriously weakened by the ordeal. The public might be better off today for having had to think seriously about issues of both private and public morality during the impeachment process. The Clinton-Lewinsky scandal also contributed to a franker national discussion about sex and, by demonstrating how many skeletons exist in the closets of politicians, might--it is hoped-cause future elections to turn more on matters of substance than what one of the candidates did in bed sometime in the past.
Finally, as Richard Posner astutely observes in An Affair of State, the impeachment of William Clinton has "by the dint of its riviting detail" made it "difficult to take presidents seriously." The destruction of the mystique of the presidency is for "those who think that authority depends upon mystery" a consequence to be lamented. But Posner disagrees: "My guess is that they are wrong, that Americans haves reached a level of political sophistication at which they can take in stride the knowledge that the nation's political and intellectual leaders are their peers, and not their paragons. The nation does not depend upon the superior virtue of one man."
In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center buildings in New York, the United States Congress passed the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot) Act of 2001. Several sections of the USA Patriot Act directly threaten the civil liberties of the citizens of the United States.
The USA Patriot Act could also possibly be used as a stepping stone for more invasive spying measures and consequently a loss of civil liberties, and the destruction of the free American society. Section 215 of the act, "Access to records and other items under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act," is particularly abrasive in terms of a negative impact on civil liberties. According to this section, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has the power to command any person or entity to relinquish "any tangible things" if the organization suspects the item(s) to be related to terrorism in any way and subsequently conduct an investigation. Section 215 severely violates the U.S. Constitution, specifically the Fourth Amendment, which elicits the protection against unreasonable searches and seizures by requiring a warrant for search and probable cause. The act also permits the FBI to violate the First Amendment in that a person's library borrowing records can be searched, and any websites viewed on public access terminals by a person can potentially subject him to an investigation of which he has no knowledge. One can easily conclude that Section 215 completely fails to accomplish what the title of the act implies, particularly to "Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism," though it seems rather adept at trying to instill fear into the American public'
Civil liberties are further eradicated in Section 209, "Seizure of voice mail messages pursuant to warrants." Under normal circumstances the government must obtain a Title III warrant in order to receive copies of voicemail messages from service providers that the intended recipient has not yet heard. Section 209 therefore allows the federal government to acquire these communications without a warrant, which is clearly an obstruction of
The USA Patriot Act just brings the nation as a whole one step closer to this reality, which would cast our civil liberties behind an impenetrable wall through which they could not escape, while we suffer on the other side, possibly to the point that we cower with fear.
The USA Patriot Act also gives the government the ability to peruse financial, student, and medical records without jumping through many of the hoops that a warrant for that information would require.
From wiretapping to illegally detaining citizens, the negative impact of the USA Patriot Act on civil liberties has been great.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution had a tragic impact on American society. It led the United States into a cruel and expensive conflict that, in the end, the nation realized could not be won. Through the determined and firm resolution, Johnson effectively eliminated Vietnam as a topic of the campaign for the 1964 presidential election. However, the escalation of the war allowed by the resolution permanently etched the tragedy of Vietnam into Johnson's second administration, drawing attention away from his vast and ambitious program for social reforms and civil rights, the Great Society. Estimates hold that more than 50,000 Americans died in Vietnam, while Vietnamese victims numbered over 2 million.
At first, Americans overwhelmingly supported the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and the escalation of the conflict. The House approved the bill unanimously with only Representative Eugene Siler "pairing" against it (that is, leaving the chamber when the vote took place).
War Powers Act, law passed by the U.S. Congress on November 7, 1973, over the veto of Pres. Richard Nixon. The joint measure was called the War Powers Resolution, though the title of the Senate-approved bill, War Powers Act, became widely used.
The act sought to restrain the president's ability to commit U.S. forces overseas by requiring the executive branch to consult with and report to Congress before involving U.S. forces in foreign hostilities. Widely considered a measure for preventing "future Vietnams," it was nonetheless generally resisted or ignored by subsequent presidents, many of whom regarded it as an unconstitutional usurpation of their executive authority. Since the passage of this joint resolution, presidents have tended to take actions that have been "consistent with" rather than "pursuant to" the provisions of the act—in some cases, seeking congressional approval for military action without invoking the law itself. Members of Congress have complained that they have not been given timely notification of or sufficient details regarding some military engagements. Some legislators have gone to court (unsuccessfully) to seek adjudication of what they believe to have been violations of the act. Increasingly, presidents have identified resolutions taken by the United Nations or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as justification for military intervention.
