109 terms

CIS Chapter 5

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

There are two basic types of software
Application software and System software
Application software
Is the software you use to do everyday tasks at home and at work
System Software
is the set of frograms that helps run the computer and coordinates instructions between application software and the computer's hardware devices
Operating System (OS)
Is a group of programs that controls how your computer system functions (The OS manages the computer's hardware, including processor, memory, and storage)
Processor is also called?
CPU (central processing unit)
User interface
the features of the program such as the desktop, icons, and menus that allow the user to communicate with the computer system
Utility program
A small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for the computer, such as system maintenance and file compression
Do all computers have operating systems?
Every computer, has one.
Are all operating systems alike?
Users can name only a few operating systems, many types exist
MS-DOS
Microsoft Disk Operating System
Icons
pictures that represent an object such as software application or a file or folder
menu
List of commands
Multitask
Perform more than one process at a time
Why do machines with built-in computers need an operating system?
Machinery that is required to perform a repetitive series of specific tasks in an exact amount of time
Real-time operating system (RTOS)
Referred to as embedded systems, require minimal user interaction
What kind of operating system controls a simple cell phone?
Unlike smartphones, simple cell phones are single function devices; only require operating systems that perform one task at a time.
Firmware
Instructions permanently installed onto computer chips, perform one task at a time.
Multiuser operating system
Also known network operating system, enables more than one user to access the computer system at one time by efficiently handling and prioritizing requests from multiple users.
Server
Is the computer on a network that manages network resources
UNIX
Is a multiuser, multitask operating system used as a network operating system, primarily with mainframes, although it is also often found on PCs
UNIX
1969 by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie
What other kinds of computers require a multiuser operating system?
Mainframe is responsible for storing, managing, and simultaneously processing data from all users.
Supercomputers
Use multiuser operating systems
What are supercomputers used for?
To solve complex problems or to perform massive computations
Smartphone
Other than phone calls. It also has productivity, media player, and camera features, as well as Web connectivity
Do Gaming systems have operating systems
All require some form of customized system software that is developed specifically
What is the Microsoft Windows operating system?
Windows, began as an operating enviroment that worked with MS-DOS
What is the difference between the various of Windows?
Microsoft continue to make improvements
What is the Mac Operating System?
1984, Mac OS to use graphical user interface (GUI) with user-friendly point-and-click technology
Does it matter what operating system is on my computer?
The type of processor in the computer determines which operating system a particular personal computer uses
Platform
The combination of operating system and processor
Windows 7 Starter
This edition is designed to run on small netbooks and is for those users who have basic computing requirements
Windows 7 Home Premium
This edition incorporates multimedia functions as core components. No extra software is needed to run DVDs and other audio and video files.
Windows 7 Ultimate
This is the "ultimate"operating system for high-end PC users
Macintosh operating systems worked primarily with
PowerPC processors
Can I have more than one operating system on my computer?
Some Mac users may want to have both Mac OS X and Windows
What are Web-based operating systems?
Now that broadband Internet access and providing computer resources via the Internet
Google is taking steps toward developing a compete Web-based system with?
Google Docs
Linux
An open source operating system designed for use on personal computer as a network operating system
Linux operating system
Based on the central programming code of an operating system, and the rest of the code is from the GNU
Where is Linux used?
Android, the new operating system developed by Google
What the Operating System Does
It coordinates and directs the flow of data and information through the computer system
The OS performs several specific functions:
-It provides a way for the user to interact with the computer
-It manages the processor, or CPU
-It manages the memory and storage
-It manages the computer system's hardware and peripheral devices
-It provides a consistent means for software applications to work with the CPU
How does the operating system control how I interact with my computer?
The operating system provides a user interface that enables you to interact with the computer
Command-driven interface
Is one in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system
Menu-driven interface
One in which you choose commands from menus displayed on the screen. Eliminated the need for users to know every command
What kind of interface do operating systems use today?
Use graphical user interface (GUI)
GUIs
Use the point-and-click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user-friendly
Why does the operating system need to manage the processor?
You are usually asking the CPU to perform several tasks at once
Interrupt
When you tell your computer to print your document, the printer a unique signal that tells the operating system that it is in need of immediate attention
Interrupt handler
A special numerical code that prioritizes the requests. These requests are placed in the interrupt table in the computer's primary memory.
Preemptive multitasking
The operating system processes the task assigned a higher priority before processing a task that has been assigned a lower priority
"Memo" is a special location in RAM
Stack
The memo is a reminder?
