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learning objectives

Distinguish between the bryophytes and ferns
Identify features of the nonvascular plants
Identify features of the seedless vascular plants
Identify features that distinguish plants from algae
Describe the relationship between sporophytes, gametophytes and alternation of generations
Describe ecological and economic roles of bryophytes and ferns

phylum bryophyta:

15,000 species (mosses)

Apical meristem in key resource-finding locations

central spot from which all cells divide, mitosis takes place here
alternation of generation more developed

the moss we see is diploid of haploid?


the visible trend with sporophytes and gametophytes

sporophyte is large
gametophyte is small

diploid or haploid?

sporophyte: diploid
spore: haploid (produced by meiosis)
egg: haploid
sperm: haploid
gametophyte: haploid

compound that makes spore walls tough

sporopollenin...compound that makes them tough

Embryos dependent on female parent plant (similar to placental mammals)

"Embryophytes"...not free living

does algae have embryophytes?


other gymnosperm info

Waxy cuticle that prevents drying
Secondary metabolites (products of pathways that are side branches off main metabolic pathways)...used for defense...algae don't do that!

Bryophytes (liverworts, hornworts, mosses)

location: light but not direct sun, shady, wet, etc
characteristics: bright green, always small


can't transport water any distance, not structure, so they're small


asexual reproduction: little gemma cups of genetic material splashed out

sexual reproduction for gametophytes

palm-tree like structure
archegonium: produce egg
antheridium: produce sperm
MUST BE: submerged in water for sperm to swim to egg

more moss info:

Location: Moist forests and wetlands
Even found in extremely dry climates as long there is water at critical time
"Feathery" or "cushiony"
No vascular tissue (no capacity to transport water)
Small (do you see a connection here?)
Dominant gametophyte
Usually only a few cells thick, with no cuticle
Anchored by rhizoids (root-like way to absorb water)

all mosses must have _____ for fertilization


once germination begins, a plant must have....


Ecological role of bryophytes

Form microhabitats for animals
Carbon reservoirs in peat bogs store carbon dioxide and help to stabilize global CO2 levels
Ecological "barometers"...mosses very susceptible to toxins/pollution

Economic role of bryophytes

Soil conditioner
Peat is source of fuel
Packing material
Mosses and liverworts in a weed...can quickly cover flats of seedlings

what about peat bogs make them great for preserving tissue?


seedless vascular plants

Seedless vascular plants (ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns)

support differences between mosses and ferns

moss: center has sclerenchyma and parenchyma for support
fern: xylem and phloem

fern examples, locations, characteristics, life cycles

shady, moist environments
fiddleheads unfurl...


once, twice, thrice pinnate...refers to branching patterns of ferns

Stomata, cuticle, vascular tissue

(aid in providing stable internal water content)


packages with spores inside...distinct and help distinguish between ferns
each sori has millions of sperm

living fossils

like horseshoe crabs, ferns are living fossils...botanical version

are there any ferns native to san diego?

which look least typical of a fern? coffee and cotton fern
sori are used to distinguish with color and pattern

fern life cycle...

fertilization requires water...heart shaped gametophyte

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