Throughout the nation, people began to take second looks at the Electoral College system. Gore was pretty clearly the popular vote winner, though only by about 500,000 votes out of over 100 million cast. Subjects that used to cause students' eyes to glaze over in civics class were suddenly the focus of barroom, water cooler, and dinner table discussions. Rumors and theories were flying about like so many swarms of mosquitoes. News organizations began their own counts of the disputed ballots, once they became public records, in an attempt to put the issue to rest and to find out, in the words of the Miami Herald, "What went wrong." Most found that Gore would not have overcome his vote deficit, even with the most liberal of standards for counting partially-marked ballots.
Calls for some sort of national standards for balloting, to set residency requirements, and to set methods of vote tabulation and how to determine when a recount should be done and when a hand recount should be done. Everyone agreed that there were flaws in the system, flaws which may not be fixable, and flaws which usually had a negligible effect on the outcome of any one election, let alone a national election. How to make changes is another story.
3 minors - John F. Tinker, Mary Beth Tinker, and Christopher Eckhart - were suspended from their respective schools for brandishing black armbands in protest of the Vietnam War. Both the Circuit Court, as well as the Court of Appeals in the State of Iowa ruled that black armbands. The Tinkers stated that their arrest resulting from their respective expressions, which were admittedly a sign of protest - in lieu of a sign of violence, was a direct violation of both their 1st and 14th Amendment Rights, which preserved and protected the rights to free speech and free expression win accordance to applicable legislation and legality The following statutory regulations were employed with regard to the Tinker v. Des Moines trial: The 1st Amendment of the Constitution of the United States ensures that every American citizen be granted the freedom to express themselves in accordance with applicable legislature enacted in order to preserve the safety and well being of the general public; however, the right to free speech prohibits ideas, ideology, or creeds to be imposed on any individual without their respective and expressed consent The 14th Amendment illustrates legislation that disallows the government from infringing on the right(s) to pursue 'Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness' with regard to any and all citizens of the United States of America - this statute is applicable to all measures of gender, race, religion, and age by a ruling of 6-1 on May 15, 1972, upheld the judgment of the Wisconsin Supreme Court in voiding the convictions of the Amish plaintiffs (Yoder et al) under the state's compulsory school attendance law. The convictions of the plaintiffs were voided under the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The case had come to the U.S. Court as a result of a Wisconsin compulsory school attendance law which required parents to enroll their children in public or private schools until at least the age of 16. The defendants, who were members of an Old Order Amish community, refused to send their 14 and 15 year old children to the consolidated public schools, or to otherwise provide education for them, in satisfaction of the statutes, after they had completed the eighth grade. The consequences of any judicial ruling can be viewed from one of two major perspectives. On the one hand, there are the practical consequences of the ruling while; on the other hand, there are the ramifications in the sphere of legal theory.
Considered from the former, practical, point of view, the ruling in Wisconsin v. Yoder ended the Amish schools controversy in favor of the Amish by assuring their right to maintain their own schools and their way of life, thus enabling their survival as a distinct people and culture within modern American industrial society, at least in the short run.
The legal legacy of the ruling is far less decisive.
The Yoder case represents the Court's most complete development of the position which holds that the Free Exercise Clause is to be implemented on the basis of constitutionally mandated exemptions. That is, in those instances where a general law, neutral on its face, is nevertheless such as to negatively impact a certain religion, or religion as a whole, then, in the absence of a "compelling state interest", it is necessary that an exemption be created to cover this situation.
The danger of the "exemptions theory", of course, is that it could give rise to a flood of false or opportunistic claims of religious objection which are, in reality, based on nothing more that the secular consideration of wanting to avoid some obligation imposed by a law or, alternatively, desiring to perform some act proscribed by the law.
o The pursuit of the American Dream has been alive in the imagination of its immigrants since the beginning of the nation. Many people have been inspired by the belief that in the United States, hard work leads to prosperity and social mobility.
o After World War II, the United States has exported its popular culture to the world. Many aspiring immigrants grew up watching U.S. movies and television, listening to U.S. music and wanting to wear and possess U.S. brands. This American image represented all that was cool and modern for the youth abroad.
o Being a relatively new country, with an abundance of land and resources, America was once seen as a land of opportunity, where there was enough land and a vibrant economy to accommodate all its residents.
