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Soc Ch 1
Terms in this set (31)
Educated journalist who traveled to America and wrote two critiques of her travels. She also translated Comte's work into English.
Who is known as the father of sociology
Who coined the term sociology in 1838. Also credited with founding positivism.
Who did not think sociology should play a role in guiding social reform
Who coined the term "survival of the fittest"
Karl Marx (1818- 1883)
Who influenced many fields of study including sociology, economics, and history.
Karl Marx (1818- 1883)
Who saw class conflict as the basis of human history. Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat
Emile Durkheim (1858- 1917)
Who worked to identify sociology as an academic discipline. Known for his study on suicide.
Max Weber 1864- 1920)
Who wrote the Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Essentially determined religion brought capitalism into being.
Three Main Social Theories
- Social Conflict Theory (Macro Sociology)
- Structural Functionalism (Macro Sociology)
-Symbolic Interactionism (Micro Sociology)
Social Conflict theory
What theory emphasizes the struggle for power within society
What theory focuses on how social institutions relationships, economic and political systems perpetuate or motivate inequalities
Conflict Theory Offshoots
Book def of Conflict theory
a paradigm that sees social conflicts as the basis of society and social change, and emphasizes a materialist view of society, a critical view of the status quo and a dynamic model of historical change
What theory sees mass media and pop culture as powerful ideological tools. Critical of growing consumerism.
What theory is the Analysis of social institutions in new ways to reevaluate the position of women in society. Gender and power are indivisibly intertwined in our society. Gender is linked to other social hierarchies (sex. Orien., ethnicity, class).
What theory proposes that categories of sexual identity are social constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal
Society is functional because every part works together
-Has been in decline since the 60's and replaced with a more accepted Conflict theory
Symbolic Interactionism Theory
What theory says Socialization is communicated through symbols ("things to which we attach meaning").
People involved with Symbolic Interactionism Theory
Charles Horton Cooley,
George Herbert Mead,
Offshoots of Symbolic Interactionism
Book def of Structural Functionalism
Theory that begins with the assumption that society is a unified whole that functions because of the contributions of its serrate structures
Book def of symbolic interactionism
theory that sees interaction and meaning as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created through interaction
Proposed by Erving Goffman to describe our social life as a performance on a stage.
We must obtain knowledge and skills to act practically and fully understand our social world. We operate off of background assumptions, and we assume others operate off the same knowledge we do.
A sociological approach that looks at how we create meaning in naturally occurring conversation, often by taping conversations and examining them
"Applying the scientific method to the social world"
• Auguste Comte emphasized that through experience, sense (or critical thinking), and positive authentication one obtains genuine knowledge.
a set of assumptions, theories, and perspectives that make up a way of understanding social reality
a quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our individual circumstances and larger social forces
• Biography means how one's experiences, or outside influences determine their behavior.
• History means the events, or experiences of a society that give that society certain characteristics.
• C. Wright Mills
The study of society; the study of the development, organization, functioning, and classification of human societies.
A group of people who identify as belonging together through shared cultural practices, shared space, or other features that sets the group as different from others. This can include any level within the structure of society (from small to massive).
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