Terms in this set (113)
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865) from Illinois member of National Union Party (republican)
Abraham Lincoln's Assassination
Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, April 15th 1856 in Ford's theater while watching a play
Texas, Louisianna Purchase, Western Territories
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
American Cowboy (roles and myths)
the american cowboy led cattle on cattle drives, usually by the thousands, the myth of the cowboy in boots and a hat with flannel shirt and leather pants came from the mexican rancheros
American Frontier ( During 1820's post-Civil War)
the indian territory and great plains, as well as the west
American Indians (tribes, battles and massacres)
sand creek massacre- cheyenne indians attacked by John M Chivington
little big horn- (custers last stand) large force of Sioux and cheyenne indians fought and defeated cutters 7th cavalry
Wounded Knee- Innocent indians killed by soldiers while doing a ritual ghost dance
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
7th president (1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears
17th president of the U.S. (1865-1869). He was vice president under Abraham Lincoln and became president when he died. Before that, he was a Tennessee governor, and then senator. He was the only senator from a Confederate state to remain loyal to the Union after secession. He opposed Radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
April 1865, the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in, ending the Civil War
A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs. (americans used on indians)
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
Conflict over the expansion of slavery into the Kansas Territory during its transition to statehood. Free-Staters battled slavery supporters with violence.
Settlers who ran in land races to claim land upon the 1889 opening of Indian Territory for settlement, pressured congress to make indian land for settlers
native to the great plains, natives used them for clothing, shelter, various other things and food, settlers used for game and hide
Maryland, West Virginia, Missouri and Kansas: did not secede to confederacy
Burning of American Cities
washington DC, war of 1812-British
Savannah GA- civil war-sherman
Columbia SC-civil war-sherman
Atlanta GA-civil war-sherman
known as the first cowboy, had to deliver $40,000 worth of cattle
(1861-1865) Fought over slavery when the pro-slavery south seceded from the union. Shots were fired at Fort Sumter to start the war, General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House ending the Civil War
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Constitutional Amendments 12-16
12-procedure for voting on a president and vice president
13- banned slavery
14-all us citizens have equal rights
15- the people have the right to vote on representatives
16-allows congress to set taxes
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
United States frontiersman and Tennessee politician who died at the siege of the Alamo (1786-1836)
1887 law that distributed reservation land to individual Native American owners (160 acre farm per family)
Political party that generally stressed individual liberty, the rights of the common people, and hostility to privilege
Presidents wife, she had to flee the white house before they set it on fire; saved valuable papers including Washington's portrait
Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.
Dred Scott Case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
House of Representatives(congressman) - every 2 years.
An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(AJ) , 1815-1902. American social activist and early proponent of women's rights. Her Declaration of Sentiments speech delivered in Seneca, NY, in 1848, is often credited with initiating the first organized women's suffrage and women's rights movements in the U.S. Was also an early abolitionist.
(1862) an order issued by President Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves in areas rebelling against the Union; took effect January 1, 1863
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Francis Cabot Lowell
American industrialist who developed the Lowell system, a mill system that included looms that could both weave thread and spin cloth. He hired young women to live and work in his mill
14th, Democrat (1853-1857), Candidate from the North who could please the South. His success in securing the Gadsden Purchase was overshadowed by the controversy surrounding the Ostend Manifesto, the Kansas Nebraska Act and "Bleeding Kansas." Passions over slavery had been further inflamed, and the North and South were more irreconcilable than before. He succeeded only in splitting the country further apart.
American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
Fugitive Slave Act
(1850) a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
He was a former general of the Civil War. He was nicknamed the "boy general." During the Sioux War of 1876-1877 he attacked 2,500 Sioux warriors near the Little Big Horn river in Montana and was completely wiped out.
A general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice.
During the American Civil War he served as a Union general, rising from command of a brigade to the Army of the Potomac. He is best known for defeating Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863.
1863-General Lee lead the Confederate troops into Pennsylvania. He surprised the units in Gettysburg and the battle was the most crucial and bloodiest of the war. The victory at Gettysburg belonged to Lincoln and the Union. Turning point; last offensive attack of the South. Lasted three days, July 1-3
A 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Great American Desert
region of the Great Plains that acted as a barrier to cross on the way to the Pacific and a refuge for Indians but changed in the last half of the nineteenth century as a result of new finds of gold, silver, and other minerals, completion of transcontinental railroads, destruction of the buffalo, the collapse of Indian resistance, the rise of the range-cattle industry, and the dawning realization that the arid region need not be a sterile desert.