o Because of its economic wealth and large middle-class, immigrants come to the United States to study at its well-known universities or work in its market leader industries for generally higher salaries than in their home countries.
o Because of its size and its being a country of immigrants, many foreigners see America as a clean slate, taking the country's young history to symbolize the potential for their own new beginning.
o A new trend, however, finds many foreigners who came to the United States to study or work returning to their home countries for better career prospects
White alone, percent, 2012 (a) 77.9%
Black or African American alone, percent definition and source info Black or African American alone, percent, 2012 (a) 13.1%
American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent definition and source info American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, 2012 (a) 1.2%
Asian alone, percent definition and source info Asian alone, percent, 2012 (a) 5.1%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent definition and source info Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent, 2012 (a) 0.2%
Two or More Races, percent definition and source info Two or More Races, percent, 2012 2.4%
Hispanic or Latino, percent definition and source info Hispanic or Latino, percent, 2012 (b) 16.9%
White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent definition and source info White alone, not Hispanic or Latino, percent, 2012
Ways citizens can participate
•looking for information in newspapers, magazines, and reference materials and judging its accuracy
•voting in local, state, and national elections
•participating in a political discussion
•trying to persuade someone to vote a certain way
•signing a petition
•wearing a button or putting a sticker on the car
•writing letters to elected representatives
•contributing money to a party or candidate
•attending meetings to gain information, discuss issues, or lend support
•campaigning for a candidate
•lobbying for laws that are of special interest
•demonstrating through marches, boycotts, sit-ins, or other forms of protest
•serving as a juror
•running for office
•holding public office
•serving the country through military or other service
•disobeying laws and taking the consequences to demonstrate that a law or policy is unjust
lobbying, any attempt by individuals or private interest groups to influence the decisions of government; in its original meaning it referred to efforts to influence the votes of legislators, generally in the lobby outside the legislative chamber. Lobbying in some form is inevitable in any political system.
The problem with the use of violent confrontation strategies is that they quickly escalate to the point where the parties' only concerns are victory, vengeance, and self-defense. In these cases, the moral arguments of people who are being unjustly treated become irrelevant. What matters is that they have used violent strategies and their opponent is, therefore, justified in a violent response. This problem is complicated by the fact that both sides are usually able to argue that the other side started the violence.
Non-violent resistance strategies, such as those pioneered by Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King are designed to avoid this trap by absolutely refusing to be drawn into a violent confrontation. Far from being cowardly, this is a strategy that requires tremendous courage, self-control, as well as a willingness to endure pain and sometimes even death. The strength of nonviolence lies in its ability to dramatically reduce the moral legitimacy of those who persist in using violent strategies against non-violent opposition. This loss of legitimacy can, in turn, contribute to coalition-building efforts leading to widespread condemnation of parties using violent strategies and often the imposition of sanctions by the international community. In essence, non-violent resistance is a strategy for countering the power of violent force with the power of the integrative system. Many non-violent techniques ca also be effective when used against illegitimate uses of legal, political, or other types of force.
With Congress' passage of the Indian Citizenship Act, the government of the United States confers citizenship on all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the country.
Before the Civil War, citizenship was often limited to Native Americans of one-half or less Indian blood. In the Reconstruction period, progressive Republicans in Congress sought to accelerate the granting of citizenship to friendly tribes, though state support for these measures was often limited. In 1888, most Native American women married to U.S. citizens were conferred with citizenship, and in 1919 Native American veterans of World War I were offered citizenship. In 1924, the Indian Citizenship Act, an all-inclusive act, was passed by Congress. The privileges of citizenship, however, were largely governed by state law, and the right to vote was often denied to Native Americans in the early 20th century.
Integrity is the integration of outward actions and inner values. A person of integrity is the same on the outside and on the inside. Such an individual can be trusted because he or she never veers from inner values, even when it might be expeditious to do so. A leader must have the trust of followers and therefore must display integrity.
Honest dealings, predictable reactions, well-controlled emotions, and an absence of tantrums and harsh outbursts are all signs of integrity. A leader who is centered in integrity will be more approachable by followers.
Dedication means spending whatever time or energy is necessary to accomplish the task at hand. A leader inspires dedication by example, doing whatever it takes to complete the next step toward the vision. By setting an excellent example, leaders can show followers that there are no nine-to-five jobs on the team, only opportunities to achieve something great.
