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44 terms

PS 101: Chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY
Spinal chord
the central nervous system is made up of the brain and this
Motor neurons
the nervous system comprises three major types of neurons: sensory neurons, interneurons, and this
sympathetic division
the part of the autonomic nervous system is thought of as the "fight or flight" system
Cerebral Cortex
this is a thin "bark" of neurons in the forebrain that is thought to be the most evolved of brain regions
Myelin Sheath
the insulation around axons made of glial cells that allow for faster transmission of nerve impulses and is also called the "white matter" in the brain; MAKES NERVE IMPULSE MOVE FASTER/MORE EFFICIENT
Serotonin
this NT is involved in mood regulation, aggression, sleep, and is involved in eating disorders, OCD and depression
Limbic System
a part of the forebrain that is associated with emotion, memory, and goal-directed behavior; includes the hippocampus and the amygdala
Thalamus
the brain's sensory "switchboard" serving as a relay center for incoming sensory info
Broca's Area
located in the frontal lobe of the brain and is most implicated in speech formation
Action potential
the result of positively charged sodium ions entering a neuron followed by positively charged potassium ions flowing out
Neurons
generate electricity that creates nerve pulses; building blocks of nervous system; release NTs
Soma
cell body; houses the nucleus
Dendrites
collect messages from neighboring neurons
Axon
long tail-like extension; carries/conducts nerve impulses
Synaptic vesicle
where NTs are housed
Glutamate
most common 1 of 2 NT; rapidly excites neurons, increasing likelihood of communication; associated with learning and memory and schizophrenia
GABA
most common 2 of 2 NT; main inhibitory NT dampening neural activity; anti-anxiety meds bind to GABA receptors; associated with learning, memory, and sleep
Acetylcholine
NT associated with muscle contraction, cortical arousal, selected attention, sleep, memory
Norepinephrine
NT associated with brain arousal, mood, hunger, sleep, depression, stress, panic disorders
Dopamine
NT associated with emotional arousal, risky behavior, motor function, Parkinson's disease, depression, Schizophrenia
Serotonin
NT associated with mood, body temp, aggression, sleep cycles, depression, eating disorders, OCD
Nervous System
CNS:
a. brain
b. spinal cord
Peripheral N. Sys:
a. autonomic
--sympathetic division
--parasympathetic division
Somatic NS
Sensory, Motor, Inter
types of neurons
Somatic N.S.
sensory ns transmit messages; motor Ns send messages from CNS to muscles
Autonomic N.S.
senses body's internal functions, controls glands, controls smooth muscles of hear, blood vessels, stomach, intestines
Sympathetic N.S.
Activation/arousal
Parasympathetic N.S.
slows down body processes, maintains "homestasis"
Hindbrain
lowest, most primitave level of brain; in CNS
Brain Stem
supports vital life functions
Cerebellum
muscle movement/coordination and memory; regulation of blance
Midbrain
central role in consciousness, sleep, attention, arousal
Forebrain
most advanced region
Cerebrum
2 largest hemispheres; outer portion of forebrain; HIGHLY INVOLVED WITH THINKING, LEARNING, EMOTIONS
Hypothalamus
motivation and emotion; regulates basic biological needs; linked to endocrine system
HPA axis
Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis
Hippocampus
involved in forming and retrieving memories
Amygdala
aggression, fear, sex drive
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal
4 lobes of cerebral cortex
Frontal Lobe
primary motor cortex; Broca's area
Parietal Lobe
Somatic sensory cortex, receives sensory iput that gives rise to our sensations
Occipital Lobe
primary visual cortex
Temporal lobe
primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area
Wernicke's Area
primarily involved in speech comprehension
Corpus callosum
Neural bridge consisting of whie myelinated fibers that acts as a communication link between 2 hemispheres