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What is the reform movement and where did it start?
Progressives considered socialist ideas too drastic
Journalism that spread reform ideas as well as exposed economic, social, and political evils to society (named by TR)
Industrial Workers of the World: Radical Union that tried to organize miners lumberjacks, mexican and japanese farm workers in the west, black dockworkers in the south, and immigrant factory hands in New England. Used strikes, sit-ins and mass rallies. Also known as the Wobblies.
Who was Eugene Debs?
Indiana Labor Leader that helped organize the socialistparty of America and then worked to attract followers to a vision of socialism deeply rooted in American political and religious traditions. The party won many political elections, especially in New York and Wisconsin.
Socialism as it compares to capitalism and communism.
Communism wanted to eradicate capitalism to form a classless, stateless society, where goods and services are distributed according to the individual's needs. Socialists believe that a socialist society can exist within a capitalist society, as long as it is controlled by a centralizing planning system. This idea, however contradicts the idea of capitalism because it doesn't allow for laissez-faire.
The emergence of public education
Education was to be used for advancement and also for the training of future workers. In 1880-1920, the following became standard elements in American education:
- Compulsory school attendance laws
- kindergartens, age graded elementaries schools, professional training for teachers, vocation education, parent, teacher associations and school nurses
- public education in the South lagged behind the North because the limited resources on the segregated educational system short changed both races.
- Earlier beliefs that education would promote equality and facilitate assimilation gave way to a conviction that native americans were inferior and fit merely for manual labor.
populist philosophy and progressive philosophy is about the same thing... who disagrees with them?
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
they tried to organize skilled and unskilled workers
AFL (american federation of labor) - skilled
LGWU - (ladies garment workers union) -organized garment trades
IWW - Industrial workers of the world - Radical labor advocate organization. Wanted better conditions in the mining industry.
NCM- national congress of mothers- argued on behalf of kindergartens, foster homes, juvenile courts and compulsory school attendance
NCL- national consumers league - tried to protect both women, wage earners, and middle class housewives, by monitoring stores and factories to ensure decent working conditions and safe products.
WTUL- women's trade union league - to unionize women workers and eliminate sweat shop conditions
Who was Billy Sunday?
A fundementalist and he hated all reforms but prohibition. Denounced Labor Unions, Women's Rights, and busines regulations as violating traditional values. He said that the Christian mission is only to save individual souls and condemn the social gospel saying that its supporters were atheists. (Brilliant!)
What is disenfranchisement and what would cause it?
Secret voting and taking away the right to vote.
Characteristics of Teddy Roosevelt
Highly advocated progressivism
Believed in efficiency and expertise
First Modern President
New York Legislator
Believed that the president could do anything to meet national needs that the Constitution didn't specifically prohibit
U.S. Civil Service Commissioner
Assistant secretary of the U.S. Navy
Elected governor of New York
Elected Vice President in 1900
Regarded as a show off
(1890's) provided for official ballots rather than party tickets and also for secret voting that would free voters from intimidation and also discouraged "vote-buying" and other corruption.
Why did TR believe in regulating big business?
To prevent corporate abuses and defend the public interest
What were the three parties that put somebody up for the election of 1912?
Who was Upton Sinclair?
Wrote the muckraking novel called "The Jungle" which exposed the conditions in the meat packing industry that led to the "Pure Food and Drug Act" and "Meat Inspection Act"
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