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27 terms

CardioVascular System: Signs, Symptoms, and Disease

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aneurysm
Localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel
angina pectoris
Mild to severe pain or pressure in the chest caused by ischemia
arrhythmia
Irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat (dysrrhythmia)
fibrillation
Irregular, random contraction of heart fibers
arteriosclerosis
Thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arterial walls (hardening of the arteries)
atherosclerosis
Most common form of arteriosclerosis due to accumulation of fatty substances within the arterial walls--results in partial, and eventually, total occlusion
bruit
Soft blowing sound heard on ausculation caused by turbulent blood flow
coronary heart disease (CHD)
Abnormal condition that affects the heart's arteries and produces various pathological effects, especially reduced flow of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body, occuring most commonly in the iliac and femoral veins
embolus
Mass of undissolved matter that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel
heart block
Interference with normal conduction of electrical impulses that control activity of the heart muscle
first-degree
AV block in which the atrial electrical impulses are delayed by a fraction of a second before being conducted to the ventricles
second-degree
AV block in which occasional electrical impulses from the SA node fail to be conducted to the ventricles
third-degree
AV block in which electrical impulses from the atria fail to reach the ventricles (complete heart block; CHB)
heart failure (HF)
Condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the metabolic reuirement of body tissues (congestive heart failure)
hypertension
Consistently elevated blood pressure that is higher than 119/79 mm Hg, causing damage to the blood vessels and the heart
ischemia
Inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part due to an interruption of blood flow
mitral valve prolapse
Condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
murmur
abnormal sound heard on auscultation due to defects of valves or chambers
myocardial infarction (MI)
necrosis of portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlution of one or more coronary arteries (heart attack)
patent ductus arteriosus
failure of ductus arteriosis to close after birth resulting in an abnormal opeing between pulmonary artery and aorta
Raynaud phenomenon
numbness of fingers or toes due to intermittent constriction of arterioles of the skin
rheumatic heart disease
streptococcal infection that causes damage to the heart valves and heart muscle, mst commonly in children and young adults
stroke
damage to part of the brain due to interruption of its blood supply caused by bleeding within brain tissue or, more commonly, blockage of an artery (cerebrovascular accident CVA)
thrombus
aggregation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and the cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery, sometimes occluding the lumen of the vessel
transient ischemic attack
temporary interferene in the blood supply to the brain that causes no permanent brain damage
varicose veins
swollen superficial veins that are visible through the skin and usually occur in the legs