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Stages in the Cellular Response to Stress and Injurious Stimuli
homeostasis, adaptation, cell injury/death
Adaptation (change to next stage)
hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy →Injurious stimulus/Inability to adapt
Cell injury/cell death: (change to next stage)
necrosis, apoptosis, pathologic calcification (calcium deposited at site of cell death)
Atrophy is a decrease in cell size due to:
Disuse/decrease workload, Denervation/loss of innervations (ex. Paralysis), Lack of endocrine stimulation (ex. Menopause results in a decrease in breast size), Decreased nutrition, Ischemia or decreased blood flow
Hypertrophy is an Increase in functional cell/tissue size due to
Physiologic hypertrophy, Adaptive hypertrophy, Compensatory hypertrophy
increase in size to compensate for loss (ex. Kidney will hypertrophy if the other one is removed)
Metaplasia is the...
Reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another (sometimes less differentiated)
6 types of apoptosis:
Embryogenesis, involution, cell deletion, death of host cells, elimination of lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells
A biochemical reaction between a toxic substance and the cell membrane leading to increased permeability
Effects of Hypoxia:: Injury to lysosomal membranes results in
leakage of enzymes and self destruction
hyper activity in children, convulsion, delirium, peripheral nerve damage and paralysis, anemia (lysis of red blood cells)
Blunt force injuries, contusion, Abrasion, Laceration, sharp force injuries, gunshot wounds, aspyxia, drowning
Blunt force injuries include
Tearing, shearing, crushing of tissues, Subdural (dura mater) hematoma (collection of fluid around brain)
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