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435 test 2
Terms in this set (146)
The process of strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of an NS with a US is known as ___________.
The maximum amount of learning or conditioning that can take place in a given situation is known as the _____ of learning
In general a ____ intense US produces better conditioning
In general a ___ intense NS produces better conditioning
In the PROCESS of extinction, a conditioned response grows weaker becasue
the CS is presented without the US
the procedure of extinction involved
presenting the CS without the US
Once a CR has been extinguished, reacquisition of that response tends to occur ___ rapidly than the original conditioning
The sudden recovery of an extinguished response following some delay after extinction is known as S________ R___________
With repeated sessions of extinction, each time a response recovers, it is usually somewhat _____ and extinguishes more _______
Pavlov believed that this phenomenon indicates that extinction involves the _______ of a conditioned response
The sudden recovery of a response during an extinction procedure when a novel stimulus is introduced is called ______
Stimulus generalization is the tendency for a ___ to occur in the presence of stimuli that are similar to the original _____. In general, the more ______ the stimulus, the stronger the response.
CR; CS; similar
Feeling anxious around all objects that look like a rattlesnake is an example of stimulus ____, where as feeling anxious only around rattlesnakes is an example of ______
Suppose you suddenly developed a strong fear of dogs after being severely bitten. As a result, you are also anxious about in-line skating because, on several occasions in the past, you witnessed people walking their dogs on the in-line skating paths. This example illustrates the phenomenon of _______ ______.
In the above example, the in-line skating paths will probably elicit a (stronger/weaker) ______ fear response that will the sight of the dogs.
Sensory preconditioning often works best when the two neutral stimuli are paired (relatively few/hundreds of) ______ times in the preconditioning phase.
Unlike NS-US pairings in normal conditioning, NS-NS pairings in sensory preconditioning can produce stronger conditioning when the two stimuli are presented (sequentially/simultaneously) ________.
Nikki feels all excited when she sees her father arrive home each evening because he always brings her some licorice. One day her mother brought there a lot of licorice earlier in the day, and Nikki had no desire for licorice when evening came around. As a result, she was not as excited when her father arrives home that evening. In this example, her father is a (CS/US) ____ through his association with licorice. Being satiated with licorice therefore reduced the value of the (CS/US) ______ that typically followed her father's arrival home. As a result, her (CR/UR) _____ of excitement on seeing her father was greatly reduced. This process is known as ____ _______.
CS; US; CR; US revaluation
A compound stimulus consists of the (simultaneous/successive) _________ presentation of two or more separate stimuli.
In __________, the most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and thereby interferes with conditioning of the less salient member.
In a(n) _________ procedure, the compound stimulus consist of a neutral stimulus and a CS, whereas in a(n) _______ procedure, the compound stimulus consists of two neutral stimuli that differ in salience or intensity.
Because Jez has a history of getting into trouble, he often catches most of the blame when something goes wrong, even when others are also responsible for what happened. This is most similar to the phenomenon of __________.
In classical conditioning, ___________ ________ is a procedure in which a stimulus signals that a CS is likely to be followed by the _____. This stimulus is called a(n) _____ ______, and serves to (facilitate/retard) ________ the occurrence of the (UR/CR) ______.
Occasion setting; US; facilitate; CR
the process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of an NS with a US
the phenomenon whereby the presence of an established CS interferes with conditioning of a new CS
a complex stimulus that consists of the simultaneous presentation of two or more individual stimuli
the sudden recovery of a response during an extinction procedure when a novel stimulus is introduced
ex: as you give a speech anxiety fades, but if someone walks in late the anxiety can reappear
an experimentally produced disorder in which animals exposed to unpredictable events develop neurotic-like symptoms
the process whereby a conditioned response can be weakened or eliminated when the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US;also, the procedure whereby this happens, namely, repeated presentation of the CS in the absence of the US
The process whereby a neutral stimulus that is associated with a CS (rather than a US) also becomes a CS.
ex: trash bin can come to elicit a fear response through its association with wasps
The phenomenon whereby a familiar stimulus is more difficult to condition as a CS than is an unfamiliar (novel) stimulus.