Magnanimity means giving credit where it is due. A magnanimous leader ensures that credit for successes is spread as widely as possible throughout the company. Conversely, a good leader takes personal responsibility for failures. This sort of reverse magnanimity helps other people feel good about themselves and draws the team closer together. To spread the fame and take the blame is a hallmark of effective leadership.
Leaders with humility recognize that they are no better or worse than other members of the team. A humble leader is not self-effacing but rather tries to elevate everyone. Leaders with humility also understand that their status does not make them a god. Mahatma Gandhi is a role model for Indian leaders, and he pursued a "follower-centric" leadership role.
Openness means being able to listen to new ideas, even if they do not conform to the usual way of thinking. Good leaders are able to suspend judgment while listening to others' ideas, as well as accept new ways of doing things that someone else thought of. Openness builds mutual respect and trust between leaders and followers, and it also keeps the team well supplied with new ideas that can further its vision.
Creativity is the ability to think differently, to get outside of the box that constrains solutions. Creativity gives leaders the ability to see things that others have not seen and thus lead followers in new directions. The most important question that a leader can ask is, "What if ... ?" Possibly the worst thing a leader can say is, "I know this is a dumb question ... "
Fairness means dealing with others consistently and justly. A leader must check all the facts and hear everyone out before passing judgment. He or she must avoid leaping to conclusions based on incomplete evidence. When people feel they that are being treated fairly, they reward a leader with loyalty and dedication.
Assertiveness is not the same as aggressiveness. Rather, it is the ability to clearly state what one expects so that there will be no misunderstandings. A leader must be assertive to get the desired results. Along with assertiveness comes the responsibility to clearly understand what followers expect from their leader.
Many leaders have difficulty striking the right amount of assertiveness, according to a study in the February 2007 issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, published by the APA (American Psychological Association). It seems that being underassertive or overassertive may be the most common weakness among aspiring leaders.
A sense of humor is vital to relieve tension and boredom, as well as to defuse hostility. Effective leaders know how to use humor to energize followers. Humor is a form of power that provides some control over the work environment. And simply put, humor fosters good camaraderie.
Intrinsic traits such as intelligence, good looks, height and so on are not necessary to become a leader. Anyone can cultivate the proper leadership traits.
Literary genres are ever-changing. The number and scope of genres cannot be broken down simply or easily—even the most popular and well-known genres may be combined together, broken apart, or expanded to create fresh new ones. This reflects the malleable nature of literature; it demonstrates the sharing of ideas and the innovation that makes literature worthwhile age after age. Nevertheless, certain motifs and themes remain over time, and literature continues to be studied by genre.
The basic genres of film can be regarded as drama, in the feature film and most cartoons, and documentary. Most dramatic feature films, especially from Hollywood fall fairly comfortably into one of a long list of film genres such as the Western, war film, horror film, romantic comedy film, musical, crime film, and many others. Many of these genres have a number of sub-genres, for example by setting or subject, or a distinctive national style, for example in the Indian Bollywood musical.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. There are numerous genres in Western classical music and popular music, as well as musical theatre and the music of non-Western cultures. The term is now perhaps over-used to describe relatively small differences in musical style in modern rock music, that also may reflect sociological differences in their audiences.
The beat generation was one of the largest cultural movements of the 20th century. What started off as a literary phenomenon soon progressed to a life-changing attitude for thousands of people around the world. It embraced originality and individuality in the way people thought and acted, throwing out the old rules of literature, music, sex and religion. The effects are still felt in the world today.
The beat generation was really a response to World War II, which had just ended. Questions arose about the old way of life and social rules that people were supposed to adhere to. A lot of the questions that the beats asked were greeted with court trials and the attempted banning of their material. Ginsberg's and Burrough's literature was subject to bans, and one of Ginsberg's most famous poems, Howl, still cannot be played on daytime American radio.
The movement was not about questioning society, authority, and its rules just for the sake of it. There was a new sense of freedom after the war, and the beat generation led the way in exploring it.
1. They (young generation) frequently change their jobs; hence, they seem to be less committed and oldies doubt their integrity as well.
2. They are restless people and will not find peace and respect in their life.
3. They do anything to succeed in life.
4. They lack patience and persistence.
5. They are too anxious and want to know much more than they should.
6. They do not respect older generation.
7. They spend a lot on self and will not be able to run their family well.
8. They are more extrovert and shameless outspoken while social networking.
9. They are more willing to earn fast money. Higher the degree more is the lust for money. More from the business background more the requirement for money.
