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AP Modern World History Unit 3 1450-1750
Terms in this set (31)
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe. They were known in this period for using the devshirme system to obtain candidates for their advanced bureaucracy and elite jannisary corp that utilized gunpowder. They ruled with religious tolerance toward "people of the book" although they had to pay a special tax.
Muslim state that expanded over most of India utilizing gunpowder in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, allowed for religious tolerance (especially under Akbar)
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
Akbar the Great
known for religious tolerance. grandson of Babur who created a strong central government
Muslim empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and the Mughals that employed cannons and gunpowder to advance their military causes.
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
Minority Manchu rule over China that incorporated new territories, experienced substantial population growth, and sustained significant economic growth.
Turkish-ruled Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.
The two empires clashed, primarily over Kandahar, a strategic city that was seen as the gateway into South Asia.
A large, complex governmental organization composed of appointed officials
A government's use of private collectors to collect taxes. Individuals or corporations contract with the government to collect a fixed amount for the government and are permitted to keep as profit everything they collect over that amount. (used in Ottoman Empire)
The practice by which the Ottoman Empire conscripted boys from Christian families (of a conquered people), who were converted to Islam and trained to become Janissary soldiers or members of the bureaucracy loyal to the sultan
Divine Right of Kings
European Doctrine that states that the right of ruling comes from God and not people's consent
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife - an example of monumental architecture
largest cathedral in Constantinople, built by the Byzantine Empire, when Ottoman ruler Mehmed II conquered Constantinople it became a mosque - an example of monumental architecture
tax system of the Mughal empire where local lords collected tax/ tribute for the emperor.
A century-long conflict from 1534-1639 in which the Sunni Ottomans fought the Shiite Safavids.
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak, persecuted under the Mughals, and has some similarities to both Hinduism and Islam
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming important Church doctrine and renewing efforts to convert people to Catholicism (especially by Jesuit missionaries)
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.
One of the two main branches of Islam. Shiites recognize Ali, the fourth caliph, and his descendants as rightful rulers of the Islamic world; practiced in the Safavid empire
used to control western trade under the Qing Dynasty: trading confined to port of Canton in South China.
Confucian Exam System
written exam used to select high ranking government officials in China (includes memorization of teachings of Confucius), highly competitive and results in an educated bureaucracy
Gutenberg Printing Press
used movable type to print, increased literacy in Europe and helped spread the Protestant Reformation
Mughal ruler who expanded the empire, and was a strict Muslim that was more intolerant of other faiths. Reinstates Jizya tax for non Muslims. Destroyed and defaced many Hindu temples, had the ninth guru of Sikhism killed.
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.
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