A procedure in which a stimulus (known as an occasion setter) signals that a CS is likely to be followed by the US and thereby controls whether the CS will elicit a CR
EX: abusive parents when alcohol is present
the phenomenon whereby the more salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and thereby interferes with conditioning of the less salient member
the generalization of a conditioned response to verbal stimuli that are similar in meaning to the CS
ex: word car paired with a shock, you will eventually have a fear from other words similar to car (automobile, truck)
when one stimulus is conditioned as a CS another stimulus with which it was previously associated can also become a CS
ex: associating toolshed with wasps; once you get stung; nervous around toolshed
the reappearance of a conditioned response to a CS following a rest period of extinction
the tendency for a response to be elicited more by one stimulus than another
the tendency of a CR to occur in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the CS
ex: conditioned to salivate at a certain tone, they will salivate to tons similar to conditioned
-more smilar to original stronger it is
a process that involves the post conditioning presentation of the US at a different level of intensity , thereby altering the strength of response to the previously conditioned CS
in higher order conditioning the CS2 generally elicits a ________ response than does the CS1
the fact that you learned to fear wasps and hornets, as well as bees, after being stung by a bee is an example of stimulus _______;on the other hand , if you fear only poisonous snakes and not nonpoisonous snakes ,that would be an example of stimulus ______
pavlov regarded spontaneous recovery and disinhibition as evidence that extinction involves the ______ of the learned response
while playing tennis one day, you suffer a minor ankle sprain. two weeks later you severely twist your ankle while stepping off a curb . you now find yourself very worried about playing tennis. this is an example of____
according to Eysenck, psychopaths tend to be extreme _____ who condition
midair feels anxious whenever the manager walks into eh store accompanied by the owner because the manager always finds fault with the employees when the owner is there. this is best seen as an example of _______, with the own functioning as the ______
occasion setting, occasion setter
two examples of specificity in conditioning known as______ and ______, involve pairing a compound stimulus with a US. they both provide evidence that contiguity between the NS and the Us (is/is not) a sufficient factor in conditioning
blocking, overshadowing, I not
following an experience in which you were stung by a bee and developed a fear of bees, you are hired for a 1-day job in which your task is to catch bees for a biologist. during the day, you never once get stung by a bee. as a result, your fear of bees will likely (increase, decrease) a process known as _____________
the researcher feels that you have done a fine job catching bees that she hires you for another day. at the start of the next day you will likely find that your fear of bees has ________, a phenomenon known as
partially disappeared, spontaneous recovery
by the end of the second day, your fear of bees has mostly disappeared. however, you then hear a thunder in the distance and become a bit worried about whether you should head back ASAP . u decide to catching last bee but find that ur fear of bees is even stronger, the sudden recovery of your fear response to bees is an example of a process known as ______
if one thinks of a conditioned stimulus as being a particularly salient stimulus, then a blocking procedure is very similar to a _________ procedure
in higher ordering conditioning, conditioning of the CS1 is sometimes called _______and the conditioning of the CS2 is called __________
first order, second order
the procedure of extinction involves the ________; while the process of extinction involves the _____
repeated presentations of the CS without the US;resultant decrease in the strength of the conditioned response
the gradual strengthening of a classical condition fear response by repeated pairings of a tone with a shock is an example of the process of ______. during this process the early parking of tone and shock are likely to produce (larger/smaller) increments in conditioning than the later pairings
the maximum amount of conditioning that can take place in a particular situation is known as. the _____________- conditioning
Natalia took an exam and every mc answer seemed correct. after the exam I was shook this is an example of
a student has great difficulty ignoring irrelevant material sometimes mentioned in class and is easily distracted . this student might also display , ____________ evidence of ___ inhibition compared to the average student
a person who fears dogs also feels anxious when he hears the word canine . this is an example of ___
A form of behavior therapy that attempts to reduce the attractiveness of a desired event by associating it with an aversive stimulus.
compensatory response model
a model of conditioning in which a CS that has been repeatedly associated with the primary response(a -process) to a US will eventually come to elicit a compensatory response (b-process)
the procedure whereby a CS that elicits one type of response is associated with an event that elicits an incompatible response
A behavioral treatment for phobias that involves prolonged exposure to a feared stimulus, thereby providing maximal opportunity for the conditioned fear response to be extinguished.
the strengthening of a conditioned fear response as a result of brief exposures to an aversive CS
over expectation effect
the decrease in the conditioned response that occurs when two separately conditioned CSs are combined into a compound stimulus for further pairings with the US
preparatory response theory
A theory of classical conditioning that proposes that the purpose of the CR is to prepare the organism for the presentation of the US.
a predisposition to develop certain fears
The process whereby the occurrence of a response is inhibited by the occurrence of an incompatible response .