10. They are more willing to go abroad, even immigrate to developed nations.
Rock music owes its roots to the decade where the music industry first started picking up momentum, the 1950s. The music was targeted for being offensive for it's lyrical content and African American roots, usually the latter was the cause of the former. We can trace Rock 'N Roll back to the 1920s, this ancestor of rock music is Jazz. Jazz started in the same light as Rock. Jazz was seen as obscene for the liberal behavior that it encouraged and the African American roots it had. It seems that the common denominator in the music of both these genre's scorn is the African Americans who first started playing it. This is only the beginning of the undeserved hatred that Rock music has so infamously acquired.
While racism was a factor in the in initial resentment to Rock 'N Roll, another was the lyrical content that eventually became one of the motto's of Rock 'N Roll and its sub-genres, Sex, Drugs, and Rock 'N Roll.
On to Drugs, the word in the motto does not have to do as much with singing about drugs as it does the hard party life style of a rock star, the motto as a whole addresses. Rock music was about having a good time, it was exactly the kind of mellowing out the country needed in the so called innocence and apple pie age of the 1950s.
Rock music has had some definite positive effects. A large majority of our pop culture is based off of Rock Music and the industry it pushed along. The guitar has become a symbol of not only Rock 'N Roll but of American teenagers in general, it is the most popular instrument.
The Chicano movement was a cultural as well as a political movement, helping to construct new, transnational cultural identities and fueling a renaissance in politically charged visual, literary, and performance art. Active through the 1970s, the movement fragmented and lost momentum in the 1980s but has reemerged in recent years as a new generation of Chicano activists, building on the legacy of their predecessors, have mobilized around the issues of affirmative action, globalization, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and, most recently, immigrant rights.
Particularly in the twentieth century, Chicanos have worked in such fields of art as painting, drawing, sculpture, and lithography, and in recent years, have developed a full-scale Chicano art movement. Possibly the two most distinctive vehicles of contemporary Chicano art are muralism and graffiti.
• According to research cited by the Center for Youth Studies, country music has a similar effect on teens as it does adults. So even if you've grown out of your teen years, pay attention to how this genre has been known to make its mark on listeners.
• Research reports that country music encourages suicide in some listeners by encouraging more drastic reactions to life challenges.
As country music increases on the airwaves, suicide rates for whites increased, the Center for Youth Studies cites. This is particularly true in metropolitan areas. According to the article, the genre encouraged listeners in the midst of difficult circumstances to consider suicide.
• Country music filled with sexual themes can encourage youth to engage in sexual activity, research reports.
Country music that includes content that is heavily sexual has a reactionary effect on listeners, according to research cited by the Center for Youth Studies. Not all country music is explicit, but that which is can encourage early sexual activity. Keep the content of music in mind while listening and consider if the behavior is something you would approve of for yourself.
Negative Messages Aren't Isolated to Country Music
• Whatever the genre, music has an effect on behavior, so make sure what you listen to doesn't conflict with your personal values.
Whatever the genre, negative messages in music influence risk behaviors in children, the New York Times article explains. So whether it's an acoustic guitar with a decided twang or an urban beat with lyrically spoken words, the meaning of the message is important. Music that encourages smoking, alcohol use and other actions encourages youth to emulate the habit as well.
Positive Country is often the term used to describe much of the music we hear on country radio today. It's indeed country, yet excluding much of the ancient country-song lyrics that were primarily drinking-cheating-and-heartbreak driven. Regardless of its label, fans simply like how it makes them feel -- good.
The term Positive Country surfaced only a few years ago, and whether or not music industry trade publications continue to chart such a format, it's here to stay.
This brand of not-hardly gospel, yet spiritually-laced country music, stems from its predecessor Christian Country.
Americans are divided about the value of spreading Americans culture around the world. In August 2002 an Investor's Business Daily/Christian Science Monitor poll found that only 47% felt that "American movies and popular culture" had a positive impact on "the rest of the world." Forty-four percent thought the impact was negative.
At the same time, Americans reject the idea that US popular culture is a threat to foreign cultures. In October 1999 PIPA asked, "How much of a threat, if at all, do you think American popular culture, such as music, television and films, is to the cultures of other countries in the world?" Just 24% said American popular culture was a "very serious" (7%) or "serious" threat (17%) to other countries. By contrast 33% considered it only a minor threat and a plurality (41%) said it was not a threat at all. They may also see foreign concerns as overblown. The public certainly does not view the spread of US culture as a threat serious enough to provoke a lethal reaction. When a December 2001 by Greenberg Quinlan Rosner and Public Opinion Strategies offered a list of 6 potential causes of international terrorism, just 10% cited the "spreading of US culture and values" as one of their top two choices. All of the others were cited by at least 21%.
