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Population revolution

Huge growth in population in western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to industrialization.


Preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers became full- or part-time producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial Revolution.

American Revolution

Rebellion of the British American Atlantic seaboard colonies; ended with the formation of the independent United States.

French Revolution

Overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy through a revolution beginning in 1789; created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon's French empire; the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.

Louis XVI

Bourbon ruler of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

Adopted during the French Revolution; proclaimed the equality of French citizens; became a source document for later liberal movements. Influenced the American Declaration of Independence


Introduced as a method of "humane" execution; used during the French Revolution against thousands of individuals, especially during the Reign of Terror.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Army officer who rose in rank during the wars of the French Revolution; ended the democratic phase of the revolution; became emperor; deposed and exiled in 1815. Made France the super power of Europe

Congress of Vienna

Met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power.


Political ideology that flourished in 19th-century western Europe; stressed limited state interference in private life, representation of the people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.


Followers of a 19th-century Western European political emphasis; advocated broader voting rights than liberals did; urged reforms favoring the lower classes.


Political ideology in 19th-century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of the means of production and an end to the capitalistic exploitation of the working class.


European 19th-century viewpoint; often allied with other "isms"; urged the importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on ethnic origins.

Greek Revolution

Rebellion of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; a key step in the disintegration of the Turkish Balkan Empire.

French Revolution of 1830

Second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement that created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.

Belgian Revolution of 1830

Produced Belgian independence from the Dutch; established a constitutional monarchy.

Reform Bill of 1832

British legislation that extended the vote to most male members of the middle class.

James Watt

Devised a steam engine in the 1770s that could be used for production in many industries; a key step in the Industrial Revolution.

Factory system

Intensification of all of the processes of production at a single site during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increased discipline.


Workers in Britain who responded to the replacement of their labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy machines; named after the fictional worker Ned Ludd. Opposed to new inventitions

Chartist movement

Unsuccessful attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote during the 1840s.

French Revolution of 1848

Overthrew the French monarchy established in 1830; briefly established the Second French Republic.

Revolutions of 1848

The nationalist and liberal movements in Italy, Germany, Austria- Hungary; after temporary success they were suppressed.

Louis Pasteur

Discoverer of germs and of the purifying process named after him.

Benjamin Disraeli

British politician; granted the vote to working-class men in 1867; an example of conservative politicians keeping stability through reform.

Count Camillo di Cavour

Architect of Italian unification in 1858; created a constitutional Italian monarchy under the king of Piedmont.

Otto von Bismarck

Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under the Prussian king in 1871; used liberal reforms to maintain stability.

American Civil War (1861-1865)

Fought to prevent secession of the southern states; the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.


Political system in Italy that allied conservatives and liberals in support of the status quo. Transforming of Italian government

Social question

Issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.

Karl Marx

German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached the inevitability of social revolution and the creation of a proletarian dictatorship.


Socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.

Feminist movement

Sought legal and economic gains for women, among them equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won initial support from middle-class women.

Mass leisure culture

An aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports.

Charles Darwin

Biologist who developed the theory of evolution of species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.

Albert Einstein

Formulated mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; in about 1900 issued the theory of relativity.

Sigmund Freud

Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human subconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses.


19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.

Triple Alliance

Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.

Triple Entente

Agreement among Britain, Russia, and France in 1907; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.

Balkan nationalism

Movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans; provoked crises within the European alliance system that ended with the outbreak of World War I.

Industrial Revolution

Series of changes in economy of Western nations between 1740 and 20th century; stimulated by rapid population growth, increase in agricultural productivity, commercial revolution in 17th century, and development of new means of transportation; in essence involved technological change and the application of machines to the process of

Age of Revolution

Period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848.


Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe; often allied with other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.


Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; opposed revolutionary goals; advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of the church.


The policy of expanding national territory through colonization and conquest.

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