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If blood was AB positive, what does this mean?
agglutinogens A and B are present on RBCs, there are no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in your plasma, and your blood is Rh+
What is the hematocrit? What is its normal value?
the percentage of blood that is occupied by erythrocytes; 45%
Are plasma proteins used as fuel for body cells?
No, because their presence in blood is required to perform many key functions
Patients with advanced kidney disease often have anemia. Explain the connection.
synthesis of erythropoietin decreases, so RBC production decreases, causing anemia
Platelets are called "thrombocytes" in other animals. Which term that you've just learned relates to this name? What does this term mean?
thrombopoietin; it is the hormone that promotes platelet formation
Amos has leukemia. Even though his WBC count is abnormally high, Amos is prone to severe infections, bleeding, and anemia. Explain.
red bone marrow is spewing out many abnormal WBCs, crowding out the production of normal bone marrow elements. The lack of normal WBCs allows the infections, the lack of platelets fails to stop bleeding, and the lack of erythrocytes is anemia.
What is the key difference between fibrinogen and fibrin?
fibrinogen is water soluble, fibrin is not
What is the key difference between prothrombin and thrombin?
prothrombin is an inactive precursor, thrombin acts as an enzyme
What is the key difference between most factors before and after they are activated?
inactive in blood before activation and become enzymes upon activation
Nigel is told that he has type B blood. Which ABO antibodies does he have in his plasma? Which agglutinogens are on his RBCs? Could he donate blood to an AB recipient? Could he receive blood from an AB donor?
He has anti-A antibodies in his blood, type B agglutinogens on his RBCs, he can donate blood to an AB recipient, he should not receive blood from an AB donor because his anti-A antibodies will cause a transfusion reaction
Emily is brought to the ER with a fever, headache, and stiff neck. You suspect bacterial meningitis. Would you expect to see an elevated neutrophil count in a differential WBC count?
Yes, neutrophils are a major body defense against bacteria
How is hemoglobin F different from adult hemoglobin?
Hemoglobin F has a higher binding strength for oxygen
What would an increased erythropoietin (EPO) output by the kidneys lead to?
Increased hematocrit, blood viscosity, blood osmolarity, and RBC production
A differential count of what blood cell increases in response to bacterial infections?
What is the final product of the breakdown of the organic nonprotein moiety of hemoglobin?
List the functions of blood
blood clotting, regulates body temperature, transports nutrients, and stabilizes the pH
What would happen if all the 280 million molecules of hemoglobin contained in RBCs were free in the plasma?
blood osmolarity would increase significantly
An increased plasma protein concentration in blood will alter capillary exchange of fluid by what?
Erythropoiesis is stimulated by a hormone, erythropoietin, which is secreted by which organ?
RBCs have 2 peripheral proteins, spectrin and actin, that do what?
permit RBCs to squeeze through capillaries
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