A strong majority thinks US culture had a lot of impact on other countries in the 20th century, and an overwhelming majority believes it will have equal or greater influence in the 21st century. When asked in a December 1999 CBS News survey "how much impact...the United States has had on popular culture in the rest of the world" in "this past century", 70% said it had "a lot." Another 22% said it had "some" and just 6% said the impact was "not much" or "none at all." In the same CBS survey, nearly 9 out of 10 said the US would have either more impact (34%) or the same impact (55%) on popular culture throughout the world than it has now. Only 20% felt the impact would be less.
• Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in many aspects of life, including employment, education, and access to public accommodations.
• Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Intentional Employment Discrimination)
To amend the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to strengthen and improve Federal civil rights laws, to provide for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination, to clarify provisions regarding disparate impact actions, and for other purposes.
• Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act
Provides for equitable and impartial relief operations, without discrimination on the grounds of race, color, religion, nationality, sex, age, or economic status.
• The Equal Credit Opportunity Act
Prohibits creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or because an applicant receives income from a public assistance program.
• Equal Pay Act of 1963
Requires that employers pay all employees equally for equal work, regardless of whether the employees are male or female.
• Fair Housing Act
Prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, and disability.
• Family and Medical Leave Act
Gives employees the right to take time off from work in order to care for a newborn (or recently adopted) child, or to look after an ill family member.
• Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Ensuring that the rights of students with disabilities are protected, and that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education.
• Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
Prohibits sex discrimination in education programs that receive federal funds, to increase educational and athletic opportunities for females in schools and colleges nationwide.
• U.S. Code Title 42, Chapter 21 -- Civil Rights
Title 42, Chapter 21 of the U.S. Code prohibits discrimination against persons based on age, disability, gender, race, national origin, and religion (among other things) in a number of settings -- including education, employment, access to businesses and buildings, federal services, and more. Chapter 21 is where a number of federal acts related to civil rights have been codified -- including the Civil Rights Act of 1866, Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act.
• Voting Rights Act of 1965
Prohibits the denial or restriction of the right to vote, and forbids discriminatory voting practices nationwide.
Frances Elizabeth Caroline Willard (September 28, 1839 - February 17, 1898) was an American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist. Her influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) and Nineteenth (Women Suffrage) Amendments to the United States Constitution. Willard became the national president of the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union, or WWCTU, in 1879, and remained president for 19 years. She developed the slogan "Do everything" for the women of the WCTU to incite lobbying, petitioning, preaching, publication, and education. Her vision progressed to include federal aid to education, free school lunches, unions for workers, the eight-hour work day, work relief for the poor, municipal sanitation and boards of health, national transportation, strong anti-rape laws, and protections against child abuse. After her husband suffered a polio attack in 1921, Eleanor stepped forward to help Franklin with his political career. When her husband became president in 1933, Eleanor dramatically changed the role of the first lady. Not content to stay in the background and handle domestic matters, she showed the world that the first lady was an important part of American politics. She gave press conferences and spoke out for human rights, children's causes and women's issues, working on behalf of the League of Women Voters. She even had her own newspaper column, "My Day." She also focused on helping the country's poor, stood against racial discrimination and, during World War II, traveled abroad to visit U.S. troops.
For her active role in public policy, Eleanor was heavily criticized by some. She was praised by others, however, and today, she is regarded by as a leader of women's and civil rights, as well as one of the first public officials to publicize important issues through the mass media.
According to Forbes magazine, Oprah was the richest African American of the 20th century and the world's only Black billionaire for three years running. Life magazine hailed her as the most influential woman of her generation. In 2005, Business Week named her the greatest Black philanthropist in American history. Oprah's Angel Network has raised more than $51,000,000 for charitable programs, including girls' education in South Africa and relief to the victims of Hurricane Katrina.
Winfrey is a dedicated activist for children's rights; in 1994, President Clinton signed a bill into law that Winfrey had proposed to Congress, creating a nationwide database of convicted child abusers. She founded the Family for Better Lives foundation and also contributes to her alma mater, Tennessee State University. In September 2002, Oprah was named the first recipient of the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences' Bob Hope Humanitarian Award.