The CPU then retrieves the printer request from the interrupt table and begins to process it.
Buffer
It first checks with the operating system to ensure that the printer is not already in use. If it is, the OS puts the request in another temporary storage area in RAM
Spooler
A program that helps coordinate all print jobs currently being sent to the printer
Why does the operating system have to manage the computer's memory?
Coordinates the activities of the processor, it uses RAM with the processor
Can my system ever run out of RAM?
RAM has limited capacity.
What happens if my computer runs out of RAM?
The operating system borrows from the more spacious hard drive
Virtual Memory
The process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space
Swap File (page file)
The operating system swaps out from RAM the data or instructions that have not been recently used and moves them to a temporary storage area on the hard drive
Can I ever run out of virtual memory?
Only a portion of the hard drive is allocated to virtual memory
Thrashing
Eventually your computer system will become sluggish as it is forced to page more and more often
How does the operating system manage storage?
The files and applications you save to the hard drive and other storage locations would be anunorganized mess
How does the operating system manage the hardware and peripheral devices?
Facilities communication between the hardware device and the operating system
Device Driver
Each device attached to your computer comes with a special program facilitate communication between the hardware device and the operating system
Plug and Play (PnP)
Is a software and hardware standard designed to facilitate the installation of new hardware in PCs by including in the OS the drivers these devices need in order to run.
non-PnP devices
You will be prompted to insert the driver that was provided with the device
How does the operating system help application software run on the computer?
Application software feeds the CPU the instructions it needs to process data
Application Programming interface (API)
The operating system includes the blocks of code that application software needs in order to interact with the OS
What are the advantages of using APIs?
Prevent redundancies in software code, but also make it easier for software developers to respond to changes in the operating system
Starting Your Computer
All data and instructions are stored in RAM while your computer is on. When you turn off your computer is wiped clean of all its data.
How does the computer know what to do when you turn it on if there is nothing in RAM?
Runs through a special boot process
Boot (bootstrap loader)
Turns on the computer, like boot straps for shoes
Boot process consists of four basic steps:
1. The basic input/output system (BIOS) is activated by powering on the CPU
2. The BIOS checks that all attached devices are in place (POST)
3. The operating system is loaded into RAM
4. Configuration and customization settings are checked
POST
power-on self-test
CMOS
Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor, is a special kind of memory that uses almost no power
Kernel (supervisor program)
Is the essential component of the operating system. It is responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system
Memory resident
Kernel, because it stays in RAM the entire time your computer is powered on
Authentication
The verification of your login name and password
Safe Mode
F8 during boot process, a special diagnostic mode designed for troubleshooting errors. Only essential devices function
Device Manager
Safe mode you can use this feature in the operating system that lets you view and change the properties of all devices attached to your computer
If Windows detects a problem in the boot process it will add:
Last Known Good Configuration to the Windows Advanced Option Menu
Desktop
Is the first interaction you have with the operating system and the first image you see on your monitor
Recycling Bin
Desktop feature, located for deleted file and folders from the C drive only
Gadgets
Desktop feature, an easy-to-use mini-program that gives you information at a glance or quick access to frequently used tools
Taskbar
Desktop feature, displays and favourites application for easy access
Document
Desktop feature, a convenient organizational tool that enables you to keep all your documents in one place
Computer
Desktop feature, provides easy access to disk drives and system and network devices.
All programs
Desktop feature, in the start menu- provides access to all programs available in the system
Windows
The rectengular panes on your computer screen that displays applications running on your system
Toolbars
Have icons and scrollbars the side or bottom of the screen that control which part of the information is displayed on the screen
Ribbion Interface
New windows, is further organized into task-specific tabs wiith relevant commands
To see live tumbnail images of open windows press
Atl+Tabto access windows flip
File management
Organizational structure to the computer's contents.
C Drive
Permanently store most of your files
A drive
For floppy drive, which you may or may not have installed o your computer
Root directory
Filing structure of the computer system
Tiles view
This view displays files and folders as icons in list form
Other Display forms
Details view, List view, and Small and Medium Icon view
Extension ( file type)
Follows the file name and a period or dot(.)
Common File Name Extenstions
.doc, .docx, .sdw etc (226)
Utility Program
There is another set of programs included in system software. Are small applications that perform special functions (Firewall)
Window Explorer File Compression
Utility program- WinZip, Stuffit- reduces file size
Backup and disk Imaging
Utility Program, Norton Ghost, Skydrive- Backups important files
Disk Cleanup
Utility Program, Macfee Total PRotection- Removes Unnecessary files fromhard drive
Disk Defragmenter
Utility program, Norton Utilities- Arranges files on hard drive in sequential order
Error-checking
Utility program, SeaTools- Checks hard drive for unnecessary or damaged files
System Restore
Utility Program, FarStone Snapshop- Restores system to previous, stable state