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What is the approximate blood volume in adults?

5 Liters

What is the hormonal stimulus that prompts red blood cell formation?


What is the most numerous WBC?


What do blood proteins play an important role in?

blood clotting, immunity, and blood volume

What is the WBC that releases histamine and other inflammatory chemicals?


What is the blood cell that can become an antibody-secreting cell?


Which factors promote multiple steps in the clotting pathway?

PF3, thrombin, and Ca 2+

What is the normal pH of blood?

7.4 pH

If blood was AB positive, what does this mean?

agglutinogens A and B are present on RBCs, there are no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in your plasma, and your blood is Rh+

What is the hematocrit? What is its normal value?

the percentage of blood that is occupied by erythrocytes; 45%

List two protective functions of blood

blood clot production, prevent infection

Are plasma proteins used as fuel for body cells?

No, because their presence in blood is required to perform many key functions

How many molecules of oxygen can each hemoglobin molecule transport?


What part of the hemoglobin binds the oxygen?

The heme portion

Patients with advanced kidney disease often have anemia. Explain the connection.

synthesis of erythropoietin decreases, so RBC production decreases, causing anemia

Which WBCs turn into macrophages in tissues?


Which other WBC is a voracious phagocyte?


Platelets are called "thrombocytes" in other animals. Which term that you've just learned relates to this name? What does this term mean?

thrombopoietin; it is the hormone that promotes platelet formation

Amos has leukemia. Even though his WBC count is abnormally high, Amos is prone to severe infections, bleeding, and anemia. Explain.

red bone marrow is spewing out many abnormal WBCs, crowding out the production of normal bone marrow elements. The lack of normal WBCs allows the infections, the lack of platelets fails to stop bleeding, and the lack of erythrocytes is anemia.

What are the 3 steps of hemostasis?

vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and coagulation

What is the key difference between fibrinogen and fibrin?

fibrinogen is water soluble, fibrin is not

What is the key difference between prothrombin and thrombin?

prothrombin is an inactive precursor, thrombin acts as an enzyme

What is the key difference between most factors before and after they are activated?

inactive in blood before activation and become enzymes upon activation

Which bleeding disorder results from not having enough platelets?


Which bleeding disorder results from the absence of clotting factor VIII?

Hemophilia A

Nigel is told that he has type B blood. Which ABO antibodies does he have in his plasma? Which agglutinogens are on his RBCs? Could he donate blood to an AB recipient? Could he receive blood from an AB donor?

He has anti-A antibodies in his blood, type B agglutinogens on his RBCs, he can donate blood to an AB recipient, he should not receive blood from an AB donor because his anti-A antibodies will cause a transfusion reaction

Emily is brought to the ER with a fever, headache, and stiff neck. You suspect bacterial meningitis. Would you expect to see an elevated neutrophil count in a differential WBC count?

Yes, neutrophils are a major body defense against bacteria

How is hemoglobin F different from adult hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin F has a higher binding strength for oxygen

Hematocrit is what percent of the total blood volume?

42 to 45%

What would an increased erythropoietin (EPO) output by the kidneys lead to?

Increased hematocrit, blood viscosity, blood osmolarity, and RBC production

A differential count of what blood cell increases in response to bacterial infections?


What is the final product of the breakdown of the organic nonprotein moiety of hemoglobin?


List the functions of blood

blood clotting, regulates body temperature, transports nutrients, and stabilizes the pH

What is found in plasma?

urea, glucose, albumin, and fibrinogen

What would happen if all the 280 million molecules of hemoglobin contained in RBCs were free in the plasma?

blood osmolarity would increase significantly

What does 7 point to?


Clotting deficiency can result from what?

thrombocytopenia or hemophilia

What proteins are commonly found in plasma?

transferrin, albumin, fibrinogen, and prothrombin

Where does myeloid hemopoiesis occur in adults?

red bone marrow

Where and why does erythropoiesis occur?

in bone marrow due to stimulation by erythropoietin

When hemoglobin is broken down, what is the heme portion is degraded into?


What substances does erythropoiesis require?

vitamin B12 and folic acid

What is the main function of eosinophils?

respond to parasitic infections

In blood pressure, which numerical values are systolic and diastolic?


How do you calculate mean arterial pressure?

diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure

How do you calculate resistance?


What process do erythrocytes rely on?

anaerobic respiration

What effect would NO have on the level of erythropoiesis?

a decrease level of physical activity

Which factors would have an impact on RBC production?

transferrin, folic acid, and iron

What is blood volume altered by?


An increased plasma protein concentration in blood will alter capillary exchange of fluid by what?

increased OPc

How do you characterize leukocytes?

ameboid, phagocytic (some), and nucleated

What increases fibrinolysis?

activation of plasminogen

What is involved in breaking up old erythrocytes and disposes of cellular remains?


What is a deficiency of circulating leukocytes called?


Blood flow will decrease is what increases?

blood viscosity

Which ion serves as a cofactor in blood clotting?

Ca 2+

What are formed elements of the blood that are not and never were true cells?


Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a hormone, erythropoietin, which is secreted by which organ?


In autoregulation, which chemical tends to increase blood flow?

thromboxane A2

What are the specialized cells called that produce all the formed elements?


RBCs have 2 peripheral proteins, spectrin and actin, that do what?

permit RBCs to squeeze through capillaries

What blood cell differential count would increase due to a viral infection?


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