30 terms

Plate Tectonics & Events

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volcano
an opening in Earth's surface that erupts gases, ash, and lava
Iceland
the "Land of Fire and Ice", is located on the mid-ocean ridge
Kilauea
the world's most active volcano; is located on the Island of Hawaii
magma
deep inside the Earth, heat and pressure melt rocks into what?
lava
magma that reaches the surface of the Earth
vent
the opening in the ground from which magma flows; forms a volcano
crater
the steep bowl-shaped area around a volcano's vent
divergent
The mid-ocean ridge is formed by what type of boundary?
Ring of Fire
a major area of volcanoes and earthquakes that surrounds the Pacific Ocean. Most of Earth's surface volcanoes are here.
Wegener
he came up with the idea of Continental Drift and Pangaea
glossopteris
plant fossils found by Wegener to help prove continental drift
mesosaurus
freshwater dinosaur fossils that Wegener used to help prove continental drift
Pangaea
super continent that Wegener said existed over 200 million years ago
glaciers
evidence of these giant rivers of ice was found in Africa, supporting the idea of Pangaea.
sound waves
scientists use these to help map the ocean floor.
Harry Hess
he proposed the theory of sea-floor spreading which explained continental drift.
young rocks
these were found near the mid-ocean ridge by the Glomar Challenger.
plates
huge sections of the lithosphere
lithosphere
the crunchy part of the Earth; the crust and the very top of the mantle
moho
this is the nickname for the area between the mantle and crust where seismic waves speed up and slow down as they pass through.
asthenosphere
the gooey, plasticlike part of the mantle that the plates slide upon.
plate boundaries
the edges of the plates, where they meet.
convection currents
these are believed to be causing the plates to move. Heat from the mantle rises towards the bottom of the crust.
divergent boundary
when two plates move away from each other, they spread apart.
convergent boundary
when two plates collide, or move towards each other.
transform boundary
when two plates slide past each other.
subduction zone
area where an ocean plate slides under another plate and melts.
convergent boundary
the type of boundary that causes a subduction zone
mountains
caused by convergent boundary between two pieces of continental crust.
earthquakes
produce seismic waves that are used by scientists to study the inside of the Earth.