A theory of classical conditioning that proposes that a given US can support only so much conditioning and that this amount of conditioning must be distributed among the various CSs available.
an increase in one's reactivity to a potentially fearful stimulus following exposure to an unrelated stressful event
stimulus substitution theory
a theory of classical conditioning that proposes that the CS acts as a substitute for the US
a behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread
individuals level of emotion reactivity that, to a large extent, is genetically determined
the three steps in systematic desensitization are training in ______________- creation of a _________________________ of feared situations and pairing ______________-
relaxation, hierarchy, each item in the hierarchy with relaxation
in the little Albert study the loud noise was the (CS/US) while the white rat was the (CS/US)little alberts fear of other furry objects illustrates the process of stimulus _____
Natalias job has recently become quite stressful. she is also developing a fear of driving through rush hour traffic. this is best described as an example of
one weakness in the little Albert study is that they did not control for the possibility of ___________ conditioning. also unlike most real life phobias , alberts fear conditioning seemed to require (several/one) trial(s) to become established and grew (stronger/weaker) overtime
pseudo , several , weaker
Natalias slight fear of evil turns into a major phobia when she witnesses a friend become detained after being possessed by a demon. this is an example of
Desensitization and flooding procedures that utilize thoughts about the feared stimulus are known as __________________ procedures, whereas procedures that involve exposure to the real stimulus are known as ____________ procedures
imaginal, in vivo
while playing with a spider , Natalia was scared by the sound of a firecracker. as a result, she has a lasting fear of spiders but not of fire crackers. this is an illustration of the concept of _________________
according to the rescorla-wagner theory, overshadowing occurs because the _______ stimulus picks up most of the associative value
compensatory (b process)
Fatalities seemingly due to drug overdose may sometimes be the result of taking the drug in a setting that is (associated/not associated) with drug use, thereby resulting in a (weaker/stronger) compensatory response and a (higher/lower) level of drug tolerance.
not associated, weaker, lower
in __________ therapy one attempts to (increase/decrease) the attractiveness of a desired event by pairing it w an (appetitive/aversive) stimulus . an imagery based form of this therapy is called
aversion , decrease, aversive; covert sensitization
traditional advice has it that if you fall off a horse you should get back on ASAP and keep riding until fear has been gone.l. this approach is similar to the therapeutic technique known as ____________________. furthermore, getting back on immediately allows no opportunity for brief exposures to the feared stimulus, which could result in_____ of the conditioned fear response
evidence for the role of conditioning in placebo effects includes the fact that such effects are more likely to occur (following/preceding) a period of treatment with (a fake/the real) drug. also repeated administration of a placebo reduces its effectiveness, which suggests that a process of ____________ is taking place.
following, the real, extinction
I am likely to become most intoxicated if I drink alcohol in the presence of cues (associated with/not associated with) alcohol.
not associated with
according to the rescorla-wagner theory ,______________ occurs because the (CS/NS/US) in the compound stimulus has already picked up most of the associative value
Natalia wasn't afraid of bees till she saw her bff Kylie react with a look of horror when she saw a bee. Natalia now becomes anxious every time she sees a bee. this is an example of________
A cat salivates to the sound of your alarm clock in anticipation of a breakfast feeding. It also freezes at the sight of another cat in anticipation of an attack. These examples are best accounted for by the _____ theory of conditioning.
Natalias slight fear of snakes turns into a major phobia when she suffers a serious illness. this is an example of
the ease with which an individual can acquire a conditioned fear response may be influenced by that persons emotional reactivity , which is known as____. this may to a large extent , be (genetically/enviormentally) determined
Natalia has an allergic reaction when people talk about dogs. in the terminology of CC , the talk about dogs appears to be a _________________ while the allergic reaction is the
according to the ___________- effect , if two file conditioned stimuli are combined into a compound stimulus that is then subjected to further pairings with the US , the associative value of each member of the compound will (increase/decrease)
over expectation , decrease
in conditioning of a compensatory response to shock, the actual US for the Compensatory response would be the (shcok, decrease in heart rate, increase in heart rate)
increase in heart rate
research on CC processes in a drug addiction suggests that withdrawal symptoms evoked by the sigh of desired drug are actually _____ reactions to the drug that have come to be elicited by environmental cues associated with the drug
compensatory process b process
Natalia slight fear of rats turns into a major phobia when she is told by her parents that rats are much more dangerous than she previously suspected this is an example of
behavior that occurs before the aversive stimulus is presented and thereby prevents its delivery
Reinforcers that have been deliberately arranged to modify a behavior; they are not a typical consequence of the behavior in that setting. Also called artificial reinforcers.
