69 terms

Unit 6 Key Terms

Agricultural Origins
Carl Sauer theorized that this began in an area north of the Bay of Bengal when people began cultivating plants.
The purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber.
Animal Domestication
When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.
The practice of cultivating the land or raising stock.
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication.
Hunting and Gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
The science of working with metals.
Plant Domestication
When people cultivate crops for agriculture.
Second Agricultural Revolution
A period of technological change from the 1600s to mid 1900s that started in Western Europe beginning with preindustrial improvements like crop rotation.
Shifting Cultivation
Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegitation has been removed by cutting and burning.
Subsistence Farmers
Farmers who produce only enough food to meet the needs of their own and of their households.
Third Agricultural Revolution
A period of technological change which began in the 1960s with the production of an improved rice hybrid called IR8 and characterized by the use of biotechnology.
Thünian Patterns
Landscape patterns that connects with the Von Thunen Model.
A traditional building material made of hard, oven-baked or sun-baked blocks of mud shaped into standard sizes.
Cadastral System
Survey system that determines the value, extent, and ownership of land for purposes of taxation.
Diffusion Routes
The spatial trajectory through which the cultural traits or other phenomena spread.
Dispersed Settlement
In contrast to agglomerated or nucleated settlement, characterized by a much lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads.
Domestic Architecture
The first kind of buildings that were built in domestic areas.
Folk-Housing Region
A reigion in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area.
Functional Differentiation
A mode of distinguishing things or arrangements based on the purposes or activities to which they are devoted.
A community of people smaller than a village.
Long-Lot Survey
System that divided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers,roads, or canals.
Maladaptive Diffusion
Diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality.
Metes and Bounds Survey
A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. Depends on descriptions of land ownership and natural features.
Nucleated Settlement
A compact closely packed settlement sharply demarcated from adjoining farmland.
System where the eldest son in a family, or in exceptional cases, a daughter inherits all of the parent's land.
Rectangular Land Survey
The system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Township and Range System
A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior.
A community of people smaller than a town.
Traditional dwelling built using poles and sticks that are woven tightly together and then plastered with mud.
A general term for large-scale, mechanized industrial agriculture that is controlled by corporate interests.
The use of genetically engineered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in livestock in order to increase production.
Commercial Agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Green Revolution
the recently successful development of higher yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries.
Livestock Ranching
The raising of domesticated animals for the produciton of meat and byproducts.
Luxury Crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco.
Mediterranean Agriculture
Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry summer Mediterranean climate prevails such as grapes, olives, figs, citrus, fruits, dates.
Organic Agriculture
Crops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers.
Plantation Agriculture
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop.
Infectious organism that causes disease.
A serious disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products.
The use of a river segment or an artificial body of water such as a pond for the raising and harvesting of food products.
An infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma.
Caloric Intake
Data that shows the amount of calories the population of an area takes in during 24 hours.
Child Mortality Rate
A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population.
An acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Chronic Disease
A disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time.
Contagious Disease
A disease that can be transmitted among people, either through direct contact or through a vector.
Dietary Balance
Calories alone does not determine a balanced diet, but necessary requirements for the body to function and survive.
A disease that is particular to a locality or region.
A sudden outbreak leads to a high percentage of cases and a large number of deaths in a region.
Genetic Diseases
Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in a human.
Hidden Hunger
Getting enough calories but not enough nutrition.
The organism in which the parasite lives in or on.
Infectious Disease
A disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact.
Highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus.
Tropical disease of infants due to protein deficiency.
Life Expectancy
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.
A disease caused by mosquitoes implanting parasites in the blood.
Condition of ill health resulting froom the deficiency or improper foodstuffin the diet.
A condition caused by a diet low in calories and protein.
Medical Geography
The study of health and diseases with geographic perspective.
Miracle Rice
High yielding variety of rice, developed in the Phillipines in the 60s, widely planted in Asia.
An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.
Long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease.
River Blindness
Caused by a parasitic worm transmitted by the black fly.
Any agent that carries and transmits a disease.
Yellow Fever
Disease caused by stegomyia mosquito.