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Spinal chord

the central nervous system is made up of the brain and this

Motor neurons

the nervous system comprises three major types of neurons: sensory neurons, interneurons, and this

sympathetic division

the part of the autonomic nervous system is thought of as the "fight or flight" system

Cerebral Cortex

this is a thin "bark" of neurons in the forebrain that is thought to be the most evolved of brain regions

Myelin Sheath

the insulation around axons made of glial cells that allow for faster transmission of nerve impulses and is also called the "white matter" in the brain; MAKES NERVE IMPULSE MOVE FASTER/MORE EFFICIENT


this NT is involved in mood regulation, aggression, sleep, and is involved in eating disorders, OCD and depression

Limbic System

a part of the forebrain that is associated with emotion, memory, and goal-directed behavior; includes the hippocampus and the amygdala


the brain's sensory "switchboard" serving as a relay center for incoming sensory info

Broca's Area

located in the frontal lobe of the brain and is most implicated in speech formation

Action potential

the result of positively charged sodium ions entering a neuron followed by positively charged potassium ions flowing out


generate electricity that creates nerve pulses; building blocks of nervous system; release NTs


cell body; houses the nucleus


collect messages from neighboring neurons


long tail-like extension; carries/conducts nerve impulses

Synaptic vesicle

where NTs are housed


most common 1 of 2 NT; rapidly excites neurons, increasing likelihood of communication; associated with learning and memory and schizophrenia


most common 2 of 2 NT; main inhibitory NT dampening neural activity; anti-anxiety meds bind to GABA receptors; associated with learning, memory, and sleep


NT associated with muscle contraction, cortical arousal, selected attention, sleep, memory


NT associated with brain arousal, mood, hunger, sleep, depression, stress, panic disorders


NT associated with emotional arousal, risky behavior, motor function, Parkinson's disease, depression, Schizophrenia


NT associated with mood, body temp, aggression, sleep cycles, depression, eating disorders, OCD

Nervous System

a. brain
b. spinal cord
Peripheral N. Sys:
a. autonomic
--sympathetic division
--parasympathetic division
Somatic NS

Sensory, Motor, Inter

types of neurons

Somatic N.S.

sensory ns transmit messages; motor Ns send messages from CNS to muscles

Autonomic N.S.

senses body's internal functions, controls glands, controls smooth muscles of hear, blood vessels, stomach, intestines

Sympathetic N.S.


Parasympathetic N.S.

slows down body processes, maintains "homestasis"


lowest, most primitave level of brain; in CNS

Brain Stem

supports vital life functions


muscle movement/coordination and memory; regulation of blance


central role in consciousness, sleep, attention, arousal


most advanced region


2 largest hemispheres; outer portion of forebrain; HIGHLY INVOLVED WITH THINKING, LEARNING, EMOTIONS


motivation and emotion; regulates basic biological needs; linked to endocrine system

HPA axis

Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis


involved in forming and retrieving memories


aggression, fear, sex drive

Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal

4 lobes of cerebral cortex

Frontal Lobe

primary motor cortex; Broca's area

Parietal Lobe

Somatic sensory cortex, receives sensory iput that gives rise to our sensations

Occipital Lobe

primary visual cortex

Temporal lobe

primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area

Wernicke's Area

primarily involved in speech comprehension

Corpus callosum

Neural bridge consisting of whie myelinated fibers that acts as a communication link between 2 hemispheres

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