A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced.
discriminative stimulus for extinction S delta
a stimulus that signals that the absence of a reinforcment
discriminative stimulus for punishment S to the power of Dp
a stimulus that signals that a response will be punished
a behavior that results in the termination of an aversive stimulus
the weakening of a behavior through the non reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior
The reinforcement provided by a consequence that is external to the behavior, that is, an extrinsic reinforcer.
a type of secondary reinforcer that has been associated with several other reinforcers. also called a generalized secondary reinforcer
reinforcement provided by the mere act of performing the behavior the behavior itself is the reinforcer
law of effect
As stated by Thorndike, the proposition that behaviors that lead to a satisfying state of affairs are strengthened or "stamped in," while behaviors that lead to an unsatisfying or annoying state of affairs are weakened or "stamped out."
reinforcers that are natural provided for a certain behavior, they are a typical consequence of the behavior with the setting
the removal of a stimulus following a response which then leads to a decrease in the future strength of that response
the removal of a stimulus following a response se which then leads to an increase in the future strength of that response
A class of emitted responses that result in certain consequences; these consequences, in turn, affect the future probability or strength of those responses.
a type of learning in which the future probability of a behavior is affected by its consequences
the presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior
the presentation of a stimulus following a response which then leads to an increase in the future strength of that response
an event that is innately reinforcing, also called an unconditioned reinforcer
an event that follows a behavior and decreases the future probability fo that behavior
An event that (1) follows a behavior and (2) increases the future probability of that behavior.
an event that is reinforcing because it has been associated with some other reinforcer
the gradual creation of a new behavior through reinforcements of successive approximations to that behavior
three -term contingency
the relationship between a discriminative stimulus, an operation behavior, and a consequence (reinforcer or punisher)
the reinforcement of successive approximations to a new operant behavior
a positive reinforcer is a stimulus:
the presentation of which follows a response and increases the strength of a response
elicited behaviors are controlled by the events that (precede/follow) their occurrence while operant behaviors are controlled by the events that (precede/follow) their occurrence
an easy way to remember the three term contingency is that you ___________ something, ____________- something, and _________________- something
notice, do, get
behaviors that are performed for their own sake are said to be ___________ motivated, behaviors that are performed to achieve some additional incentive are said to be _________________ motivated
Reinforcers and punishers are defined entirely by their ____________ on behavior
An event is a punisher if it _________ a behavior and the future probability of that behavior ____________
Money and praise are common examples of _______ reinforcers.
If the rat does not press the lever, then it does not receive a shock. As a result, the rat no longer presses the lever. This is best considered as an example of
at the zoo one day you notice a zookeeper leading a rhinoceros into a pen by repeatedly whistling at it. it is probably the case that the whistle has been paired with _______ and is now functioning as a __________________
food, secondary reinforcer
Compared to most elicited behaviors, operant behaviors seem (more/less) automatic and reflexive
the three term contingency can be thought of as an ABC sequence in which A stands for _________ , B______ stands for ________ and C stands for _____
the gradual development of new operant behavior through reinforcement of successive (instances/approximations) of that behavior I called ___________
operant behaviors are sometimes simply called _________.these can be contrasted with elicited behaviors which skinner called ____________-behaviors or simply________________
Each time a student studies at home, she is praised by her parents. As a result, she no longer studies at home. This is an example of what type of contingency?
when combined with the words reinforcment or punishment the word negative indicates that the consequence consists of something being (removed/unpleasant) and the word positive indicates that the consequence consists of something being (presented/pleasant)
The terms reinforcer or punisher refer to the specific ________ that follows a behavior, whereas the terms reinforcement or punishment refer to the ________ or _________ whereby the probability of a behavior is altered by its consequences
consequence, process, procedure
Natalia enjoys a lot of hard work and often volunteers for projects that are quite demanding. it is likely the case that for him the act of expending a lot of effort has often been ___________-and now functions as a _____________ reinforcer
positively reinforced, secondary
according to thorndikes ______ behaviors that lead to a _______ state of affairs are strengthen whereas behaviors that lead to a _________ state of affairs are weakened
law of effect, satisfying, unsatisfying
a generalized secondary reinforcer is one that has become a reinforcer because it has been associated with :_________
operant behaviors are usually defined as ______of responses, all of which are capable of producing a certain _______
A stimulus that signals that a response will be punished is called a _____ for punishment. It is sometimes given the symbol _____.
discriminative stimulus S to the power of Dp
events that are innately reinforcing are called _______ reinforcers; events that become reinforcers through experience are called ______ reinforcers
primary( unconditioned), secondary (conditioned)
A reinforcer is usually given the symbol _________, while a punisher is usually given the symbol _________. The operant response is given the symbol _________. A discriminative stimulus that signals the availability of reinforcement is given the symbol _________
S^R, S^P, R, S^D
classically conditioned behaviors are said to be ______ by the ____ ;operant behaviors are said to be ________ by the ____
elicited, stimulus, emitted, organism
An event is a reinforcer if it _____ a behavior and the future probability of that behavior ______.
major advantages of using the sound of a click for shaping are that the click can be delivered ____ and the animal is unlikely to ____ upon it
a discriminative stimulus is a stimulus that signals that an _________ Is available . it is said to __________ for the behavior
reinforcer, set the occasion
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