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The skin carries out the first step in the synthesis of vitamin D


Living keratinocytes exfoliate from the epidermis as tiny specks called dander


The deeper of the two layers of the skin is the hypodermis


The youngest keratinocytes are found in the stratum basale


Melanin, hemoglobin, and carotene give color to the skin


Albinism is the genetic lack of melanin that results in a milky white coloration of the skin.


Embarrassment can be perceived by an abnormal coloration of the skin called cyanosis


Freckles are elevated patches with an abnormal coloration of the skin


Straight hair is round, wavy hair is oval, and curly hair is relatively flat


Hair and nails are composed of collagen


Merocrine sweat glands are associated with hair follicles in the pubic and anal regions, axilla, areola, and beard.


Pattern baldness is relatively rare in women because women have lower testosterone levels than men.


The acidity of sweat contributes to the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth in the skin.


Debridement is not necessary to infection control


The three forms of skin cancer are defined by the types of cells in which they originate.

the hypodermis

The skin does not include


These are all types of cells found in the epidermis except


Skin covering the __________ has sweat glands but no hair follicles or sebaceous (oil) glands.

1 to 2

Most of the skin is ___________ mm thick


This image shows structures of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. What does "3" represent?


This image shows structures of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. What does "1" represent?

Collagen and fibroblasts

This image shows structures of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. ________ are found in the layer of the skin represented as "2".

stratified squamous epithelium; dense irregular connective tissue

This image shows structures of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Layer "1" represents _____, whereas layer "2" represents ___________.


This image shows strata and cell types of the epidermis. ________ represents a living keratinocyte belonging to the stratum basale

living keratinocyte; melanocyte

This image shows strata and cell types of the epidermis. "2" represents a _________, whereas "4" represents a _________.

stratum corneum

This layer of the epidermis consists of up to 30 layers of dead cells

tactile (Merkel) cells

Which of the following are associated with the sense of touch?

stratum basale

The fastest rate of mitosis happens in the

dendritic (Langerhans) cells

These cells stand guard against toxins, microbes and other pathogens.

dermal papillae

Fingerprints left on things we touch are associated with


Calluses or corns are the result of accelerated multiplication of

Stratum lucidum

The ___ is absent from most epidermis

reticular; collagen

. Leather is mostly made of the __________ layer of the dermis, which is very tough due to the high concentration of ____________ fibers

adipose tissue

Hypodermis is usually has an abundance of in this tissue


The skin discoloration most likely to suggest physical abuse is


The reddish color of the skin of the lips is primarily due to this pigment


This skin color is most likely to result from anemia


Bilirubin causes a skin discoloration called

quantity of melanin produced

Ethnic differences in skin color are primarily caused by differences in


A ___ is an elevated patch of melanized skin.


A pilus is

lanugo; vellus

The hair present only prenatally is called ___________, most of which is replaced by ____________ by the time of birth.

dermal papilla

The _________ provides the hair with its sole source of nutrition


This image shows the structure of a hair and its follicle. What does "1" represent?

hairs to stand on end with no apparent function.

The contraction of the piloerector muscles (pilomotor muscle or arrector pili) in humans causes

anagen, catagen, and telogen.

A hair cycle consists of three developmental stages in the following order

hair follicle

Each hair grows in an oblique epithelial tube called a(an)


Excessive hairiness is called

eponychium (cuticle)

The narrow zone of dead skin overhanging the proximal end of a nail is called


This image shows the anatomy of a fingernail. What does "2" represent?

eumelanin and pheomelanin.

Variations in hair color arise from the relative amounts of

nail matrix

Mitosis in the __________ accounts for growth of the nail.


The oil of your scalp is secreted by __________ glands associated with the hair follicles.

merocrine sweat

Secretions from __________ glands contribute the acid mantle that inhibits bacterial growth on the skin.


____________ is/are formed partly from the secretions of glands in the external ear canal.

apocrine gland

This image shows cutaneous glands. The name of structure "1" is

merocrine glands

The cutaneous glands concerned with cooling the body are

apocrine glands

The ___ are a source of sex pheromones

apocrine; breasts

Mammary glands are modified ___________ glands that develop within the female breast, whereas ____________ are present in both sexes

spinosum and basale

Which two strata of the epidermis are most susceptible to cancer?

asymmetry, border irregularity, color, and diameter

The "ABCD rule" for recognizing early signs of malignant melanoma refers to the following characteristics of the lesion

malignant melanoma

The least common but most deadly type of skin cancer is

basale; melanocytes

Basal cell carcinoma initially affects cells of the stratum __________, whereas malignant melanoma arises from ___________.


_____________ burns involve the epidermis, all of the dermis, and often some deeper tissue.

fluid loss

The most immediate threat to the life of a patient with severe burns is

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