..., United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913) black moses
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises. ( Missouri Compromise)
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Indian Removal Act
(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
A period during the late eighteenth century when machine power was substituted for human power, making it more economical to manufacture goods in factories than at home.
Wooden ships with metal armor that were employed by both sides during the Civil War.
15th president (1857-1861) The Confederate States of America are formed in 1861. He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.
James K Polk
11th President of the United States from Tennessee; committed to westward expansion; led the country during the Mexican War; U.S. annexed Texas and took over Oregon during his administration
4th, 1808 and 1812; Democratic-Republican; notable events include the War of 1812, let the charter of the First Bank of the United States expire, but realized it was difficult to finance a war without the bank, so he chartered the 2nd Bank of the United States
(1817-1821) and (1821-1825) The Missouri Compromise in 1821., the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas
Jefferson Day Dinner
The dinner where Jackson announced by his toast that he believed that the federal government should have more power than the states. Further increased the hatred between Calhoun and Jackson. After this event, Calhoun ran for the Senate from South Carolina (and was elected) and resigned from the vice-presidency.
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
arrived with 700 Colorado volunteers raised US flag as sign of peace but then open fired at Indian people which lead to the Sand Creek Massacre
John Quincy Adams
6th, Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
..., elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet".
american party who met privately and remained secretive about their political agenda, hated foreigners (nativism)
Macon's Bill No 2
opened trade with britain and france, said if either nation repealed its restrictions on neutral shipping the US would halt trade with the other, didn't work
Martin Van Buren
8th,(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.
after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado
13th (1850-1853) The Fugitive Slave Act was passed in 1850. California becomes a free state, territories chose popular sovereignty, Uncle Tom's Cabin. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
minerals found in west
gold and silver first found in California leading to the gold rush in 1849 and helping settle the west
issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
African American preacher who led a brutal VA slave revolt in 1831: captured and hanged after the revolt failed
National Bank of the US
part of Hamilton's Economic Plan; issue money, regulate supply of money, in charge of collecting taxes for federal government; could lend/borrow money; opposition: TJ thought it was unconstitutional but Hamilton uses elastic claus
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
territory of Oregon, Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada; land claimed by both U.S. and Britain and held jointly under the Convention of 1818
A declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
Pacific Railways Act
acts of Congress that promoted the construction of the transcontinental railroad in the United States through authorizing the issuance of government bonds and the grants of land to railroad companies.
Another term for slavery; The owning of human beings existed in a country that practiced liberty.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
a failed confederate attack during the Civil War led by general George Pickett at the Battle of Gettysburg.
the idea that language shapes behavior and therefore should be regulated to control its social effects
presidents who died in office
Harrison & Taylor
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Believe in a small federal gov't, advocate little programs to protect the citizens, and since they want less programs it's less tax
Robert E Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
This inventor patented the six-shooter pistol, which was used often during the Mexican war.
First President of the Independent Republic of Texas
"Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with the memorized plans for the textile machinery; put into operation the first spinning cotton thread in 1791.
Formal withdrawal of states or regions from a nation
A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people.
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
In 1889, people who illegally claimed land by sneaking past government officials before the land races began
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
Poor farmers in North Carolina and elsewhere who occupied land and raised crops without gaining legal title to the soil
The "father of texas", land speculator who was granted land in texas
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
A legal right to vote guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
Susan B Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
A confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults. He earned his nickname at the battle of first bull run for standing courageously against union fire. During the battle of chancellorsville his own men accidently mortally wounded him.
trail of tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
treaty of ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
ulysses s grant
18, an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1852, harriet beecher stowe, antislavery book, widely read- hated by southerners - made northerners more skeptical of slavery
People who take the law into their own hands
Waving the bloody shirt
An expression used as a vote getting stratagem by the Republicans during the election of 1876 , means veteran
war of 1812
..., A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Anti-Jackson political party that generally stood for national community and an activist government
William Henry Harrison
(1841), was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief Constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
William Lloyd Garrsion
moved to Boston in 1831 where he founded the anti slavery newspaper,"The Liberator". He attacked the constitution, because it didn't ban slavery.
An American soldier,served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861-1865). He received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy and criticism for the harshness of the policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States. Scorched earth
bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the war with mexico
"Old Fuss and Feathers," whose conquest of Mexico City brought U.S. victory in the Mexican War