Education was to be used for advancement and also for the training of future workers. In 1880-1920, the following became standard elements in American education:
- Compulsory school attendance laws
- kindergartens, age graded elementaries schools, professional training for teachers, vocation education, parent, teacher associations and school nurses
- public education in the South lagged behind the North because the limited resources on the segregated educational system short changed both races.
- Earlier beliefs that education would promote equality and facilitate assimilation gave way to a conviction that native americans were inferior and fit merely for manual labor.