Winfrey campaigned for Democratic presidential hopeful Barack Obama in December 2007, attracting the largest crowds of the primary season to that point. Winfrey joined Obama for a series of rallies in the early primary/caucus states of Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina. It was the first time Winfrey had ever campaigned for a political candidate.
In 1941, Vernon Baker was assigned to the segregated 270th Regiment of the 92nd Infantry Division, the first black unit to go into combat in WWII. Baker, one of the most decorated black soldiers in the Mediterranean Theater, earned a Purple Heart, Bronze Star and Distinguished Service Cross. In 1996, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. In June 1944, the 270th landed at Naples and fought its way north into central Italy. One evening in the fall, Baker, on night patrol, ran into a German sentry. In the duel that followed, Baker killed the German but was wounded so badly himself that he had to be hospitalized for two months.
In the spring of 1945, Baker - the only black officer in his company - was in command of a weapons platoon made up of two light-machine-gun squads and two mortar squads. His unit was near Viareggio on April 5th when it was ordered to launch a dawn assault against Castle Aghinolfi, a mountain stronghold occupied by the Germans. On the second day of the assault, Baker led a battalion that finally secured the mountain for the American soldiers.
Baker earned a Purple Heart, Bronze Star, and Distinguished Service Cross during his time in service. He remained in the military until 1968, lived through its desegregation, and became one of the first blacks to command an all-white company. He joined the U.S. Army Airborne along the way, and trained to be a military parachutist. He made his last jump at age 48.
Roy Benavidez, a Medal of Honor recipient, died November 29, 1998, at age 63. He had been a member of Chapter 1919, Military Order of the Purple Heart for two years at the time of his death. On May 2, 1968, Master Sergeant (then Staff Sergeant) ROY P. BENAVIDEZ distinguished himself by a series of daring and extremely valorous actions while assigned to Detachment B-56, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, Republic of Vietnam. A 12-man Special Forces Reconnaissance Team was inserted by helicopters in a dense jungle area west of Loc Ninh, Vietnam...the team met heavy enemy resistance, and requested extraction. Three helicopters attempted extraction, but were unable to land due to intense enemy...fire. Sergeant Benavidez was at the Forward Operating Base in Loc Ninh monitoring the operation by radio when these helicopters returned to off-load wounded crew members...Sergeant Benavidez voluntarily boarded a returning aircraft to assist in another extraction attempt. Realizing that all the team members were either dead or wounded and unable to move to the pickup zone, he directed the aircraft to a nearby clearing where he jumped from the hovering helicopter, and ran approximately 75 meters under withering small arms fire to the crippled team...he was wounded in his right leg, face, and head. Despite these painful injuries, he took charge, repositioned the team members and directed their fire to facilitate the landing of an extraction aircraft, and the loading of wounded and dead team members...Despite his severe wounds and under intense enemy fire, he carried and dragged half of the wounded team members to the waiting aircraft. He then provided protective fire by running alongside the aircraft as it moved to pick up classified documents on the dead team leader. When he reached the team leader's body, Sergeant Benavidez was severely wounded by small arms fire in the abdomen and grenade fragments in his back. At nearly the same moment, the aircraft pilot was mortally wounded, and his helicopter crashed. Although in extremely critical condition due to his wounds, Sergeant Benavidez secured the classified documents and made his way back to the wreckage, where he aided the wounded out of the overturned aircraft, and gathered the stunned survivors into a defensive perimeter. Under increasing automatic weapons and grenade fire, he moved around the perimeter distributing water and ammunition to his weary men, re-instilling in them a will to live and fight....Sergeant Benavidez...began calling in tactical air strikes and directed the fire from supporting gunships to suppress the enemy's fire and so permit another extraction attempt. He was wounded again in his thigh by small arms fire while administering first aid to a wounded team member just before another extraction helicopter was able to land...he began to ferry his comrades to the craft. On his second trip with the wounded he was clubbed from behind by an enemy soldier. In the ensuing hand-to-hand combat, he sustained additional wounds to his head and arms before killing his adversary. He then continued to carry the wounded to the helicopter. Upon reaching the aircraft, he spotted and killed two enemy soldiers who were rushing the craft from an angle that prevented the door gunner from firing upon them he made one last trip to the perimeter to ensure that all classified material had been collected or destroyed, and to bring in the remaining wounded. Only then, in extremely serious condition from numerous wounds and loss of blood did he allow himself to be pulled into the aircraft. His valorous actions in the face of overwhelming odds were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service, and reflect the utmost credit on him and the United States Army. Chest deep in mud, the French force dug onward. Time and time again, the rain and the Chagres destroyed what engineering and hard labor had wrought. Mudslides buried men, supplies, and machines. And from the freshwater pools that lay everywhere, a deadly plague of insects rose. In 1881, the French recorded about 60 deaths from disease. In 1882, the number doubled. The following year, 420 died. Malaria and yellow fever were the most common killers. Because the company often fired sick men to reduce medical costs, the numbers probably reflect low estimates. Believing the fumes from rotting vegetation caused the disease, doctors at the French hospital at Ancon advised workers to avoid the night air. Only after thousands of deaths would the cause be attributed to virus-carrying mosquitoes. Three out of four men hospitalized at Ancon died, despite the massive investments that made the hospital among the finest in the tropical world. In no small manner was this hastened by the architecture of the hospital gardens. To protect the potted plants from attack by ants, gardeners had set the pots in pottery bowls filled with water. Disease-carrying mosquitoes multiplied in these reservoirs by the million and carried their deadly cargo through the screenless windows of the hospital each night.The word Panama quickly became synonymous with scandal and fraud. About $287 million had been spent. Fifty million cubic meters of earth and rock had been moved. Eleven miles of canal had been dug. Twenty thousand men had died. The canal remained unfinished, but the dream had not yet ended. Theodore Roosevelt would soon take up the cause. Dr. William Gorgas, who had helped to eradicate yellow fever in Havana years before by killing the mosquitoes that carried it, directed sanitation efforts. Workers drained swamps, swept drainage ditches, paved roads and installed plumbing. They sprayed pesticides by the ton. Entire towns rose from the jungle, complete with housing, schools, churches, commissaries, and social halls. With sanitation efforts complete, John Stevens began work on a scale never before witnessed. Gigantic Bucyrus steam shovels scooped tons of earth. Railroad cars ran continuously on a double track, dumping the tailings to form the Charges dam. Wind and storm surge are the damaging agents of a hurricane, storm surge at the coast and wind away from the coast. Storm surge is a combination of wind-induced water motion, reduced atmospheric pressure in the storm, and possibly high tide. Hurricane Katrina, unfortunately, came ashore at high tide, and the storm surge in Plaquemines Parish reached as much as 6.1 m (20 ft) above sea level. In Lake Pontchartrain, directly to the north of New Orleans, wind from the north piled water up as high as 3.7 m (12 ft) above sea level. The hurricane also brought heavy rainfall, increasing the probability of flooding (ASCE Review Panel 2007, pp. 13-16).
"The Lake Pontchartrain and Vicinity Hurricane Protection Project system experienced the worst damage during and after Hurricane Katrina and resulted in the most serious consequences to the city and people of New Orleans. The massive, destructive flooding of New Orleans was caused by ruptures at approximately 50 locations in the city's hurricane protection system. Of the [457 km] 284 miles of federal levees and floodwalls-there are approximately [563 km] 350 miles in total-[272 km] 169 miles were damaged" (ASCE Review Panel 2007, p. 25).
The rapid scale of change could be seen, for example, in Chicago. In 1900, the city had a total population of 1,698,575. By 1920, Chicago had increased by more than one million residents. Its population of 2,701,705 included more than one million Catholics, 800,000 foreign-born immigrants, 125,000 Jews and 110,000 Blacks. There were in existence, 15 breweries and 20,000 speakeasies to keep things lively during Prohibition. In the South, the departure of hundreds of thousands of Blacks caused the Black percentage of the population in most Southern states to decrease. In Mississippi and South Carolina, for example, Black numbers decreased from about 60 percent of the population in 1930 to about 35 percent by 1970. This start-to-finish strategy helped Carnegie become the dominant force in the industry and an exceedingly wealthy man. It also made him known as one of America's "builders," as his business helped to fuel the economy and shape the nation into what it is today. By 1889, Carnegie Steel Corporation was the largest of its kind in the world.
Carnegie, an avid reader for much of his life, donated approximately $5 million to the New York Public Library so that the library could open several branches in 1901. Devoted to learning, he established the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, which is now known as Carnegie-Mellon University in 1904. The next year, he created the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in 1905. With his strong interest to peace, he formed the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1910. He made numerous other donations, and it is said that more than 2,800 libraries were opened with his support.